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asserts that it was Dr. T. for controversial purposes, and not he, who had magnified the transition of subject at verse 48 into a matter of importance; for, adds Dr. Wiseman,
There is not a word in my book to authorise Dr. Turton's assertion, that whether the transition was to be immediately before or after verse 47, was a question to be discussed.—Reply, p. 33.
In fact so completely unimportant does Dr. W. now regard that which he had formally announced as the very “point at issue,” and the discussion of which he before maintained would “ materially advance the strength of the arguments” he intended to bring forward, that he coolly tells us that he
Might cut out every word (he had written respecting the transition of subject in our Lord's discourse,) without any loss, except of forty pages in Dr. Turton's book.-Ibid.
36. But this is not all: for by way of proving, contrary to all he had written in the Lectures on the Eucharist, that he never considered it of the least importance where the change of subject in John vi. takes place, Dr. W. refers to another publication, which he calls his “ Moorfields Lectures,” wherein he states the question to be
Immaterial; it makes no difference whether we place it (the change of subject] one verse earlier or later.– Vol. ii.
142. The predicament, therefore, in which Dr. Wiseman has placed him. self by the “ Reply,” which he professes to have written in (what would now seem unadvised) “ haste,” cannot be better described than in the words of the Dean of Peterborough:
Dr. Wiseman, as I have all along held, is a man of learning and talent: the reader of these pages will henceforth maintain that he is a man of singular intrepidity of assertion.- Observations, p. 25.
The most curious part of this business has, however, still to be told. After having reproached Dr. Turton for a want of “ fairness," (Reply p. 35) in not having referred to the “ Moorfields Lectures,” by way of clearing up what might appear dubious in the “ Lectures on the Eucharist;” Dr. Wiseman actually turns round and characterises Dr. T.'s casual reference to the lectures delivered in “ Moorfields," as a “ most unworthy breach of candour.” (Reply, p. 62.) Although the “Moorfields Lectures” might be referred to for illustration, they must not be attacked; and the reason is, that the “ Lectures on the Eucharist"
Are the later, and avowedly the more studied performance; and any departure in them from the more popular and previous work, should, in fairness, be considered the writer's true opinion; and this should have been attacked. Reply, p. 62.
The state of the case, therefore, is as follows:- When, as we have seen, it suited Dr. Wiseman's purpose, the “Moorfields Lectures ” were put forward as an authority co-ordinate with, or even paramount to the “ Lectures on the Eucharist;" but now, for another purpose, the “Moorfields Lectures” are to be regarded as mere “popular" effusions; and those on the “ Eucharist” to be considered, in all “ fairness," as containing Dr. W.'s “true opinion.” But that an acute man, like Dr. Wiseman, could after two years' deliberation imagine that such palpable contradictions and shiftings of his ground would pass for reasoning, we are unable to believe ; so in charity we must suppose that his “ Reply" was, as he informs us, written in " haste.”
(To be continued.)
Sketches in Divinity. Addressed to Candidates for the Ministry; and likewise
intended for a Sunday-Book for General Readers. By the Rev. Johnson GRANT, M.A., Minister of Kentish Town Chapel. London: Hatchards;
Rivingtons; and Darling. Pp. 451. Having met with a collection of 300 Questions for Ordination, published at Cambridge, Mr. Grant has furnished answers to them. His book contains a great deal of information, conveyed in correct and forcible language; and is well adapted for the purpose expressed by the first title, With respect to the second, without denying that part of the Sunday may be profitably employed in acquiring theological knowledge, we would venture to suggest the use in general of books more devotional and practical than can be the case with critical, historical, or even doctrinal divinity. The following extract, however, which may be taken as a specimen of the style, will shew that more may be learnt from these pages than the mere externals of theology :
Faith and belief, divine and human.
Belief is assent, on testimony or other evidence, to a proposition which we do not know of ourselves. Faith is belief in the truths of religion, and, if sincere, will lead to conduct in conformity with its conviction. It substantiates the invisible, and makes the future present; it is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. It is in the heart, as well as in the understanding.
Human faith is reliance on human authority, or it relates to human affairs ; and would make a man, in prudence, act in human affairs conformably to the strength of his belief in the truths proposed to him.
Divine faith is belief on the authority of God, and of those inspired Scriptures which are the voice of God. The objects of divine faith are matters of revelation. Without divine faith it is impossible to please God: we must believe that he is, and is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him. And the genuineness of such a faith is tested by our actual diligent seeking of him ; otherwise it is only a faith in words. Saving faith-that faith by which the Scripture saith the just shall live (Heb. x. 38) -is a belief in the merits of Christ, as the sole ground of our salvation. But this faith must work by love; it must bear the fruits of repentance and holiness; otherwise, as in the former case, we but deceive ourselves in calling it faith at all; the devils believe, and tremble. Gal. iii. 26. Eph. iii. 17. Gal. v. 6. James ii. 17, 19. -P. 13.
In his preface, the author, complaining that examinations for ordination are generally too learned and technical, proposes a series of questions,“ relating to the practical functions of the clerical profession,” some of which it is much easier to ask than to answer : e. g. “ How would you conduct yourself to a leading man in your parish, who is decent and charitable, and from whom your family have received many favours, but who is yet addicted to some irregularities, e. g. Sunday entertainments ?” “ What sacrifices ought a minister to make to avert litigation ? and how far may he compromise the interests of his successor ? Write an essay on worldly prudence, as opposed to the duty of promoting the glory of God." Though we should doubt the advantage of propounding such questions as these at an examination for ordination, yet Mr. Grant's hints may serve to turn the attention of candidates for the ministry to several difficult and very important subjects.
Scotland and the Scolch, or the Western Circuit. By CATHERINE SINCLAIR.
Edinburgh: Whyte, and Co. Pp. 348. The fraternity of reviewers are great travellers after the fashion of Gemelli Carreri, who (if he is not belied) performed his “Giro del Mondo" quietly at home in his gown and slippers; though we do not profess, as he unfairly did, to visit all the lands we write about. It is sufficient for our tribe in general to enjoy the gratification of seeing through others' eyes, and of going through all the hardships of travel supposititiously,
While fancy, like the finger of a clock,
Runs the great circuit and is still at home. In the present case, the Western Circuit of Miss Sinclair will suffice, along part of the Scotch coast, and among its chain of central lochs. Beginning from Rothesay, she proceeds to the Isles of Bute and Skye, and with many digressions to visit castles, and glens, and falls, and precipices, she passes by the Caledonian canal to Inverness, and finally ends her journal at Tain, in the shire of Ross, traversing of course much ground made historically interesting by the events of 1745, as Lochail, Culloden, and Glencoe. She complains of knowing the country too well, but no reader will lament this; for a more amusing or animated companion in a tour is not often met with. She has a keen relish for any of the beauties or sublimities of nature which offer themselves, but is not ashamed of confessing that their attraction is greatly heightened by legendary traditions, or even by any connexion with the joys or sorrows of simple humanity. If there is any thing to be told of ancient deeds or events in the places she passes, her memory serves her well, and she recounts her anecdotes with spirit; if the spot be like Master Shallow's estate “barren, barren,” she has a fund of humour and by-play to help us through dulland intractable localities. But though she has wit at will, --where the occasion requires deeper feelings to be touched, she can exhibit the resources of a religious and well disciplined mind, and those too not needlessly or unseasonably obtruded, but with good heed to both time and measure.
It is not so easy to show samples in the mart of literature as in a corn market; nevertheless, as a spice of her humour, we give the following Pythagorean guess :
" Travellers in a precipitous country like this, should get their nerves newly strung for the occasion, as the road is really like a slack rope slung between the mountains. In places where we should merely have been killed on the spot by an overturn, there were no parapets; but where we must have been literally dashed to atoms, a low wall had been raised, merely sufficient to give the horse a bini that he was not expected to go over, though he delighted to approach the very edge, as if enjoying the jest of terrifying me. This animal must certainly once have been a civil engineer, he detected so instantly the slightest ascent in the road, when no inducement could make him at all accelerate the lounging pace in which he felt entitled to indulge."--P. 179.
For her more serious mood, we refer to her very rational remarks on the non-intrusion question, suggested by seeing the desolate church and manse at Muckairn, (Pp: 102–113.) Happily our establishinent, among its vexations, lacks that internal source of discord and disunion. What Miss Sinclair has said also of the premature death of the Chisholm does credit to her devotional feelings, as well as the train of observations on the present state of the religious part of the community, where defects and errors are censured in a tone of good sense and piety. Altogether we have been so well pleased with our present jaunt, that we shall be ready to mount our shelties by her side, since we see she has announced the Shetland Isles as her next field of adventure.
A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocese of Exeter. By the Right Rev.
Henry, Lord Bishop of Exeter, at his triennial Visitation in the Months of
August, September and October, 1839. London : Murray. Pp. 88. No person acquainted with the reputation of the author of this charge can be surprised, that any production coming from his pen should secrre a more than
ordinary share of attention. But the extent of circulation, which the present publication has obtained, (it having now reached the fourth edition) is, we think, to be attributed to the overwhelming importance of the subjects treated of, and to the extraordinary power and ability with which they are treated, rather than to the high station or distinguished celebrity of its Right Rev. author. Indeed, the alarming statements of facts relating to our colonial policy, as well as to the government scheme for public education at home, not to mention the other topics more immediately affecting the doctrines and discipline of the church herself, which are discussed in its pages with consummate discrimination and skill, could not fail to arouse attention and awaken anxiety in all whose minds were not blinded, by zeal for party politics, to the everlasting distinction between religious truth and error.
The bare enumeration of its contents (I. The Church in Australia ; II. The Church in Canada; III. The Government Scheme of Public Education; IV. The Act for Abridging Pluralities; V. The Church Discipline Bill; VI. Theological Studies, Oxford Tracts; VII. Church Association ;) will suflice to show the amplitude of its range of subjects, and, when we add that these are treated fully and in detail within the space of eighty-eight octavo pages, it will be obvious how impossible it is to do justice by any extracts we can give to the very able manner in which these topics are severally handled. We subjoin, however, the following short quotation, which forms the bishop's closing remarks upon the writers of the “Tracts for the Times," and with it we conclude ours, but not without first apologizing to our readers for having neglected so long to introduce to their notice this very important and valuable publication.
"I have thus animadverted on several particulars, in which I deem the doctrine or language of these writers erroneous. Other instances, it is very likely, might be added. But I cannot close what I have had to say respecting them, without offering my testimony and humble meed of praise to the singular meekness, charity, and forbearance, which they have exercised thoughout the controversies, proving themselves to be in christian temper, whatever be thought of their doctrine, immeasurably superior to most of those with whom they have had to contend. Neither shall I forbear to avow my own opinion, that the church is, on the whole, deeply indebted to them."
The Argument for Episcopacy Considered. A Sermon preached in Whitehall
Chapel, on Sunday, March 1, 1840, at the Consecration of the Right Rev. HENRY Pepys, D.D., Lord Bishop of Sodor and Man. By Samuel
Hinds, D. D., Vicar of Yurdley, Herts. London: Fellowes. 1840. Pp. 36. Tuis Sermon, from 1 Cor. xii. 28, demands, and will repay, an attentive and studious perusal. The learned author adverts, in the outset, to that “law of change," which has produced such a marked distinction between the outward cireumstances of the christian church, in the apostolic age, and in inodern times. This difference in externals bas been laid hold of, in this country, as a ground of justifying sectarianism on the one hand, and of vindicating latitudinarian views as to forms of worship, orders of the ministry, and christian communion, on the other. Dr. Hinds exposes the fallacy of the assumptions, in which these views originate; shows that Scripture represents the "forming process," rather than the fixed and “uniform model of a church ;" that the“ mode of conformity to the Scripture model" is a conformity“ on the principle of analogy or correspondence, rather than of exact resemblance ;” that by looking " to the objects designed to be accomplished by the particular measures of the early church,” considering "the objects as fixed points," and varying "the measures accordingly, we are far more in harmony with the original church, than any direct resemblance of measures could ever bring us ;" that "even in those instances of ecclesiastical offices, which we adopt most exactly from the church of Scripture, deviations from the model, made on this principle, bring them nearer to the model really, than they would be without these
deviations," and that “it is often necessary to destroy all direct resemblance in order to preserve analogy."
Dr. H. selects" our episcopal order," as an illustration of this principle of conformity with the precedents of Scripture ; and after remarking upon the limitations, within which the measure of correspondence, as regards the institution of episcopacy, is to be restricted, proceeds to a direct discussion of the Scriptural argument in favour of that order, and proves that the precedents of Timothy and Titus were designed as “ precedents for universal adoption."
In this part of his discourse, he points out certain coincidences between the consecration of those two men by St. Paul, and the consecration of the Apostles by our Lord, (as recorded in John xx;) coincidences which mark “a distinction between the offices to which Timothy and Titus were appointed, and that of the presbytery of their respective churches"—such a distinction, in fact, “ as we claim for episcopacy."
This point is argued with great ability, and the conclusion arrived at is this; that “St. Paul, in consecrating Timothy and Titus, was creating, by a solemn form of consecration, adopted from our Lord's consecration of the Apostles, a new order for the church, -the whole church,—to correspond with the Apostles in those superintending and ordaining powers, which had not been given to the presbytery,--to compensate for the removal of the apostolic order, -and to be to the uninspired church, what the Apostles had hitherto been to the inspired.”
In reply to those who are disposed to thiuk lightly of episcopacy, as "one of the mere externals of religion," and therefore as " not essential to the perfection of a church,” Dr. H. suggests, that “this is not a mere arrangement of government and discipline, but part of the spiritual organization of the church," that "the office of bishop bas not merely reference to the regulations of the synagogue, but to the building of our christian temple and to the disposition of its “lively stones," in their relation to Him who is the corner-stone and foundation of all."
In the conclusion of his very able discourse, Dr. H. deprecates the inference, that, in the view he has taken of “ episcopacy, as designed for adoption in every church," he is “denouncing those christian communities, which are not governed by bishops.” Well would it be for the interests of religion, if this principle of forbearance were universally acted upon; if, in the maintenance of truth, charity were never sacrificed; and if those who differ from us were left to stand or fall by the decision of Him, to whom "the Father hath committed all judgment."
On the whole, and without professing to subscribe to every sentiment it embodies, we consider this Sermon a valuable accession to the evidence in favour of episcopacy. Doubtless, in a question of this nature, traditionary and uninspired testimony is also of great importance; but as there are many who will only listen to exclusively Scriptural arguments, they will here find a satisfactory solution of their doubts, and a reason for adherence or conformity to that system, which bears upon it the impress of a Divine sanction.
Israel's Return; or, Palestine Reguined. By Joseph ELISHA FREEMAN.
London: Ward and Co. 1810. Pp. 390. An able and comprehensive statement of the arguments for the restoration of the Jews, compiled with care, and an attentive perusal of most of the modern writings on the subject. The author, in his preface, states strongly his conviction of the correctness of the principle of interpretation which he has adopted, but admits that he may be mistaken in detail. One such mistake, and that the most fatal to the cause he advocates, may be found extending from page 169 to 185, where by inserting the various unhappy calculations made by date-mongers, he would lead the reader to suppose it possible correctly to fix the time for the fulfilment of prophecy. He has, however, a glimpse of the truth here, as he confesses his expectation of a literal as well as