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On the other hand, there are two points which stand forth prominently respecting this whole affair.

In the first place, the "deputy-sheriffs," or "guards," whom the railroad officials hired, were largely composed of roughs, skilled in the use of guns and revolvers, and accustomed to employ them on slightest provocation. The result of this has been the reckless killing of six men and one woman for no other cause than that they were in a crowd of spectators who hooted and jeered at the "deputy sheriffs." The "railroad guards," or "deputy sheriffs," immediately fled across the Mississippi bridge. That the strikers and the excited populace of East St. Louis did not wreak vengeance, for this utterly unjustifiable slaughter, upon the railroad property and persons in its employ, was chiefly owing to the heroic exertions and impassioned appeals, patience, and respect for law, made by Mr. Hayes and Major Brown, members of the Executive Committee of the Knights of Labor. On the following night, a considerable amount of railroad property was destroyed by incendiary fires, but all the known facts lead to the conclusion that these fires were not kindled by the strikers, but by desperadoes who took advantage of the confusion and excitement to gratify their criminal propensities.

Our second remark is that there is good reason to believe that whatever decision is eventually reached as regards the questions at issue between the strikers and the railroad companies, Jay Gould and his associates are making money out of the strike. Whether the assertion be true or not, that they secretly promoted the strike, it is certain that, by the course they have pursued, they are prolonging it; and, by their manipulations of the stock market, while they keep, meanwhile, their own intentions and plans secret as regards the final settlement of the contention, it is easy to see that their gains through stock speculations will probably amount to far more than the losses they sustain through interruption of traffic over their railroads.

We conclude with the remark that it is futile for the public press to be constantly preaching platitudes respecting patience and regard for the rights of employers and respect for law, whilst the

1 This has been denied by the railroad officials, but the following advertisement, extensively published, speaks for itself:

"LOUISVILLE AND NASHVILLE RAILROAD COMPANY.-OFFICE OF AGENT, April 6, 1886.-Ten good men from here are wanted as deputy marshals at East St. Louis, to protect Louisville and Nashville employees. Five dollars per day and board will be paid. Also, a number of platform-men can be given employment. Only men who have plenty of grit and mean business need apply. Apply at once.

"T. S. GENUNG, Agent."

The advertisement was quickly answered by men who had " plenty of grit" and "meant business ;" and how they showed their "grit" and the horrible "business" they did, the sad sequel proves.

evasions and defiant violations, constantly practiced by mammoth capitalists and corporations, are ignored, condoned and tacitly approved.

We have said that wage-workers are not, as a class, lawless, nor infected with Socialistic and Communistic ideas, but how long this will continue to be the fact remains to be seen. Unless our mammoth capitalists and corporations learn and practice justice, fairness and consideration for their employees; unless they abstain from the illegal, unjust and extortionate measures of which they are notoriously guilty; unless they themselves respect and obey the law, we risk nothing in predicting that, before another generation comes upon the stage of active life, there will be, here in the United States, a social revolution that will involve indescribable confusion and destruction of property and of life.

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Acta et Decreta Concilii Plenarii Baltimorensis Tertii, A.D. MDCCCLXXXIV. Praeside Illmo. ac Revmo. Jacobo Gibbons, Archiepiscopo Baltimorensi et Delegato Apostolico. Baltimore: Typis Joannis Murphy et Sociorum. MDCCCLXXXVI. 8vo. Pp. cix., 321.


ERE we have printed in large, readable type, on good paper, and with typographical accuracy, the Decrees of the late Plenary Council of Baltimore. The one hundred and five first pages are a preliminary to the Decrees themselves, comprising, as they do, the letters that passed between the Holy See, the Apostolic Delegate, and the Fathers of the Council, an account of each solemn session (five in all) and its ceremonial, and finally some extracts from the minutes of the private sessions. In the edition of the Second Plenary Council of 1867, the minutes of the private sessions were given almost entire. But, in the case of the Third Plenary, this would have been impossible. The duration of the Council, prolonged, as it was, from November 9th to December 7th, the great number of those sessions (generally twice a day), and the number of topics brought under debate, swelled the

minutes of the meetings to enormous dimensions. Even when they had been carefully pared down to bare essentials by the secretaries, with all the succinctness afforded by the Latin tongue, they covered over one hundred pages of print in the large quarto edition put in type for the benefit of the Roman examiners and consultors. In the few extracts, which it was thought expedient to give from these private sessions, regard was had to what might interest most the Catholic public, and also to points which might serve as legal precedents in future Councils.

Coming now to the Decrees themselves, the first (page 1) reminds clergy and people that the enactments of the Second Plenary (1867) remain yet in full vigor of law, and are binding on all, save inasmuch as they have been repealed, altered, or amended by the Council of 1884. The last Decree in the volume (Titulus Ultimus, as it is technically called), to remove all doubt, and to preclude any plea in excuse for negligence or delay, solemnly declares the present legislation to become of binding effect as soon as it shall have been promulgated by the Apostolic Delegate, the Archbishop of BaltiNevertheless, it is recommended, for the sake of caution. and greater solemnity, that the local promulgation for provinces and sees be made in Councils and Synods respectively, especially with a view to provide the best means of giving speedy and sure effect to the new legislation.


The second Title is the only one which concerns Catholic faith. It reverently adopts whatever the Vatican Council has defined touching Reason, Revelation, the Holy Scriptures, the Infallibility of the Pope when speaking ex cathedra; and condemns, in conformity with the decisions of the Holy See, the errors of socialism and communism, of statolatry or State-worship, and of those who from ignorance or malice are bent on rooting out from the popular mind the true idea of Christian marriage. This was by no means necessary; for all Catholics had years ago adhered to these definitions. But it was not out of place. Let it stand on the record as a witness of the loyalty of the American Church to Christ's Vicar on earth, which will condemn our children's children if ever they deliberately shut their eyes to the light and rise up in rebellion against the truth, as happened three hundred years ago. Let it stand there as a beacon and wholesome warning to remind those who are outside of the Church and yet glory in the name of Christian, that the Catholic Church is the only teaching body left that maintains unchangeably the reverence due to Scripture and its inspiration, and that defends, in defending Christian marriage and the sacred bond of the family, the last prop of human society and Christian civilization. Individuals hold the truth in many religious organizations, but others, to any number, of the same community

may hold the contrary with impunity. Hence as a body they do not teach even those truths which are necessary to hold society together; and if they did so teach, thousands would resent it as an attempt to fetter their Gospel liberty, while others would laugh. at it as an impotent assumption of an authority which no one acknowledges, and which those now usurping it have disowned a thousand times. When a Catholic hears the voice of the teaching Church, he accepts it at once as the teaching of Christ or of His Apostles. No matter how high his station, how brilliant his gifts of intellect or rich stores of knowledge, he would no more think of rejecting that voice than would the humblest convert of Corinth venture to contradict to his face the great Apostle of the Gentiles.

After an exhortation to bishops to be more heedful of their true dignity, as representatives of Christ our Lord, than of the external pomp and state by which their office is surrounded, their duties of visitation of their flocks, and of the decennial visit ad sacra limina, are explained and inculcated by the Council. The mode of procedure, when the See is vacant, is then given. The consultors and irremovable rectors of the diocese must be called together for the purpose of fixing on three names to be presented to the bishops of the province as suitable candidates for the vacant see. One copy of their choice of names is to be sent to the bishops and another to Rome. Their vote is to be secret and consultive only. too, is the vote of the bishops. They only present the names, but it is the Pope who appoints. If the bishops reject one or more of the clergy's candidates, they must explain to Rome the motives of such rejection.

But such,

What meets us next (Tit. ii., capp. 2, 3, 4) are the office and duties of Consultors, Examiners, and Rural Deans. Of the consultors, one-half are to be named by the bishop, the other half to be proposed by the priests who are in the exercise of the ministry, and for each consultor the priest must offer three names. The consent of the consultors is never needed for any measure proceeding from episcopal authority, but their opinion must be asked in the following cases: (1) When a diocesan synod is to be convoked. (2) For the dismembering or reducing the limits of a quasi-parish. (3) For handing over to Regulars a mission or quasi-parish. (4) In the choice of a new consultor and of the examiners. (5) Where diocesan property is to be sold, bought, etc., or handled in any business way that has the form of alienation, provided the sum does not exceed five thousand dollars. If it goes beyond that amount, the opinion of the consultors must be asked for, and the additional leave of the Holy See. Consultors are chosen for three years, but if their term of office expire during vacancy of the See, they hold over till the installation of the new bishop. They are to be summoned to meet


four times, or at least twice, a year. The very name of the Examiners of the clergy explains their office. They are to preside over the concursus of the clergy who seek promotion to an irremovable rectorship. They must swear to do their duty faithfully and keep their hands clean from aught that might be even the shadow of a bribe. The Rural Deans, otherwise known as Vicarii Foranei (outside vicars), may be appointed or not by the bishop according to his judgment, for they can only be needed in a diocese where the number of the country clergy is very large. In poor dioceses, and where priests are very few, as in the South and the far West, they are not needed. Their duty is to preside at theological conferences held in the country, to watch over Church discipline in their section, and to report to the bishop whatever may need correction or any other intervention of authority. The next chapter (V.) treats of Irremovable Rectors. Certain or churches are to be selected by the bishop with the advice of his consultors, to which irremovable rectors are to be assigned, who are permanently instituted as they are in England. Their station in such a church is not a benefice, properly so-called, but may be regarded in some way as ad instar beneficii, inasmuch as the incumbent cannot be deprived except in legal form and after due process, which is fully explained in other decrees of the Council (Nos. 38, 308-316; and in the Appendix, pp. 287-292, 293–297). The proportion of irremovable to removable rectors shall be as one Those who apply for the position of irremovable rector must be examined, in presence of the bishop or his vicar, by at least three examiners, both in writing and viva voce, in Moral and Dogmatic Theology, Liturgy, and Canon Law. Besides, he must handle catechetically one or two questions from the Catechism to give proof of his ability to instruct his flock in Christian Doctrine, and to the same end write a sermon upon some Gospel text chosen by All precautions must be taken to make the examination thorough and conscientious. The moral standing of the candidates must also be diligently investigated. The examiners are bound to submit not only the name of the one whom they judge the most worthy, but the names of all candidates whom they have found really and truly worthy of the office, for the selection lies not with them, but with the bishop. If there be only one vacancy, those who have been judged competent, and have not been promoted, will be considered worthy of promotion, should a vacancy occur during the next six years. that period, if they still aspire to promotion, they must undergo a new examina

to ten.

the examiners.


Some of what was enacted in the 7th chapter of the same Title (regarding priests ordained for a diocese, or lawfully adopted into

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