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174 Christ delivers the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. Sect. 125. wore Robes of Purple, and Vests of fine Linnen, Linen, and fared fumptuw

and daily feasted in a very fplendid and luxurious oully every Day. Luke XVI. Manner. And there was in the same Place 20 And there was a cera certain poor Man, named Lazarus (a), a Person tain Beggar, named Lazarus,

which was laid at his Gate indeed of eminent Piety, but in the utmost Indi.

full of Sores,
gence and Distress ; who being anable to labour,
or so much as to walk, was laid down at his Gate,
to beg the Rich Man's Charity; and all his Body

being full of Sores and Ulcers, he was a most
21 miserable Spectacle ; And being almost fa- 21 And defiring to be fed
milhed with Hunger, he earnestly desired to be with the

with the Crumbs which fell fed. if it were but with the Crumbs, which fell moreover, the Dogs came

from the Rich Man's Table: from the Rich Man's Table ; yea, he was in so and licked his Sores. exposed and abandoned a Condition, that the very Dogs came and licked bis Sores (b), which lay un

covered in the open Air. 22 But so it was, that in a little Time, the poor 22 And it came to pass

that the Beggar died, and .. Beggar, worn out with the Load of 1 Calamity, died ; and being a Favourite of Hea- into Abraham's Bosom: the

was carried by the Angels ven, notwithstanding all his Distress on Earth, he

Rich was carried by Angels into Abraham's Bofom, the Abode of happy Spirits in a separate State (c):

The

t

a

(a) A certain poor Man, named Lazarus.] An exceeding proper Name, which seems (as Lud. Cappellus observes,') to 'be derived from my sb, Lo azer, and signifies a helpless Perfon ; an Etymology on all Accounts much more natural, than that so generally followed, which derives it from Eliezer, GOD is my Helper: Some have imagined, from the Name of Lazarus, and the particular Detail of Circumstances, that this was an History, rather than a Parable ; but this must be a groundless Supposition, as it is plain the Incidents are Parabolical. But the Criticism of Lameirus, who explains it as a mystical Representation of the Jewish and Gentile Church, is far more extravagant. Dr. Lightfoot, and others, have Thewn, that the Yews in their Gemara have a Parable much to the fame Purpose.

(b) Yea, the Dog's came and licked his Sores.] Had the Connection in the Original been attended to, I think there could have been no Debate among Commentators, whether this were mentioned as an Alleviation, or an Addition to his Calamity. For however lenient and healing the Tongue of a Dog may be in such cases, the Words ande Xay Thould be rendered yea ; as Erasmus, Beza, Schmidius, and Calvin contend, and above all, Raphelius abundantly proves. (Annot. ex Xen. pag. 106, 107.) The Circumstance is surely recorded, to shew that his Ulcers lay bare, and were not (as Isaiah in another Case expresles it, chap. i. 6.) either closed, or bound up, or mollified with Ointment. Some Versions add, that no Man gave unto him; which Grotius thinks is intimated, in his wishing to be fed with the Crumbs which the Dogs used to gather. (Mat. xv, 27.) If so, it was with singular Propriety, that he who denied a Crumb, is represented as unable to obtain a Drop ; but as it is not expressed in the Greek, either here, or in Abraham's Reply, I did not chuse to iniert it. - Giving Alms will be no Security to those that live a sensual Life,

(c) Carried by Angels into Abraham's Bofom.] The Jews assign this Office to Angels, (see Drufius in loc.) and, no doubt, with the utmost Propriety, considering how suitable it is to their benevolent Natures, and to the Circumstances of a departed Spirit. The Greeks (as Elfner, Obferv. Vol. i. pag. 255, and many others, have observed,) aflign Guides to the Souls

and the mentioned as an there could have "be Sores.] Had thea be much to
Street as Errenter a Dogmay ban addicionale mong commenin

.

The Rich Man begs invain for a Dropof Water to cool his Tongue.. 175 Rich Man also died, and The Rich Man also died quickly after him ; for all Sect. 125. was buried.

his Riches were not sufficient to procure the least w

Continuance of his Life ; and he was buried, with 23 And in Hell he lift up great Funeral Solemnity and Pomp. But ob- Luke XVI. his Eyes, being in Torments, ferve the Difference of their

serve the Difference of their Circumstances be-
and seeth Abraham afar off,
and Lazarus in his Bosom.

yond the Grave. This poor sensual Creature was
by God's righteous Vengeance condemned to
everlasting Misery; and in the unseen World (a),
being in the midst of Torments, aggravated by all
the Indulgence and Delicacy of his former Life,
be lifted up bis weeping and despairing Eyes, and
Jaw Abraham from afar, and the poor 'despised
Lazarus lying in his Bosom, as a newly received
Guest at the heavenly Banquet, placed next the

Father of the Faithful himself.
24 And he cried, and said, And calling out with the greatest Earnestness 24-
Father Abraham, have Mer- and Importunity he said, Oh Father Abraham,
cy on me, and send Lazarus,
that he may dip the Tip of bave Compasion upon me, a poor unhappy Descen-
his Finger in Water, and dant of thine, and send Lazarus, not to reach
cool my Tongue ; for I'ain out to me any of the Dainties of Heaven, for. I
tormented in this Flame.

presume not to ask so great a Favour, but only to
bring me a little Water ; and if I may not have
a Draught of it, I should be thankful if he might
be permitted to dip the Tip of his Finger in Water,
to refresh my Tongue (e), tho' it were but for a

Moment;
of the Dead, to conduct them to their respective Seats. It is strange, any should render
70V ROATOV TO AC pecand, Abraham's Bower, or (with Jac. Cappellus,) Abraham's Haven. Our
Translation is in all Respects much more just. It alludes to the Way of representing the
Entertainments of Heaven, by sharing a magnificent Banquet with Abraham, and the other
Patriarchs : (Compare Mat. viii. 11. and Luke xxii. 30.) And nothing can better describe.
the Honour and Happiness of Eazarus, who had lain in so wretched a Condition before the
Glutton's Gate, than telling us that he was placed next to Abraham, and so lay in his Bosom.
(Compare John xiii. 23.) Thus Casaubon and Grotius well explain it. As for the Rich
Man's seeing him there, Mr. L'Enfant thinks, the Jews borrowed this Manner of speaking
from the Greeks, who described the Seats of tbe Blessed as separated from those of the Damned
by a great impassable River, from the opposite Banks of which they might converse. Many
of them also expressly speak of a great Chasm interposed. See Elsner. Oljeru. Vol. i. pag. 256,
257, and Grotius in loc.

(d) In the unseen World.] This seems generally the Sense of the Greek Word, adns, as was observed before, Vol. i. pag. 546. Note (f). Both the Rich Man, and Lazarus, were in Hades, tho' in different Regions of it. See Grotius's learned and judicious Note here:

(e) Dip the Tip of his Finger in Water, &c.] The Hebrews drank their Wine mingled with Water ; and large Quantities of Water, on one Occasion or other, were used at their Feafts : (See John ii. 6.) There seems therefore in this Petition, a proper Allufion to that.

Archbishop Tillotfon observes, with his usual Vivacity, that this is the only Instance we meet with in Scripture, of any thing that looks like a Prayer put up to a glorified Saint.;. (Tillots. Works, Vol. ii. pag. 142.) and even here the Application was in vain, and no Relief was the Saint capable of giving. It is observable, the Rich Man speaks, as knowing

Lazarus,

meer Archbifhem in ii. 6.) ameities of water &c.] The's learned and in

25.

176 He begs that Lazarus might be sent to convert bis Brethren : Sect. 125. Moment ; for I am so tormented in this Flame, w that it excites an intolerable Thirst, which is con

tinually raging and preying on my very Soul. Luke XVI. But Abraham said, with awful and inflexible 25 But Abraham said, Severity, Son, remember the former Days, when

Son, remember that thou in

thy'Life-time received it the thou and Lazarus were upon Earth ; that thou good Things, and likewise didst then in thy Life-time receive thy good Things, Lazarus evil Things : but

now he is comforted, and which thou wast fo foolish as to chuse, in the mo

thou art tormented,
Neglect of God, and of thy Soul; and likewise
Lazarus then received [his] evil Things, of which
thou wast Witness : But now the Scene is changed,
so that he in his Turn is comforted, and thou art
justly tormented; and neither his Joy, nor thine

Anguish, can admit of any End or Interruption.
26 And behides all this, as to the Favour thou desirest 26 And besides a
from the Hand of Lazarus, it is a Thing impof-

between us and you there is

a great Gulf fixed : so that sible to be granted ; for between us and you there they which would pass from is a great Chasm fixed; a vast unmeasurable Void hence to you, cannot ; neiis interposed ; lo that they who would go from hence ther, can they pass to us, that

would come from thence,
to you, if any should be so compassionate as to
desire to help you, cannot ; neither can they who
are there, come unto us; but we are still to con-
tinue at an unapproachable Distance from each
other.
Then the Rich Man, as be perceived that his 27. Then he said, I pray

m
own Case was irretrievable, faid unto Abraham, .

thee therefore, Father, that
e was irretrievable, jaia unto Abranam, thou wouldest send him to
There may however be a Passage from you to the my Father's House :
other World, as it is plain there is from thence
to you ; I beseech thee therefore, oh Father, that

thou wouldst please to fend him to my Father's House, 28 on an Errand of the utmost Importance;. For 28 For I have five Bre I have there five Brethren, thoughtless young Crea. thren ; that he may testify

unto tures like myself, who are now revelling on those Poffeffions which were once mine (t), and are likely e'er long to fall into the fame Misery with me : I earnestly intreat thee therefore, that he

тау

Lazarus, and as supposing, (ver. 28.) that his Brethren might know him, if he appeared to them.

(f) I have five Brethren, &c.] As no Mention is made of any survjving Wife and Children, but his five Brethren are deicribed as living still together in his Father's House, one would iwigine that our Lord intended, to represent this wretched Creature as a young Man, who (unbappily for himself, like many modern Rakes,) coming early to the Possession of his Estate, soon broke his Constitution by Debauchery, and so left his Riches to the younger Children of the Family, having no other Heirs.

ment.

But that would bave no more Effeet than Revelation. 177 unto them, left they also may be sent, to testify to them the Reality and Sect. 125. come into this Place of Tor- Importance of this Invisible World, that they may m y

Luke XVI. be awakened to avoid those Evil Courses that have been my Ruin, and may not also come into this

Place of Torment.
29 Abraham faith unto But Abraham said in Reply to him, Thou know- 29
him, They have Moses and eft they have an excellent Divine Revelation in the
the Prophets ; let them hear Writings of Moses and the Prophets ; let them but
them.

hearken to the Warnings and Instructions that are
given by them, and they have Means sufficient to

secure them from that Danger.
30 And he said, Nay, And when the poor tormented Creature found, 30
Father Abraham : but if one this also was obječted to, be pleaded still in their
went unto them from the
Dead, they will repent.

Behalf, and said, Nay, Father Abraham, they
will slight these, as I foolishly did ; but surely
if one go to them from the Dead, they cannot with.
stand so awful a Messenger, but will undoubtedly

repent, and reform their Lives.
31 And he said unto him, But Abraham put an End to the Discourse, 31
If they hear not Moses and with an Afrance

with an Assurance of the Fruitlessness of any
the Prophets, neither will
they be persuaded, tho one extraordinary Means for their Conviction ; and be
rose from the Dead, said to him, The Evidences of the Divine Reve-

lation are such, that if they hearken not to Mofes,
and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded to
a thorough Repentance and Reformation, thoone
jould arise from the Dead to visit them (g). For
tho' it might indeed alarm them for a Time, the
fame Prejudices and Lusts, which led them to
despise those Methods of Instruction that God
has given them, would also lead them e'er long
to light and forget such an awful Apparition, as
you desire they might fee.

such

(8) If they hearken not to Mofes, &c.] It is true, Mofes no where expressly asserts a future State of Rewards and Punishments ; yet the Facts recorded by him strongly inforce the natural Arguments in Proof of it; and the Prophets speak plainly of it in many Places. See Pfal. xvi. 9, 10, 11. xvii. 15. xxiii. 6. xlix. 14, 15. lxxiii. 17, & seq. Prov. xiv. 32. Ecclef. iii. 17, 21. xi. 9. xii. 7, 13, 14. and Ezek. xviii. 19, 20, 21. Bishop Atterbury has excellently lhewn the Justice of Abraham's Assertion here, in his incomparable Discourse on this Text. (See his Sermons, Vol. ii. Serm. 2.) The Impenitence of many, who saw another Lazarus raised from the Dead, (John xi, 46.) and the Wickedness of the Soldiers, who were Eye-witnesses to the Resurrection of Christ, and yet that very Day suffered themselves to be hired to bear a false Testimony against it, (Mat. xxviii. 4, 15.) are most affecting and astonishing Illustrations of this Truth: For each of those Miracles was far more convincing, than such an Apparition, as is here referred to, would have been.

VOL. II.

Z

IMPROVE

178

Reflections on the Case of the Rich Sinner and the Poor Saint.

I MP R O V E M E N T.

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Sect. 125. M O ST evidently may we learn from this Parable, that it is impof

M V fible to know either Love or Hatred by any Thing that is before us Luke xvi.

under the Sun. (Ecclef. ix. 1.) Who that had seen the Pomp and Plenty 19,--21.

of this Rich Sinner, and compared it with the Indigence and Misery of Lazarus, would have imagined, that the latter had been the Child, and the former the Enemy of GOD? But let us judge nothing before the Time. (1 Cor. iv. 5.) Our Lord Jesus Christ shews us the Period of all the Prosperity of the Wicked, and of all the Calamities with which G

may be exercised, And what availed the Luxuries of Life, or the MagVer. 23, 24. nificence of Burial, to a Wretch tormented in Flames? Surely the Fierce

ness of those Flames would be proportionable to the Luxury in which he had formerly lived, and the Sense of his Torment be heightened by the Delicacy he had once indulged. May God awaken those unhappy Persons, whatever their Rank in the present Life may be, who place their Happiness and their Glory, in being clothed in Purple and fine Linnen, and faring sumptuously every Day! May they lift up their enchanted deluded. Eyes, and see that pointed Sword of the Divine Vengeance, which is fufpended over them by so weak a Thread; and, may they take this Warning from one greater than Moses and the Prophets, from one that came

from the Dead to inforce it, that they pass not into that Place of Torment ! Ver. 22. . Let poor affli&ted Saints take Comfort in what has now been read, tho'

they may be despised and lighted by Men. The Time will shortly come, when those Angels, that now descend in an invisible Form to minister to them, will appear as their Guard to convoy them to the Regions of Glory,

Abraham's Bosom will be opened to them, and the Dainties of Heaven be set before Multitudes, who, perhaps, while on this Side the Grave, hardly knew how to procure even the Necessaries of Life.

May we never view those Seats of Glory, as this wretched Sensualift did, at an unapproachable Distance ! Let us think seriously of his deplorable

Circumstances, when he asked a Drop of Water from the Tip of Lazarus's Ver. 25.

Finger, and yet was denied. Dreadful Representation ! yet made by Christ himself, who surely knew how to describe the Case with the utmost Propriety. Behold, oh our Souls; this Son of Abraham in that flaming Prison, in all the restless Agonies of Torment and Despair ; and we may judge what Dependance to place on a Descent from pious Ancestors, or a Participation of external Privileges.

We enquire not curiously into the Motives, which engaged him to Ver. 27, 28. request, that so extraordinary a Warning might be sent to his Brethren;

whether it might proceed from a Remainder of natural Affection, from
a Fear of meeting them in the same Misery, or from a Mixture of both.

Ver. 23.

It

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