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2 25.

:. His Disciples should learn Humility of him.

427 Kings of the Gentiles exer- merly told you, but what you seem so ready to Sect. 169. cise Lordship over them; forget, (see Mat. xx. 25, 26. and Mark x. 42, 43. and they that exercise Au. thority upon them, are called pag. 268.) The Kings of the Gentiles do indeed Benefactors.

lord it over them; and they that exercise the most
magisterial and arbitrary Authority over them, have
à Set of Flatterers about them, who encourage
them in it, as an Instance of true Greatness of

Mind, and give them the vain Title of grand Be-
26 But ye shall not be so: nefactors to Nations and Men (f)..But you, 26
but he that is greatest among
you, let him be as the young my Disciples, [Mall ] not [ do ] thus; for you are
er; and he that is chief, as to Thew yourselves the Friends of the World, not
be that doth serve.

by governing, but by serving : Be not ambitious
therefore in contending for Superiority, but let him
who is eldest among you, be as humble and oblig-
ing, as if he were the youngest and most depen-
dent of all (g); and he that prepides over the rest
in any Office of peculiar Trust and Influence, [let

him be as humble and condescending as a Ser-
27 For whether is greater, vant. Of this I have now been
he that fitteth at Meat, or he

treth at Meat, or he an Instance, which surely you cannot
that serveth ? is not he that
fitteth at Meat ? but I am get : For which of the Two is naturally accounted
among you as he that serve greater by a Stranger, who happens to come in,";

be that fits at the Table, or be that stands and
waits upon the Guests? Is it not evident, that it
must be be that fits at the Table ? But I am
among you as one that waits on the rest ; and you
have just now seen me putting on the Form of a
Servant, and performing to you while you sate at
the Table one of the lowest Offices of menial
Attendants (6), in the very Garb and Posture, in
which any of the least of them could appear.

You

27

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Have the Title of Benefactors.] It is indeed poffible, that our Lord may here refer to the Title of eues Selos, given to some of the Ptolemies and Seleucide, or to the Ambiguity of the Hebrew Word '7'73, which (as Beza has observed, ) signifies both Princes and Benefactors : But the general Sense given in the Paraphrase seems to me much more probable, especially on comparing it with the Syriac Verfion, where there is no such Ambiguity, tho' one would most of all have expected it. i!

(8) Who is eldest among you, &c.j As part w is here opposed to vewlep@, the youngest, I render it eldeft, as it is rendered Rom. ix. 12. See Gin. xxv. 23. Sam. xvii. 14. Septuag. and compare i Kings ii. 22.

(h) Performing one of the lowest Offices &c.] This was so to a Proverb. See 1 Sam. xxv. 41. and Grotius, in loc. Dr. Evans well observes, (Chriftian Temper, vol. i. p. 81.) that our Lord chose this kind Office, tho' noc absolutely necessary in itself, more strongly to impress the Minds of his Disciples ; and to shew that they ought to regard, not only the necessary Preservation, but the mutual Comfort of each other, H hh 2

(i) 1

428 He gave them an Example, that they should do as he had done. Sect. 169. You call me indeed your Teacher and Lord; and JOHN XIII. 13. Ye call w therein you say well; for [fo] I am, and such Au- ve fay well; for To I am.

me Master, and Lord : and John X11. thority have I received of my Father. If there. TÁ If I then, your Lord -13, 14.

fore I, who am your Lord and Master, and and Master, have washed whom you know to be a divinely inspired Teacher, your Feet, ye allo ought to

walh one another's Feet. have condescended to fo mean an Office, and have thus washed your Feet, and in all other Instances have thewn my Readiness in Love to serve you ; surely you also ought to wash one another's Feet, and

should be ready to submit to all the humblest Ofe fices of mutual Friendship. For I have in this 15 For I have given you Instance given you an Example, that as I have an Example, that ye thould

do as I have done to you. done to you, you also should do on all proper Occa10 sions to one another *). And to engage you 16 Verily, verily I say to the like Humility,

y unto you, unto you, The Servant is as I have formerly said, (Luke vi. 40. and Mat. not greater than his Lord, X. 24. Vol. i. pag. 222, 465) The Servant is not neither he that is scnt, great

er than he that sent bim. greater than bis Lord, nor is the Messenger greater than be that sent him; it will therefore very ill become you, to disdain any Thing which I have not disdained. These are plain Instructions, but 17 If ye know these remember they are capable of being improved to Things, happy are ye if ye the noblest practical Purposes; and if indeed you know these Things, and form a right Conception 18.431 of them, you are happy if you pračtise them : For nothing will conduce more to your Honour and Comfort, than an obedient Regard to my Instructions and Example, especially in all the Instances of Humility and Condescendon, but if you negJect to act agreeably to them, your seeing them, and hearing them, will be worse than in vain.

į (i) I have given you an Example, &c.] Some have understood these Words, as ordaining

this to be a continued Rite among Chriftians; and Barclay insists in his Apology, (pag. : 467, 470.), that this Ceremony of Washing the Feet has as much to recommend it for a standing Ordinance of the Gospel, as either Baptism, or the Breaking of Bread. But tho' some antiently conceived the Practice of it to be thus enjoined, (see Dri Cavi's Prie mitive Christianity, book ii. chap. 14.) and the Moravian Churches still retain it: Yet as no such Rite as this has ever generally prevailed in the Christian World ; and as in many Places and Circumstances it would be an Inconvenience, rather than a Kindness, to do it for our Friends; I cannot think these Words of our Lord, so plainly capable of another Sense, are to be interpreted with so much Strictness. See Itigii Dissert. de Pedilavio, &c. ; Into what a Farce this is turned at Rome on some Occasions, may be seen in tbe Rs.

ligious Ceremonies of all Nations, Vol. i. dag. 417.

IMPROVE

Reflections on CHRIST's washing his Disciples Feet.

429

IMPROVE ME N T.

U H AT à mournful Reflection is it, that corrupt Nature should Sect. 169.

W still prevail so far, even in the Hearts of such pious Men, as m the Apostles in the main were, that after so long a Converse with Christ, they should still be so unlike him,' and bring their eager Contentions Luke xxii. about Superiority, in a State of Temporal Grandeur they were never to 24 fee, into the last Hours they spent with their Master, and even to of the most holy and folemn Ordinances of Religion ! Such are the vain Dreams of Ambition, and with such emyty Shadows does it amuse the deluded Mind.'

But let us turn our Eyes to him, whom we justly call our Teacher John xiii. and our Lord; for surely, if any Thing can effect a Cure, it must be 13, 14. Actions and Words like these. The great Heir of all Things, invested Ver. 3. with universal Dominion, and just returning to his Heavenly Father to undertake the Administration of it ; in what a Habit, in what ani Attitude, do we see him! Whom would a Stranger have taken for Ver. 4, 5the lowest of the Company, but him who was High over all created Nature? Blessed Jesus, it was not so much any personal Attachment to these thy Servants, as a Regard to the Edification of thy whole Church, which engaged thee to this astonishing Action; that all thy Ministers, that all thy People, might learn from hence a Readiness to serve each other in Love!

But why are we fo flow to receive this Leffon? And why is our Practice often fo contrary to it? Surely to cleanse us from these Dregs of Pride and Carnality, we need in a spiritual Senfe to be washed by Ver. 8. him. Let us gladly submit to that washing, if we desire to secure any z Part in him. Which of us in this View may not fee Reason to cry out with Peter, Lord, not our Feet anly, but also our Hands and our Ver. 9. Head ? May our whole Nature be thus purified ! and warmly emu! lous of conforming to so bright an Example, may we ever be main: Ver. 10. taining a Watchfulness over our own Spirits ; correcting the first Appearances of Irregularity, and washing away every lightest Stain, which our Feet may contract in this various Journey ! So shall we be great Luke xxii. in the Sight, and! Favour of our Master; and numbering ourselves 26. among the least of his Servants, shall be distinguished by peculiar Honours, in Proportion to the Degree in which we think ourselves most unworthy of them.

er. 15.

SECT.

430

He commends bis Disciples for their Faithfulness to him:

28.

SECT. CLXX.. CHRIST, while they are eating the Paschal Lamb, declares . that one of his Apostles should betray him, and at length

marks out Judas as the Person ; who upon this retires with a Refentment which confirmed him in that fatal Purpose. Mat. XXVI., 21,----25. Mark XIV. 18,----21. Luke XXII. 21, ----23. 28,----30. John XIII. 2. 18,----30. LUKE XXII. 28.

LUKE XXII. 28. Sect. 170. T HEN Jesus went on, as he was eating the YE are they which have Y

L Passover, to instruct, admonish, and com- continued with me in
fort his Disciples, by a Series of most wife and my

i my Temptations :
pious Discourse ; and said, Depend upon it, you
will find that humble and benevolent Temper,
which I have recommended to you, the Way to
the highest Honours, if you have Patience to
wait the proper Time : For as ye are they, who .

have continued faithfully, and affectionately with
29 me in all my Trials and Afflictions ; : So by a.". 29 And I appoint unto

sacred and inviolable Covenant 'I appoint unto you you a Kingdom, as my Fa: a Kingdom (a), and solemnly engage myself to

ther hath appointed unto

"" me: bestow it upon you, even as my Father has ap

pointed a Kingdom unto me, and is quickly about
30 to raise me to it. Now the exalted. Honours, : 30 That ye may eat

which I shall there receive, are incomparably, be- 31...,
yond those, about which you seem so solicitous ::
Let me therefore awaken a nobler Ambition in
your Minds, while I assure you, that you may ex-

. pect
(a) I appoint unto you a Kingdom.] 'It is well known, that the Word Seadedcated proper.
ly signifies to covenant, or to bestow in virtue of a Covenants; and therefore the last Claule of
this Verse may probably refer to what Divines commonly call the Covenant of Redemption
to which there are so many References in Scripture ; and concerning the Reality of which
we could have no Doubt, if the References were not so express; considering, on the one
hand, the great Importance of that Undertaking of our Lord's, to which it refers; and on
the other, the plain Declarations of those Prophecies which his Spirit suggefted, and the
Confidence with which he has promised those Blessings, which as Mediator it impowers him
to bestow. It is therefore astonishing, that any Thould treat it as the Creature of a Syste-
matic Brain. For the Engagements in it on Christ's Part, see Psal. xl. 6,-9. Heb. X.
6,-9. Ifa. Ixi. 1,-3. Luke iv. 18, 19. ffa. I. 5, 6. And for those on the Part of the
Father, fee Heb. x. 5. Isa. xi. 2, 3. 1. 8, 9. lii. 13, 15. liii. 10,–12. lv. 4, 5. xlix. 1,-10.
Luké ii. 31, 32. xxii. 29. 2 Cor. vi. 2. Rev. vii, 16, 17.

(6) Judge

and

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But intimates his Knowledge, that they were not all fo. 431 and drink at my Table pect to eat and drink at my Table in that my King- Sect. 170: in my Kingdom,' and fit on Thrones, judging the 10 het dom, or to be treated as my distinguished Favou

4. Luke XXII. Twelve Tribes of Israel. rites and most intimate Friends ; yea, and in my

final and most triumphant Appearance, when ís
Thall sit on the Throne of my Glory, you may
expect to be Affeffors with me on that grand Oc-
casion, and to fit upon Thrones, as I formerly pro-
mised you, (Mat. xix. 28.) judging the Twelve

Tribes of Israel (b), and condemning the whole
impenitent World for their contempt of that
Gospel, which you, as the chief Ministers of my

Kingdom, are to offer and unfold to them. John XIII. 18. I speak

But when I speak in this Manner of your final John XIII. not of you all; I know whom I have chosen : but Honour and Happiness, I speak not of you all : 118. that the Scripture may be know the real Character, and all the most fecret fulfilled, He that eateth View Bread with me, hath lift up

Views and Transactions of those whom
and Tropfations of the

I have his Heel against me.

chosen ; and could long ago have fixed a Mark
of Infamy on the Traitor, and have put it out of
his power to execute his wicked Purpose : But as
I chofe him to be one of my Companions, I leave
him to go on, that the Scripture may be fulfilled,
which says, (Psal. xli. 9.) « He that eateth Bread
with me, and has been nourished by my Care
" and Favour, hath lift up his Heel against me,
* like an ungrateful Brute, that kicks at the kind
* Mafter who feeds him (C).” Such Treatment
David met with from those whom he trusted; and
such I know, that I am to expect. '

And

(6) Judging the Twelve Tribes of Israel.] The Interpretation given of 'this Promise here, (and before on Mat. xix. 28. Sect. 137. pag. 238, 239.) appears to me preferable to that which refers it, only, or chiefy, to the Power which the Apostles had in the Christian Church, as the authorized Embassadors of Christ. It by no means implies, that Paul and Barnabas, the Apostles of the Gentiles, shall be excluded from the Honour of being Allefors with Christ in his Kingdom ; ( compare i Cor. vi. 2, 3. Rev. ii. 26, 27, iii. 21.) but seems plainly to allude to the Courts of 7 udicature among the Jews, where the inferior Judges fate in a Semicircle round the chief Judge, who had his Seat in the middle Point of it. Compare Rev. iv. 4. xxi. 14.

(c) He that eateth Bread with me, &c.] When thefe Words are so plainly to be found Psal. xli. 9. 'it seems very unnatural with Mr. Feffery (in his Review, pag. 187.) to imagine they refer to Psal. lv. 12, 13. because something like the Sense of them occurs there. Nor is it necessary with Mr. Pierce (Disert. iii.) to suppose a Trajection in these two Verses, and render them, I speak not of you all; I know whom I have chosen : But I tell you this before-hand, that when it hall come to pass, that the Scripture mall be fulfilled, One that eateth of my Bread, bath lift up his Heel against me,” ye may believe that I am he. I rather think with Brennius, that it is an Accommodation; and that the Sense and Connection are to be explained accordingly, as in the Paraphrase.

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