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Jesus is scourged, and a Crown of Thorns put on bis Head. 545

after he had been severely scourged, the Rage of Sect. 188. the Populace would be something abated, and

John XIX. they might at last be prevailed upon to confent,

that he Thould be dismissed. MAT.XXVII.27. Then Then the Soldiers of the Governor (a), knowing Matth. the Soldiers of the Gover- that it was the Roman Custom to scourge Priso- XXVII. 27. away] into the common Hall ners just before they were put to Death, inter(called Pretorium,] and ga-" preted Pilate's Order on this Head, as a Declarathered unto him the whole tion that he was immediately to be crucified : Band of Soldiers. [Mark And therefore they took Jesus, [and] led bim away XV. 16.)

into the Common Hall in Pilate's Palace, which
was called the Prætorium, (as being the Place
where the Prætor, a Roman Magistrate, used to
keep his Court ;) and there they gathered to bim
the whole Band, or Cohort, to insult and torment
him, not being concerned to keep any Measures

with a Person, whom they looked upon as en-
28 And they ftripped him, tirely abandoned to their Will. And having 28
ple, and] put on him a Scar- stripped him of that splendid Garment in which
let Robe : [MARK XV. Herod had contemptuously dressed him, in order
17.- John XIX. -2.]

to vary the Mockery and Affront, they wantonly
clothed him in a Vest of Imperial Purple

, [and]
put on him a Scarlet Robe over it, that in this

gaudy Dress he might have something of a mock 29 And when (Joh. the Resemblance to a Prince : And farther to ri- 29 Soldiers) had platted a Crown dicule his Pretensions to Royalty, which they of Thorns, they put it upon

his considered as an Affront to their Nation and Em.

peror, the Soldiers baving maliciously platted a
Crown of Thorns, put it upon bis Head (b), and

put (a) Then the Soldiers &c.] The Evangelip John so plainly speaks of their crowning our Lord with Thorns, and these other Indignities, as previous to Pilate's laft Attempt to save him, that I think it proper to transpose those Verses in Matthew and Mark, which mention these Circumftances as after his Condemnation, and immediately preceding the Execution: Some of them might probably be repeated after Pilate had delivered him to be crucified, while the Instruments of Death were preparing; and therefore Matthew and Mark mention the whole Series of these Cruelties together : Or the Word tole, then, (which is used by Matthew,) may only signify, that it was done about that Time, not determining the Order of each Particular fo absolutely, as to be inconsistent with the most accurate and diftin&t Account which John gives of the whole Process of this Affair. Many Instances of the indeterminate Use of that Particle occur in the Evangelifs : See Mat. ix. 14. xxiv. 40. Mark xiii. 14, 26. Luke xxi. 10, 21, and John xix. 16.

(6) Having platted a Crown of Thorns, &c.] It is certain, they intended hereby to expose his pretended Royalty to Ridicule and Contempt ; but had that been all, a Crown of Straws might have served as well. They undoubtedly meant to add Cruelty to their Scorn, which efpecially

appeared in their friking him on the Head, when this Crown was put on. If the best Descriptions of the Eastern Thorns are to be credited, they are much larger than any commonly known in these Parts. VOL. IL


po) Took




: il Pilate's Wife sends to bim to let Jésus alone.. Sect. 188. put a large Reed, or Cane, into his Right Hand, his Head, and a Reed in his

to represent a Sceptre : And then they began in á Right Hand : and they [beludicrous Manner to pay their Homage and Salur ed the Knee before him, (and tations to him, as to a new-created Prince oh his worshipped him, ]and mockCoronation Day: [and] bowing the Knee before bim, ed him, saying, Hail

, King they did him Reverence in a scoffing Way, and smote him with their Hands:] mocked him, saying). All bail, thou most magnifi- (MAR K. XV. -17, 18, cent King of the Jews ! Hail, mighty Monarch! -19. John XIX. 2.-3.1 we give thee Joy on thine Accession to the Crown! And then' approaching him, as if they would haye offered him some Present, as usual on such.

Occasions, they smote him with their Hands ; 30 And proceeded so far as to spit upon him, even in 30 And they [did] spit his very Face; and at last, took the Reed, or Cane, upon him, and took the

Reed, and smote him on the out of his Hand (c), and barbarously struck him Head. [MARK XV. 19.-] with it. on; the Head; and fo, as it were, nailed down the Thorns into his Forehead and Temples, and occafioned thereby exquisite Pain, as well as a great Effufion of Blood'. All which this holy Sufferer i borel with the utmost Meekness and Composure; neither reviling nor threatening them, but filently committing himself to the righteous

invisible Judge, (1 Pet. ii. 23;) Matth. In the mean Time, Pilate was taken up with

MAT.XXVII. 19. When XXVII, 19. trying and condemning fome other Prifoners who he was set down on the Judge

were tol be executed that Day ; and while he thus to him, saying, Have thou
was sittingciom the Tribunal, his Wife, Having by nothing to do with that just
this. Time beeni informed that Jesus had been Man : for I have suffered
brought before him, and i was going to be given
up to Death, sent a very importunate Message to

I beseech thee see, to it, that
thou þave nothing to do with the Blood of that
righteous' One, against whom the Jews are now
demanding Judgment ; for I have suffered' many



bim (d),


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(0) Took the Reed," of Cane, out of his Hand.) The Word xiexqpios does indeed fometimes fighify a pender Reeds (Mat, xi. . xii. 20. and 3.7ohn, ver. 13.) but it includes all Kind of Canes; and it is most probable, this was 'a Walking-Staff, wluch they put into hls Hand as a 'Scepere ; for a Blow with a light Reed would scarce have been felt, or have deserved a Mention in a Detail of such dreadful Sufferings... '(d) His Wife Jent to him.) While Rome was governed by a Commonwealth, it was unusual for the Governors of Provinces to take their Wives with them ; but afterwards it grew customary, and the Motion made against it in the Fourth Year of Tiberius was rejected with Tome Indignation. See Tacit. Annal

, lib, iii, cap. 33, 34.

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30 Pilate, ağain declaress! be found no Fault in him! [T 847 many Things this Day in a Things Tonday on his Account in a Dream (e), and Sect. 188. Dream, because of him. have had such terrible Views represented to my Imagination in my. Sleep, this very Morning, that XXVII

. 19, I cannot; but look upon it as something Divine, and conclude that if thou dost upon any Terms consent to his Death, it will be attended with

dreadful Consequences to thyself and thy Family. JOHN XIX. 4. Pilate

1. Pilatë; therefore, alarmed by fuch a Message as John XIX. therefore went forth again, and faith unto them, Behold, this

, went into the Palace himself, to see what 4. I bring him forth to you, they were doing with the Prisoner s, and when he that ye may know that I'find beheld with strong Emotion all those Indignities no Fault in him. I .

and Torments which: Jesus had borne, and saw
how severely the Soldiers had scourged him, think-
ing that the sight of him in fo fad a Condition
might move the Jews to Compaffion, the deter-
mined to make one Trial more. And accordingly
he came out again to the Door of the Pavilion

round which they were assembled, and having 1 Wine ans ? ordered Jesus to be led, thither, he faid to them, is n.1917.d just before he appeared ; Behold, I am bringing 3.. OS !!!) or video

bim out to you again, that ye may know and observe
it, that I can find no Fault in him, tho' the Tor-
tures he has now undergone are such, as must
furely hayė brought him to Confeffion, if he
were indeed guilty.

5 Then came Jesus forth, 1. Then,aas he fpake these Words Fejus came out 5
wearing the Crown of
Thorns, and the Purple

of the Prætorium;s wearing the Thorny Crown, and Robe. And Pilate faith un- the Purple Robe, now also died in his own Blood, to them, Behold the Man. which streamed forth from all Parts of his Body:

And [Rilate]" said to them, Behold tậe Man! View
him attentively ; and when you see what dreadful
Things the poorunhappy Creature has suffered,
let that content you ; for surely, considering his

(e) I have suffered many Things To-day on his Account in a Dream.] Perhaps the Word
enuepov, To-day, may imply, that she had dreamt these things that Morning, fince Pilate
role; and as the Heathens imagined those Dreams most significant, which came about
Break of Day, she might on that Account lay the greater Stress upon them. Yanfenius
thinks, the had now a Representation of those Calamities, which afterwards befell Pilate
and his family. (See Note (r) in the Improvement. But it is an unaccountable 'ThougHt
of Mr. Fleming, that the Devil might be the Author of this Dream, by which he might
endeavour to prevent the Death of Christ according to the Prophecies. His Two Arguments,
from her calling Christ a Man, (which is merely taken from our Verfion, for in the Origi-

it as Dream gave her, are too inconsiderable to heed a particular Reply. See Flem, Chrifid. Vol. ii. pag. 325.

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548 The Jews infif on bis Death, as making bimself the Son of GOD. Sect. 188. Innocence, he has suffered already much more

than enough. John XIX. 6. When therefore the Chief Priefs and [their]

6 When the Chief Priests

therefore and Officers faw attending Officers saw him, fearing left the People him, they cried

out, saying, should relent, they presently renewed their Excla- Crucify him, crucify bim. mations, and eagerly cried out as before, saying, We know the Man sufficiently: Away with him to the Cross; crucify [him,] crucify [bim ;] and let Sentence be passed upon the Wretch immediately.

Pilate on this said to them, If ye are thus reso- -Pilate faith unto them, lute and inexorable, I leave him in your Hands Take ye him, and crucify

him: for I find no Fault in to dispose of him as you think fit : Take


bim therefore, if it must be fo, and crucify [him) yourselves; but I desire to discharge myself from having any thing to do in it, either by myself, or by my Roman Guards ; for, as I have told you again and again, I find no Fault in bim wos

thy of any such Punishment. 7

The Jews then anfwered bim, There is no Room 7 The Jews answered to represent him as a faultless Perfon, nor any him, We have a Law, and Reason to be backward to condemn him ; but because he made himself cha

by our Law he ought to die,
these Objections you have made oblige us to men- Son of GOD.
tion one Circumstance, which for the Horror of
it we would willingly have concealed : We bave
a Divine Law which we received from Heaven,
by which Blasphemy is forbidden on the highest
Penalties ; and by this our Law be ought to die,
tho' he were not chargeable with Sedition and
Treason, because be bas made bimself the Son of
the most High GOD, in such a Sense as no Crea-
ture can be ; and this he declared but this Morn-
ing in open Court. (Compare Mat. xxvi. 63, 640

Mark xiv. 61, 62. and Luke xxii. 70. pag. 526.)
8 When Pilate therefore beard this Expression, be

8 When Pilate therefore was still more afraid than before (f); for the heard that Saying

he was the more afraid Romans

If He was still more afraid than before.] Tho' I think, with Mr. Cradock, and several others, the Interpretation given in the Paraphrase the most natural ; yet I cannot forbear mentioning that of Mr. Lardner, who thinks, he was afraid of a Sedition among the Jews, from bis Knowledge of their great Obstinacy in any thing, in which Religion might seem to be concerned : And he adds, he might be the more reasonably alarmed on this Head, as since the Beginning of bis Government he had met with Two remarkable Instances of their Stiffnefs ;. one in an Attempt to bring the image of Cæfar into Jerufalem ; the other in a Design he had formed of supplying the City with Water at the Expence of the Sacred Trek foury of the Temple. See Lardner's Eredibility, Vol. i. pag. 312.

(3) Wbanco

Pilate is afraid, and examines bim again.

549 Romans believed many Poetical Stories of Men be- Sect. 188. gotten by their Deities, and thought them a Kindy of Demi-Gods, who could not be injured with

John XIX.

out engaging their Divine Parents in the Quarrel.
9. And went again into And therefore apprehending that his Wife's Dream 9
unto Jesus, Whence art might also take its Rife from such a Cause, be
thou? But Jesus gave him. entered again into the Palace, and taking him
no Answer

afide, he said to Jesus, Tell me plainly, from
wbence thou camest, and from whom art thou
descended ? and what is this Divine Original,
which thou art charged with claiming (8)? But
Jefus, knowing that his Innocence was already
apparent, even to the Conviction of Pilate's Con-

science, gave him no Answer to that Question. 10 Then faith Pilate un

Then Pilate in Surprize said to bim, What, 10
to him, Speakest thou not
unto me? Knowelt thou dost thou make me no Reply, and not so much as
not, that I have power to speak to me in such a Circumstance as this, in which
arucify thee, and have. Pow- thy Life is so evidently concerned ? Dost thou not.
ar to releafe thee?

know, that I have Power and Authority to crucify
thee, and. bave power to release thee, if I please,
notwithstanding, all the clamorous. Demands of

thine Enemies? Ir Jesus answered; Thou

Iefus calmly replied, Thou could bave no Power: 11 couldt have no Power at all against me, except it were at all againf me, except it were given. thee

. from given thee from. Abovo: Above, from the God of Heaven,, whose Prothers: vidence. I acknowledge in all these Events. (b):


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(8) Whence art thou ?] It is strange, Mr. Locke should think, (as he does, in his Reasone ableness of Christianity, Vol

. i. pag. 133.) that Chrift declined giving him and Answer, left: when he heard he was born at Bethlehem, he. Mhould have any such Ăpprehensions as Herod had entertained. Pilate probably knew nothing at all of that Prophecy, as Herod himself indeed did not, till he had learnt it from the Jewish Scribes, whom he consulted On Chriff's Birth. (Mat. ii. 4. 5. 6. Vol. i. pag. 70.) The Answer which our Lard had, made to his former Enquiries, lhewed how far he was from declining any Danger;. and the true Reason of his present Silence was, that Pilate's unsteady Conduct rendered him unworthy of farther Information.

(b) Thou coulds have no Power at all againft, me, except it were given thee from Above.] Some have thought, that the Word avalsv, from Abóve, refers to the Situation of the Temple, which. Atood much higher than the Prætorium ; and that it is, as if Jefus had said, “ I know, “ that whatever thou doft againft. me, is only in Consequence of the Sentence passed in “ yonder Court held Above; so that their Guilt is greater than thine.” But tho' this would very well account for the Connection of the latter. Part of the Verk, I cannot think it alcom gether just; for had Providence permitted Pilate to seize Chrif, as one dangerous to. Cæsar's Dignity, he would have had as much Power of putting him to Death, as he now bad.. Itis therefore much more reasonable to suppose, it refers to the Permission of God's: Providence. No Thought was more proper to the Occafion; and I think, the Interpretation L bave given to the latter Claufe in this View, is natural, tho' not very common. But if any. are not satisfied with it, they may consider, whether día tule may not be connected with the

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