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A Pharisee wonders, that CHRI$T did not wash before Dinner. 99 fan&tifying Spirit, without which our corrupt Hearts will find out a teady Sect. 100, Way to abuse the choicest of his Providential Favours, to the Dishonour of his Holy Name, and the deeper wounding of our own miserable Souls! Ver. 13.

SECT. cx.
Our Lord dining at the House of a Pharisee, seriously ad-

monises him and his Brethren of their Guilt and Danger;
by which they are exasperated, rather than reformed.
Luke XI. 37, to the End.
LUKE XI. 37. .

LUKE XI. 37. AND as he spake, a cer- NOW after our Lord had delivered these Things, Sect. 110: u tain Pharisee. besought I it happened one Day, that as he was speaking m . him to dine with him : and he went in, and sat down to to the People about the great Concerns of their Luke Xl Meat.

eternal Salvation (a), a certain Pharisee then pre- 37.
sent invited him to dine with him; and with what-
ever View he might do it, Jesus, that he might
not seem morose, or insensible of a Civility, ac-
cepted the Offer, went in to his House, and fate

down to Table.
38 And when the Phari. And when the Pharisee, in whose House he was, 38
lee law it, he marvelled that face that he did not, according to the Tradition of
he had not firit walhed be• 'The Elders and the constant Custom of their Sect,
fore Dinner.

first wash before Dinner, he wondered [at it,] con-
fidering the Character he had for an extraordinary

Degree of Sanctity.
39 And the Lord said But the Lord perceiving his Thoughts, and 39

unto knowing that in some Circumstances à faithful

Reproof is the most valuable Token of Friendship
and Gratitude, said to him, As I see you are now


(a) It happened one Day, as he was speaking, &c.] The attentive Reader will easily observe, that I have here omitted what occurs from the End of the 13th, to the Beginning of the 37th Verse. That Passage is inserted, Sect. 61,- 64. because it is exactly parallel to Mat. xii. 22, & seq. and Mark iii. 22, & feq. I could see no Proof, that the fame Difcourle, with just the very fame Circumstances, happened again here; and as this seemed improbable, in Proportion to the Variety and Resemblance of those Circumstances, I thought it was better thus to transpose Luke's Story, than to take the Repetition for granted. The Pbrale ev de TW dennode, while he was speaking, will, I think, fairly admit the Turn I have given it in the Paraphrase; but if any judge otherwise, it will be easy to turn back to the Fallage, as inserted before, Vol. i. pag. 371, & feq. and all I have said above to introduce the Scetion before us will be true on that supposition :

N 2

(b) Ob

fore us will be this pag. 371, & lewise, it will be easy to turn Tur


100 The Inward Part is more to be regarded than the Outward. Sect. 110. offended at my neglecting the Ceremony of wash- unto him, Now do ye PhaLuké XI. n ing before Dinner, I cannot but plainly tell you, rilees make clean the Outlide

of the Cup and the Platter : that you Pharisees are too much like those vain but your inward Part is fuli 39.

People, that cleanse only the Outside of the Cup and of Ravening and Wicked-
the Dish, while the Inside, which is of much ness.
greater Importance, is left dirty and foul; for
with regard to many of you, your Inward Part,
even your very Heart and Conscience, is defiled,

being full of Rapine, and of all the foulest Kinds
o of Pollution and Wickedness. But let me seri- 40 Ye Fools, did not he
ously ask you, ch ye thoughtless Creatures (6), and that made that which is

without, make that which let me charge you that ye ask yourselves, Did not is within allo ? *** be that made the Outside, make also that which is within ? Did not the same God, that created the Body, create the Soul too? and must he not intimately know his own work, and discern and abhor all those secret Abominations, which, in Contempt of his Omniscience, you study so artfully to conceal from your Fellow - Creatures ? (Compare Psal. xciv. 8, 9.)

I would therefore, from the sincerest Concern 41 But rather give Alms for your true Honour and Happiness, exhort you. of luch Things as you have :

and not only to purge yourselves from secret Wickedness, but to abound in the Exercise of universal Goodness, and particularly to give Alms with Liberality in Proportion to your Substance (C); and then, if it be done from a right Principle, behold, God, the great Proprietor of all, will accept and


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2706) In Proportisans, 1 think, abund are's

(6) Oh ye thoughtless Creatures:). As appoves is a milder Word than peopol, I chose to render it thus, rather than as in our Translation. (See Note (l) on Mat. v. 22. Vol. i. pag. 229.) The learned Elsner (Observ. Vol. i. p. 227.) explains the latter Part of the Verse, as if it had been said, “ There is a great deal of Difference between cleaning the Outside, and cleaning that which is within, and no such necessary Connection between them, as you seem “ to suppose.” To justify this, he urges 2 Sam. xix. 24. and one Passage in Aristophanes, where would signifies to cleanse; but the Sense is so unusual, and that commonly received so much more lively and important, that I could not persuade myself to deviate from our Translation here.

(0) In Proportion to your Substance.] Thus Grotius understands it. The learned Bos (Exercit. pag. 26.) has, I think, abundantly proved, the Words to evovlse (for nula ta svold,) will very justly admit this Sense, and are thus used by some of the best Greek Cinfecs. No other seems to agree so well with the Connection ; not even that ingenious Turn of Raphelius, ( Annot. ex Xen. pag. 93,-_-96.) who explains 7d crolld, by to culas 78 wolnpir xal 795

de pontodos, Mat. xxiii. 26. or that which is within the Cup and Dish, as if it had been said, “ Give Meat to the Hungry, and Drink to the Thirsty, and make a liberal D Itribution of those Things that are within the Cup and Dis.But the last View in which tocrolley had been mentioned, was, as expressing the Temper of the Heart, (ver. 40.) which is a Itrong Objection against this great Man’s Interpretation.

Woes are denounced against the Pharisees as Hypocrites. 101. and behold, all Things are bless you ; and tho' you should not be so exact in Sect. 110., clean unto you.

this outward Washing, all Things are pure to you,
so that you may use them with Comfort; whereas ...
now you do, as it were, pollute and profane every
Thing you touch, and all the Water in the World

cannot wash away the Stain. (See Tit. i. 15.)
42 But Wo unto you, But alas, you seem little disposed to attend to 42
Pharisees : for ye tithe Mint this kind and faithful Advice, and therefore my
and Rue, and all manner of
Herbs, and pass over Judg.

Character obliges me folemnly to warn you of
ment, and the Love of God: those approaching Judgments, which, if speedy
these ought ye to have done, Repentance does not prevent, will shortly overtake
and not to leave the other

your whole Sect, numerous and honoured as it is..
Woe therefore unto you Pharisees; for, to gain the
Admiration of the Priests and the People, you most
fcrupulously pay the Tithe of Mint, and Rue, and
every [other] triling Herb that grows in your Gar-
dens, and expect to recommend yourselves to the.
Divine Acceptance by such Kind of Observances ;
but at the same Time you. shamefully pass by, and
carelessly neglect the Practice of righteous Yudga
ment to your Fellow-Creatures, and of the Love of
GOD your Creator, as if they were Matters of
but little Importance ; whereas indeed these are.
the Duties, that you more especially ought to have
done ; and yet I. own, you ought not to negleet the.
other, as even the least of God's Commands are.

to be revered and obeyed. (See Mat. v. 19.)
43 Wo unto you, Phari- Woe unto you Pharisees, on Account of your 43:
sees: for ye love the upper- Pride, which appears : on every Occasion, and in
molt Seats in the Synagogues,
and Greetings in the Mar- every Affair of Life ; for you love the uppermost

Seats in all Assemblies, even in the very Synagogues,
where you meet to humble yourselves before God;
and mightily affect Salutations in the Markets, and ..
other publick Places, by Titles of distinguished.
Respect, as the Guides and Fathers of the People,
the Oracles of Truth, and the Standards of Holis

ness. (Compare Mat. xxiii. 6,—10. Sect. 157.).
44. Wounto you, Scribes Woe unto you, oh ye Scribes and Pharisees also,. 44:
and Pharisees, Hypocrites : on Account of your Deceit, as under all those Ap-

pearances of the strictest Sanctity, you are the
most egregious Hypocrites of the Age (d); for I.

(d) Oh ye Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites. I Tho' come Copies want these Words, and
Grotius and Dr. Mill give them up, I think Dr. Whitby is right in retaining them ; espee.
cially because they so much illustrate ver. 45. See IV hitb. Exan. Mill. pag. 46.

. (e) Are




A Woe is likewise added to the Lawyers. Sect. 110. may truly say, that you are like concealed Graves (c), for ye are as Graves which w which being overgrown with Grafs, Men walk appear not, and the Men

that walk over them, are not over, and are not aware of [them,] till they stumble aware of them. 44.

at them, and are hurt, or at least defiled by the
Touch of them.

And one of the Doctors of the Law (f), who 45 Then answered one happened to be present. observing that in this last of the Lawyers, and laid

unto him, Master, thus sayWoe Jesus mentioned the Scribes, who were a ing, thou repro

a ing, thou reproacheft us also. Body of Men, to whom he and his Brethren bea longed, answered and said unto him, Master, in saying these Things, thou reproachest not only the Sect of the Pharisees, but us too, in a Manner unbecoming the Dignity of our holy Profession, as

the Depositaries of the Sacred Oracles. 46 But Jesus was so far from palliating the Matter 46 And he said, Wo unto to ingratiate himself with them, that be plainly you allo, ye Lawyers : for

ye lade Men with Burdens and couragiously said, Nay, it is a righteous Re- grievous to be borne, and buke, and I intend it for you, and therefore par- ye yourselves touch not the ticularly repeat it for your Admonition : Woe unto Burdens with one of your you also, ye professed Interpreters of the Law ; for

by your rigorous Decisions on the Ceremonial Parts
of it, and the human Traditions which you have
added to it, you load other Men with insupportable
Burthens, and unmercifully lay them on, while
you yourselves will not touch the Burthens with one
of jour Fingers (8), but suffer your Lives to con-


o be by the wahin, but here teme to whited Sepulcime, and in ve

Accidenpen to be shaled withine comparty delivered gainit the Ph

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(e) Are like concealed Graves.] The Discourse against the Pharisees, which is recorded Mat, xxiii. (Seel. 157, 158.) was plainly delivered at another Time, and in very different Circumstances. Our Lord there compares them to whited Sepulchres, ver. 27. adorned on the Outside, but defiled within ; but here to Graves overgrown with Grass, which mighe often happen to be by the Way-Side, (compare Gen. xxxv. 19.) and so might occasion such Accidents as are here referred to.

(f) One of the Doctors of the Law.] I apprehend that rouixos may well be rendered a Doctor, or Interpreter of the Law; which I generally chuse, rather than the Word Lawyer, because that naturally suggests to us, a modern Idea of an Office, which did not exist among the Yews at this Time, and has strangely misled some Interpreters. These Jewish Lawyers, (as our 'Translation calls them, were the most considerable Species of Scribes, who applied themselves peculiarly to study and explain the Law. Probably many of them were Pharisees; but it was no ways eflential to their Office, that they should be so. What touched the Person here speaking was, that our Lord in his last Woe, ver. 44. had joined the Scribes with the Pharisees.

(8) Will not touch the Burthens with one of your fingers.] Perhaps their Consciences might charge them with some private Contempt of the Injunctions, they most rigorously imposed upon others, in Ceremonial Precepts, as well as Morals; or it may refer to the Want of a due Tenderness for the Comfort of Men's Lives, which they imbittered by such Rigour.

This seems to prove against Trigland, (de Karæis, pag. 58, & seq.) that these Lawyers were not Karaites; for these added not Traditionary Burthens to the Law.

(h) And

They approved of their Fathers killing the Prophets. 103

tradict your Precepts, even in some of the most Sect. 110.

important Instances. 47 Wo unto you: for ye I also solemnly denounce a Woe unto you all, for Luke XI. build the Sepulchres of the the Malignity and Cruelty of your Tempers under 47. Prophets, and your Fathers killed them.

this Mask of Piety and Devotion ; for at a great
Expence you build and adorn the Sepulchres of the
Prophets, as if you had a mighty Veneration and

Affection for them, tho’ your Fathers New them.
48 Truly ye bear Witness But as you imitate your Fathers in your Conduct, 48
that ye allow the Deeds of
your Fathers: for Thevini and are regardless of the Instructions that the Pro-
deed killed them, and ye phets gave, you do indeed bear Witness to your Fa-
build their Sepulchres. thers, rather than against them, and in effect ap-

prove and vindicate the Works of your Fathers (b);
for as they indeed sew them, and you build their
Sepulchres, one would imagine that you erected
those Monuments, not so much in Honour of the
flaughtered Prophets, as of the Persecutors by
whom they were so wickedly destroyed. (Compare

Mat, xxiii. 29, -32. Sect. 158.)
49. Therefore also said the Therefore also the Wisdom of GOD bath said (0), 49
Wisdom of God, I will

and I am in his Name commissioned to declare it
fend them Prophets and A- a
vostles, and some of them as his determinate Purpose, I will yet send them
they shall day and persecute: Other Prophets and extraordinary Messengers, par.

ticularly the Apostles, who shalí declare my Gof-
pel to them, as the last Expedient for their Reco-
very and Salvation ; but such I know to be the
Hardness of their Hearts, that they will generally

despise and reject them; nay, [ Comel of them they
50 That the Blood of all will kill, and will persecute the rest : So that 50
the Prophets, which was thed they will bring such a terrible Destruction upon


themselves, that the Blood of all the Prophets and


pag., o omi Character rophets, S: with all due alfage ; not a does not pay ray for rent

(b) And in effect approve and vindicate the Works of your Fathers.] Archbishop Tillotson (Vol. ii. pag. 195, 196.) has set this Text in a most strong and beautiful Light, and hinted the Turn which I have given it in the Paraphrase.

.(i) Therefore also the Wisdom of GOD hath said.] Dr. Guyse (with Markius, Exerc.
pag. 669.) paraphrases this Clause as the Words of the Historian, and supposes him here to
apply this Character to Christ, and to declare, that Christ the Wisdom of GOD farther said,
I will send them Prophets, &C. I doubt not but Christ might with great Propriety be
spoken of by that Phrase ; but with all due Respect to that learned and pious Interpreter, I
cannot apprehend it to be the Sense of this Passage ; not only because the Phraseology is unex..
ampled in the Evangelists, but chiefly because our Lord does not say, I send to you, but to
them. Yet I see no Reason to conclude, (with Mr. Whifton, in his Essay for restoring the Old
Teftament, pag. 228.) that this is a Quotation from any antient Writer, Christ was impowe,
ered, without any such Voucher, to declare what the Counsels of Divine Wisdom had deter-
mined ; and this Manner of speaking strongly intimates, that he was fo ; in which View
it has, on this Interpretation, a peculiar Beauty and Propriety,

(A) The

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