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The City Committee also advised, that the shutters for the windows should be so constructed as to admit air and light, and at the same time prevent the prisoners from looking into any other yard of the prison. At present, no change has taken place; and while I was there last week, with the Ordinary, I was in the fine-yard, hearing the petition of some of the persons who were confined there. The windows of one, the convict apartment, that overlooked it, were crowded; and a conversation of mockery, oaths, and indecency ensued, that strongly illustrated the value of the Committee's recommendation. Out of these windows the felon convicts can converse at pleasure with those confined for misdemeanours.

The employment of prisoners in labor is of great importance. I learn that a mill, somewhat similar to that in Bedford gaol, is about to be constructed. Whatever provides occupation, if it be but for one hour in the day, is good. A confirmed thief dreads labor more than he does the gallows. But until the prison is enlarged, and arranged after another plan, it is not possible to provide work for the male prisoners in Newgate.

Before I conclude this letter, which the importance of the subject has drawn out to a greater length than originally was intended, I cannot refrain from expressing my astonishment at a report which the Grand Jury of Middlesex, who, in the discharge of their duty, inspected Newgate last session, have thought fit to make of the state of that prison. It is not for me to doubt, whether the Grand Jury inspected the prison at all; but the result of their visit satisfies me, that their praise must have been comparative only; as they surely did not mean to set forth to their fellow-citizens, that their high admiration of the excellent arrangements which exist in Newgate had reference to any thing but the deplorable and disgraceful condition in which it was only a few months ago. They could not have noticed the want of proper classification, nor the state of the condemned cells, nor the manner in which the prisoners sleep, nor the promiscuous assemblage of all kinds of misdemeanours in the fine-yards, nor the bad success of most of the recommendations of the City Committee, nor the want of separation of old and young offenders in all parts of the prison; for if they had noticed these deficiencies, I am sure twenty-four Englishmen could not have passed a vote of high admiration. The slight want of matting and covering is, in fact, a want of proper rugs and bedding; and the nudity, or the deficiency of shirts, shoes, and stockings, cannot but be taken as trifling exceptions to those excellent arrangements, which are the theme of this extraordinary panegyric.

The Report has surprised every one: and how twenty-four persons, who were not led about blindfolded, or who had ever seen

any other prison but their own Newgate, or who had one moment thought on the subject, or who had even read the quarto volume which the City Committee published, could have screwed up their consciences to such a pitch, is to me inconceivable. They, I trust, will forgive me, when I put in carelessness and ignorance as pleas in their favor; and having some experience of what visiting magistrates have permitted in the county of Middlesex and elsewhere, I can make allowances for the errors of a London Grand Jury,

I have, however, no doubt, that each individual of the Grand Jury, if taken round the prison of Newgate and shown what is daily and hourly exhibited there, would concur in all the remarks made in the preceding pages, and would regret that he had been induced to give even a momentary support to a system, which the commonest understanding must allow to be censurable. I solicit, then, from them, and from you, Gentlemen, a personal investigation of the abuses of the prison system of Newgate. I call upon you to see with your own eyes, and hear with your own ears. Compare my statement with the report of the Grand Jury. Whether you concur with me or not in the reasoning which I have adopted is a matter of slight importance, when compared with what I feel will be the result of a minute examination of the points at issue between us. Of this I am assured, that "if only half the misery which is felt by some shall be seen by others, it will fill them with horror;" and it rests with you, Gentlemen, to correct the evil, and to terminate the horrors.

I have the honor to be, Gentlemen,
With great respect,

Upper Grosvenor Street, "December 31, 1817.

Your obedient Servant,

Since this pamphlet went to the press, a London Grand Jury have, in their observations on the state of Newgate, adopted not only the words, but recommended the measures proposed by the author: one part of his purpose is then obtained. He however has learnt, that at a late meeting of the Common Council, Mr. Alderman Wood and others ventured to accuse him of incorrectness and contradictions; he wishes they would point them out, and he will shortly give them an opportunity: he pleads however guilty to part of these charges; he has not stated half the evils produced by the intolerable negligence of the City Magistrates, nor has he given the whole amount of the daily tortures endured in these prisons.

It is also true that he inserted the name of Mr. Thorpe instead

of that of Mr. Brydges, who was one of the Sheriffs of last year: he apologizes for this mistake; but he can say of both the excellent Sheriffs, that he found them often doing their duty and endeavouring to lessen the miseries and relieve the distresses of the wretched prisoners they had in charge.

One capital error the author also must acknowledge: it is to be found in page 311, where he says, that the recommendation" of the Visiting Committee of the City of London, that iron bedsteads be provided, bedding furnished, and the traffic in the hiring of beds abolished," has not been followed. He was led into this mis-statement because he did not believe it possible that a part of this recommendation should have been adopted and not the whole, or that precisely that part of it should be chosen which aggravated the miseries of the prison. The prisoners have now no beds at all, unless they possess them of their own; for the City magistrates have furnished neither bedsteads nor bedding, and they have pro hibited the letting out bedding altogether,

Feb. 5, 1818.

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THE intimate knowledge I possess of your sincere regard for the moral and political welfare of your country, and the sound and manly judgment you are capable of exercising upon the practical association of morals and politics in affairs of legislation, induce me to address to you the following letter.

It treats upon a subject to which, however important in itself, the habits of your life have never perhaps excited much attention in your mind; but I presume to think that you can scarcely fail to be interested by the extensive mischiefs which it involves ;mischiefs indeed of a magnitude little suspected by many of those who may be said to promote them.

I must nevertheless admit that, notwithstanding my conviction of the extent of your philanthropy, I certainly owe you some apology for wishing to make you a party in a discussion, from which it is no common ground of congratulation to have been hitherto entirely free; for there are few subjects on which a contrariety of opinion is maintained with greater violence than on the Game Laws. Both parties argue with the feelings of injured individuals; and, as is usual in such cases, both have some ground of complaint. But public morals, and the peace and good order of the country, present still more serious grounds of objection to those laws, as they now stand on the statute book, than private interests, or the actual condition of society. In such a state of

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