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Source N.W.Ayers and Son, Philadelphia, Pa.


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Source Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Electrical Foreign Trade Notes April,15,1936. p.31.


Mr. FULMER. I thank the committee for this opportunity. I have not been able to attend the hearings but I will state at this time that I am deeply interested in this legislation and I am very hopeful with the gentleman who made a statement a moment or two ago that this type of legislation will help to wipe out illiteracy in the country, thereby placing people in position to demand wages they are entitled to, and it will do more to bring about normal prosperity and do away with unemployment than anything I know of. I will not take your time further except to state that I am heartily in accord with the bill (H. R. 5962) and hope it will be passed.

Mr. GIVENS. The statement of C. M. Howell is submitted. He is secretary of the Oklahoma Education Association, representing 18,000 teachers of that State.

(The statement referred to is as follows:)


Mr. HOWELL. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I want to introduce my associates from Oklahoma who came here for this hearing.

Mr. Guy B. Massey, vice president of the Oklahoma Education Association, and former member of the Oklahoma Legislature. He represents a number of civic clubs and organizations of the Third Congressional District of Oklahoma.

Mr. George W. Pearson, a classroom teacher from Tulsa. He represents Class Room Teachers of Oklahoma.

Paul D. Bryant, auditor of the division of finance of the State department of education.

The State of Oklahoma has long recognized that it cannot provide an adequate educational opportunity to all its children under localschool-district initiative. In other words, the local district's plan of support for education is not sufficient.

Almost 20 years ago the first appropriation was made by the State for what is known as weak schools. This appropriation was for $100,000. This amount has been gradually increased as the benefits became apparent until now we are apportioning approximately onethird of our total State income (exclusive of funds for highway construction) for this purpose. Today in Oklahoma almost one-half46 percent in 1935-36 of the total support for public shools comes from State sources.

Oklahoma now levies the following taxes:
Income: 9 percent on the higher brackets.
Sales tax: 2 percent with few exceptions.
Gross production on oil: 5 percent.
Beverage taxes.

Cigarette tax: 3 cents on each package.
Inheritance tax.

Gasoline tax.

Ad-valorem tax.

The ad valorem tax with a limitation for current purposes of 27 mills. This may be increased by 5 mills for building purposes, and it does not include taxes levied for the retirement of bonded indebtedness. In some cases, due to decrease in valuation, the ad-valorem tax has reached 100 mills or 10 percent on the dollar of taxable wealth.

The decrease in ad-valorem taxation has been caused by many reasons. First, Oklahoma is primarily an agricultural State. For the past 3 years drought conditions have almost shut off all farm income. Our farm population is largely made up of tenant farmers (in 1935, 61.2 percent of the farmers did not own the land they lived on).

The oil resources are being rapidly depleted. Many communities which derive their school support from oil income have seen the oil industry move away and leave them without adequate support. A large number of these communities form now what is known as weak-school districts.

Oklahoma has set up a plan for distributing State money to support its schools. Briefly, the plan is this.

Each school district in the State receives funds to pay teachers' salaries for 32 months. Up to this point all schools in the State are on the same basis. The school is expected to continue from that point to the end of a 9-month term on its own local taxes. If it is unable to do this, the State comes in with additional funds and proposes to give all schools at least a 9-month term of school. In order to get this second allotment of State money, a school district must first levy a local tax of 10 mills. Even with this arrangement a large number of our school districts are compelled to close short of 8 months during the current year.

There are in Oklahoma 4,760 school districts; of these, 1,672 are known as weak school districts and are compelled to depend upon the State largely for their support.

In the matter of consolidation, Oklahoma in 1920 had 5,558 school districts; in 1936 this number was reduced to 4,760. Several entire counties have done away with the last one-room school building.

The teachers' salaries of Oklahoma, 1935-36, are still comparatively low; of the 18,472 teachers in the public schools, 18,281 reported an average monthly salary of $98. The lowest county average salary was $73 per month; the highest county average salary is $136 per month. These figures include both the white and Negro teachers; they do not include superintendents and principals.

The ratio of adults to children in Oklahoma is 1.88, while for the United States as a whole it is 2.3. In this respect Oklahoma ranks twelfth of the States in the Union. In addition to this, it is a comparatively new State and has the additional burden of providing school buildings and equipment.

There are enrolled in the public schools of Oklahoma approximately 53,000 Negro children. In disbursing State support to schools no distinction is made between the whites and the Negroes. Dr. Thompson testified here that Oklahoma was at the top of his list in this respect. In addition to this the State maintains a university exclusively for the Negro.

We have tried to show you gentlemen that our State has recognized this problem; has made a determined effort to solve it, but is

still unable to provide the school facilities which it believes its children are entitled to. We favor this bill as it is written.


Secretary of the Oklahoma Education Associations,
Representing 18,000 teachers of the State.

Dr. DAWSON. I submit the following statements containing information on education conditions in the various States. (The statements referred to are as follows:)


APRIL 2, 1937.


House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.

GENTLEMEN. The following statement is made in relation to the hearing now taking place on House bill no. 5962, known as the bill for Federal aid to education in the several States. In submitting this statement to your committee I am speaking in behalf of several organizations of the State of Montana who have taken definite action relative to the support of this bill. I am listing those organizations.

1. The Montana Educational Association, which has on two several occasions passed unanimously resolutions favoring the enactment of this bill into law.

2. The Montana State School Board Association has passed unanimously resolutions favoring the enactment of this bill into law.

3. The Montana Parent-Teacher Association, which has unanimously endorsed this bill.

4. Many other individual organizations and Boards of Education who have taken action favorable to this bill.

5. I am at liberty to say to you that the Senators and the Representatives from the State of Montana favor this bill, and that they would be willing to appear before your committee in behalf of this measure.

6. I am personally in favor of this bill.

The problem of Montana is very different from that of the Eastern and Central States with their compact areas and congested population, as well as the centralized wealth. The Mentana problem is one of great areas and scattered populations, as shown by the attached compilation of facts. It is a problem of supporting many schools for few pupils or transporting these pupils many miles, providing board or room and board, or both, if transportation is not available, or making other provisions for the many children who live in isolated districts throughout the State. It is a problem of low land values supporting a system of schools and other units of government on high tax rates on real property. The schools at the present time receive between 80 and 95 percent of their revenues from the land tax. It is a problem for the solution of which every kind of a tax but a general consumers' sales tax has been and is being used, with rates increasing every time the State legislative assembly convenes. To the solution of the problem of giving educational opportunities to people who want elementary and secondary education for their children, the State is giving its best efforts, but there must be aid from the Federal Government for a State whose cost for a school must be at least one-third more than that for the Central, Eastern, and Southern States, whose income goes in large amounts-from 40 to 50 percent to eastern and central business centers. there to be taxed for local use; whose social income is very low per person, but whose generous support of all worth-while social institutions and governmental agencies can be read in the history of the State.

This bill is necessary not alone for Montana but for many other States in the same or worse situations than is Montana.

I submit this statement, together with the attached bill of information, for your respectful consideration.

C. G. MANNING, Representing State of Montana.

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