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tunity within State boundaries; and (3) levied taxes for education comparable with the best practice in other States (23 State associations have endorsed this recommendation).

I will place the entire letter in the record.

(The letter referred to follows:)



Chairman, Committee on Education,

Washington, D. C., April 6, 1937.

United States House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.

MY DEAR MR. PALMISANO: In order that the hearings before your committee on the Harrison-Black-Fletcher bill may reflect the facts with respect to the position of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers and of the State branches of the national organization on Federal aid for education the following information is submitted.

The legislation program of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers is formulated on the basis of resolutions adopted at annual conventions and endorsed by the national board of managers for recommendation to the States. When these recommendations are ratified by 26 State congresses they become a part of the active national legislation program. The present program on Federal aid for education is:

1. Emergency Federal aid for education.-(a) To keep open schools which otherwise would be closed without provision for education of children involved (40 State associations have endorsed this recommendation); (b) to construct school buildings after competent, approved surveys (31 State associations have endorsed this recommendation).

2. Permanent Federal aid for education.-(a) Federal funds for equalization of educational opportunity among the several States on a basis of need after a "maximum effort has been made by the States"; i. e., after States have (1) consolidated one-room schools and small tax districts on basis of competent surveys; (2) equalized educational opportunity within State boundaries; and (3) levied taxes for education comparable with the best practice in other States (23 State associations have endorsed this recommendation); (b) to provide educational opportunities for children of Government employees on federaily owned property-Army posts, national parks, reservations, etc. (21 State associations have endorsed this recommendation).

Since need is the basis of all arguments for the enactment of the HarriscaBlack-Fletcher bill but, as a basis of distribution of funds, the need arguments are disregarded and replaced by a per-capita allocation, the bill is not in harmony with any principles ever acted upon by the National Congress of Parents and Teachers.

For this reason, at the last meeting of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers board of managers in September 1936 this bill was placed on the study program together with other Federal aid for education legislation which was not in conformity with principles adopted in convention and included in the legislative program.

The foregoing action was taken in accordance with a national legislation code setting forth the procedure required for placement of specific legislation on the national legislation program.

The National Congress of Parents and Teachers has a membership of approximately 2,000,000 comprised of 25,000 local associations in 48 States, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia.

In behalf of this organization whose sole purpose is the welfare of every child in home, school, and community, I bespeak the consideration by your committee of the foregoing principles and objectives.

Very truly yours,

Mrs. MARY T. BANNERMAN, National Chairman, Committee on Legislation.

Mr. FLETCHER. Mr. Chairman, I move that when we adjourn, we adjourn to meet next Tuesday at 10:30 a. m.

The CHAIRMAN. I understand there is no other testimony to be taken today.

Mr. STEFAN. Mr. Chairman, are you going to hear from Dr. Studebaker's office on this measure?

The CHAIRMAN. I have been endeavoring to get him here. I suppose we will have Dr. Studebaker before the committee on Tuesday. Mr. FLETCHER. And Dr. Dawson wanted to make a statement. Mr. STEFAN. I would like to know the administration's feeling in this matter.

The CHAIRMAN. I may say that I have written a letter to the Bureau of the Budget in order to get clearance from the Budget, to ascertain really what their views are on this. As you know, most bill that come before the House today, and the various committees request has been made, and before the Appropriations Committee acts on it, we ought to get a statement from the Budget.

Mr. FLETCHER. Of course, this is only an authorization, Mr. Chairman.

The CHAIRMAN. Yes; of course, but the same thing applies here. Mr. STEFAN. I think we should hear from Dr. Studebaker. The CHAIRMAN. Next Tuesday, we will have Dr. Studebaker before the committee, at 10:30 a. m.

(Whereupon, at 12: 15 p. m., the committee adjourned until 10:30 a. m., Tuesday, Apr. 13, 1937.)




Washington, D. C.

The-committee met at 10:30 a. m., Hon. Vincent L. Palmisano (chairman) presiding.

The CHAIRMAN. The committee will come to order.

I understand a couple of Congressmen here want to make statements. We might proceed and take their statements.


The CHAIRMAN. Will you give your name, Congressman, and your State?

Mr. LUCKEY. My name is Henry C. Luckey. I am the Representative from the First Congressional District of the State of Nebraska. I shall be very brief in making this statement. What I have to say about Nebraska applies to the entire Great Plains section. By that I mean the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and portions of Texas. These are agricultural States and during the depression of agricultural conditions which started shortly after the World War their financial conditions began to get worse and worse. Then it was followed by the low prices and a period of drought years which has practically ruined that entire section. Those people are not able to tax real estate any more than it has already been taxed, for the reason that the farmers have no income.

Taking the years 1928 to 1929 as the base year, taking it as 100 percent, the cost of operating the States has increased. Our State, Nebraska, is up to 141 percent over that base period, due to aids that they have had to give, and so forth, while the income for schools has dropped to 72 percent. Many of our teachers are receiving only half now and less than half of what they had during the base years. Then, furthermore, for all these years, say about 12 years, they were unable to keep up their equipment, school buildings, books, furniture, and the like. That has placed an additional burden on them and it is absolutely necessary that these things be taken care of at this time or as soon as possible.

This has been going on during the entire past 12 years. We are expending a tremendous amount of money for military purposes and very little, in comparison, for education. Take, for instance, one

battleship, $55,000,000. That would carry on the operating expenses for the University of Nebraska for 18 years.


Now, it is very, very essential that we guard our educational sysHeretofore Nebraska has had the lowest illiteracy rate of all the States in the Union, and that was true, very largely, of those Plains States; but now the lack of education with the shortening of the school term is causing us to fall behind, and there is nothing that this administration could do at this time for that section of the country which would be more beneficial than to help out in the educational program.

If you can see your way clear to report this bill out, I know our people in the Great Plains section and our teachers would appreciate it very much, and it will be of untold benefit to the children who are growing up in those sections and those towns.

Thank you very much for the opportunity of addressing you.

Mr. STEFAN. Just a minute, Congressman. Mr. Chairman,-I just want to call the Congressman's attention to the fact that it was testified here that our income for schools is only $60 per pupil; other testimony is that it is $72 per pupil. Where did you get your information on $72? That is correct, is it not?

Mr. LUCKEY. That is on the percentage basis. That is not dollars; that is on the percentage basis as compared with the cost of operating in the State.

Mr. STEFAN. What did you mean by 72 percent?

Mr. LUCKEY. Taking the period 1928-29, the fiscal year, as 100 per

cent base cost.

Mr. STEFAN. Do you know what we are spending for a pupil in Nebraska?

Mr. LUCKEY. I cannot give the exact figure.

Mr. STEFAN. Well, for the record and for your information, the information from Lincoln, your home town and our capital, is that it is $72; that is, per pupil.

The information testified to by experts here is that we are, in Nebraska, spending $60 per pupil. What do you think we could get along with in Nebraska? Do you think that a $60-per-pupil program would be ideal, if we could equalize it throughout the State?

Mr. LUCKEY. The western part of the State, of course, is lower in income by very much. There are a lot of school districts there which have had to close their schools entirely.

Mr. STEFAN. What is your opinion on my question, as to the $60per-pupil program throughout the State? That would be very satisfactory to Nebraska, would it not, if we could have that for all the schools?

Mr. LUCKEY. If we had that as an average, that would go a long way toward correcting the situation.

Mr. STEFAN. Do you understand what this bill calls for? It winds up with about $300,000,000 at the end of 5 years.

Mr. LUCKEY. Yes.

Mr. STEFAN. You believe that we should report this bill out? I would like to tell my colleague that practically all of the witnesses who appeared before this committee wanted the funds distributed and spent solely by the superintendent of schools of the State government. I would not want to have the Federal Government have anything to do with the expenditure of that money.

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