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his way into one of the cabins, and refused to quit till he had finished a heap of maccaroni. Sumbu, who, being of a close and saving disposition, had accumulated a private hoard in a depôt of his own, got very drunk on the sailors' rum, and his companions, taking advantage of his helpless condition, devoured his stores without scruple.

It was thus, then, that through the darkness of one hundred and eleven days—from October 28 to February 16—in everrecurring danger and ceaseless dread, fast locked in the ice, they drifted to the north. The day came, and the summer followed, but their drift still went on, changing only somewhat in direction. It had been from the first towards the north-east, but from February 2, the ship being then in latitude 78° 45' N., longitude 73° 7' E., it turned towards the north-west, and so continued. The summer had almost passed : it was August 30, 1873, and they had been carried by the drift into 79° 43' N., 59° 33' E., when, about midday, a wall of mist suddenly lifted, and 'revealed afar off in the north-west the outlines of bold rocks, which in a few minutes seemed to 'grow into a radiant Alpine land.' Their drift then took them a little to the south, and though it soon came back to its former direction, it was not until October 31, in latitude 79° 51' N., longitude 58° 56' E., that the floe in which their ship was embedded brought up against the fast ice of a small island, to which they gave the name of the staunch promoter of their enterprise, Count Wilczek. The sun had left them some days before, and in the scanty hours of twilight which still marked the middle of the day, they were able indeed to visit, but not to explore the land now so near them.

The winter passed away in anxious longing for the light which was to lead them on to discovery; but their night was very long; it lasted for 125 days. In the history of Arctic exploration, two expeditions only—the American expedition in the Polaris,'under Hall, and the English expedition which has just returned--have wintered so far to the north, or had such a long night. On this account, the record of it has a more particular interest, especially at the present time when an eager discussion is raging as to the possible, or necessary, or unavoidable effects of the long-continued darkness on the health of men. But, geographically speaking, a point of greater importance is the direction, and the change in the direction, of the Tegetthoff's' drift during these fourteen successive months. The Austrian officers, both Weyprecht and Payer, seem to have formed the opinion that this drift was caused mainly by the wind, and that currents were of secondary moment. But, in

VOL, CXLV. NO. CCXCVII.

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point of fact, this is only another way of saying that drift currents are caused by the wind, and that prevailing winds are subject to deflections very similar to those of currents which the pressure of the coast-line turns into streams. All analogy shows that we might expect a feeble set towards the north-east over the greater part of Barentz Sea, and along the northern shores of Novaya Zemlya, and that this set would circle back on itself, deflected by the shore-line and by the drift from the Siberian Sea. That the wind must act on a rough surface of broken and piled-up ice with much greater power than on a smooth surface of water, is beyond dispute; and, accepting the evidence of the “Tegetthoff's' observations, the facts of the • Tegetthoff's' drift seem to us quite in accordance with the wind theory of ocean currents. Vice-Admiral Baron von Wüllerstorff-Urbair, in analysing the circumstances of this remarkable drift, has been led to a conclusion similar to that which we have stated; and allowing great value to the direct action of the local winds, he remarks: The curve, at the

commencement, corresponds pretty nearly with the direction · which the Gulf Stream would take after passing round Norway,

and in its further course with that current which comes out of * the sea of Kara between Novaya Zemlya and Cape Taimyr. • It is probable that there exists a sea-current in the seas between

Novaya Zemlya and Franz Josef Land; at any rate, its 'existence cannot positively be denied, although the prevailing winds may produce similar phenomena.'

As the winter passed away, preparations for sledging were carefully made ; and it was agreed on between Payer, who was to command on shore, and Weyprecht, who was to command on board, that the ship should be abandoned in the summer if the ice round her continued fast; that at any rate they must try to avoid a third winter, which, with their crews debilitated, and their medical stores and provisions running low, would in all probability prove fatal. The sledge, with which Payer started on his principal journey on March 26, was built and equipped according to the instructions which had been given them by Sir Leopold M'Clintock: it was thus essentially the same as those since used by the English expedition, with which, either in the dockyard of Portsmouth or in the pages of the illustrated papers, the English public is now well acquainted. The gross weight was, in the present instance, 1,565 lbs. ; to drag which the

party consisted of two officers, the two Tyrolese, three sailors and three dogs. Of these Jubinal, the hero of the maccaroni, a dog of extraordinary power, was

a Siberian ; the dissipated Sumbu was a Laplander; and Torossy, a New

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foundland born on board on May 1, and thus barely a year old, but big, strong, and courageous.

The three sailors were Dalmatians; good, well-behaved, stout-hearted men, but with a constitutional reminiscence of the sunny South that somewhat lessened their capabilities of endurance.

The experiences of the sledging party were, in the main, those with which all readers of Arctic travel are familiar; the same danger, fatigue, wretchedness and discomfort; but in addition to their rations, they obtained throughout a plentiful supply of fresh meat: during a great part of their journey they lived almost entirely on bear-flesh; and though opinions may differ very much as to the niceness or nastiness of bearsome Arctic travellers having pronounced it delicious, whilst Payer considers that it is a diet hardly fit even for devils on the fast days of the infernal regions,'—there is only one opinion amongst practical men as to its great value as an antiscorbutic. As a change, some birds were also obtained ; and a gull flying temptingly overhead drew Sumbu away to his death ; he broke his traces and went off after the feathered siren, but never returned; he either perished in the snow or fell a victim to some hungry bear. Rum was served out regularly ; and on one occasion, Klotz, one of the Tyrolese, feeling unwell, cured himself by swallowing his ration at a gulp. The opinion of Payer, as well as of the commander, Weyprecht, and of the doctor, was decided, that a moderate allowance of grog was beneficial, and to some extent antiscorbutic; and this is, we believe, the unanimous verdict of all officers of Arctic experience.

On April 7, the party passed over the low land of Becker Island and saw Austria Sound still stretching away towards the north. If they could have forgotten how helplessly the · Tegetthoff' had drifted towards Franz Josef Land, that Sound would have seemed the true road to the Pole; that beyond them lay open water was certain, both from the dark hue of the sky, and the continual flight, backwards and forwards, of vast numbers of birds; the stretch of land to the north is more doubtful, but eastward it must be considerable. As they went on, they passed on their right hand the sea front of glaciers, which they named after Professor Dove of Berlin; glaciers of a size so enormous as to speak necessarily of a wide-spreading country beyond, and to lead to the supposition that what is now marked as Wilczek Land is of vast extent.

On April 9 they reached Cape Schrötter, in latitude 81° 37', and there determined to divide; three of the men, with the big sledge, were to remain; Payer, Orel a midshipman, Klotz, Zaninovich a Dalmatian seaman, and the two dogs were to go on with a light sledge which had hitherto been carried on the other. This sledge with its load was estimated at 4 cwt., and the two dogs drew it over level snow with ease. M-Clintock, the greatest and most experienced authority in sledge-travelling, estimates 200 lbs. as a full dragging load for a man, and 100 lbs. for a dog ; but none of his dogs would seem to have been anything like the equal in size or strength of either Jubinal or Torossy. It is to these two splendid animals, their endurance and courage, that Payer unhesitatingly and decidedly attributes what success the sledging party obtained ; not to their own endurance, for they had scarcely started when Klotz broke down, and had to be sent back; and Orel, before they returned, was helplessly snowblind: but notwithstanding all difficulties, they did get as far as 82° 5' N. It had been a question with them whether they could reach the parallel of 82°, and having passed it, they turned back. At their farthest north the sea was open, studded with icebergs, but almost clear of ice-floes; an enthusiast or a Morton would immediately have pronounced in favour of an Open Polar Sea, but Payer more carefully writes thus:

Open water there was, of considerable extent and in very high latitudes; of this there could be no question. But what 'was its character? From the height on which we stood we could survey its extent. No open sea was there, but a * Polynia” surrounded by old ice, within which lay masses of 'younger ice. This open space of water had arisen from the action of the long prevalent E.N.E. winds.'

But far beyond this position, 60 or 70 miles to the north, were seen mountain ranges, and land extending east and west, which received the respective names of Petermann and King Oscar Land. The mountainous extremity on the west of Petermann Land, which was called Cape Vienna, was estimated to lie on the 83rd parallel, the northernmost land yet known with the exception of Aldrich's Cape Columbia, which is in 83° 7', and has not been merely seen, but passed round and surveyed. It is, however, likely enough that Petermann Land extends much farther to the north, and in that case, the only possibility of rivalry as to latitude, on the American side, rests with Beaumont's Cape Britannia and the coast-line behind it.

When Payer with the small sledge rejoined the party which had been left at Cape Schrötter, it was curious to observe how a few days, without active employment and without discipline, had demoralised the members of it, the two Tyrolese and two

Dalmatian sea men; black with oil-smoke, wasted with diarrhea, they crept listlessly out of the tent to meet their companions. Yet they had not broken out in any way; they had not wasted their provisions ; they had simply sat still and moped, till they had reduced themselves to such a state that they were ready to lie down and die. Haller, as their chief, had been instructed to make the best of his way to the ship if the advanced party had not returned at the end of fifteen days: on now asking him which way he would have gone, he pointed, not due south, as the ship lay, but up Rawlinson Sound, or about N.E. The disordered state to which he had brought himself had wiped out all idea of the variation of the compass.

The task of return was thus very serious. Klotz was disabled with ulcerated feet; the three others were much enfeebled; the three who had been out with the dog-sledge were worn; all were suffering, more or less, from snow-blindness; and the advancing season rendered the ice very insecure. As they proceeded they found the congealed snow lying on beds of water, into which they broke, and through which they waded with difficulty; and on April 19, in latitude 80° 36', near the middle of the Sound, they were confronted by an open sea : they had no boat; their provisions were running short; the iceberg on which they bad established a depôt was floating away to the southward, and the ship was fifty-five miles distant: their position seemed desperate.

There was scant time for deliberation : only one way of escape suggested itself—a sharp turn to the eastern land, and a march to the southward over the glacier. This they accomplished in the teeth of a violent storm of wind and snow; as. they got on to solid earth, after an exhausting struggle of seven hours, they pitched their tent to rest, but they were wet through, they had nothing to eat, and hunger, cold, and moisture forbade sleep. On the morning of the 20th, after a starvation breakfast, and with the storm still raging, they resumed their march; it was evening before they arrived at a depôt where they had buried a quantity of boiled beef and a bear's carcase. The consumption of flesh at that supper is put at 3 lbs. per man; not a bad meal for Europeans, southern Europeans more especially, although a mere trifle to what has been reported of the Eskimos. The storm had somewhat abated; they went on stronger and bolder, and arrived at Cape Frankfort; the open water had drawn back to the west, and continuous ice seemed before them, stretching away towards the ship. Two days later, though not without ever-present alarm as to the persistence of the ice, they reached another

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