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Lansdowne's career was drawing to its close. The last speech he made in Parliament was a protest against the renewal of the war. The short remainder of his life was passed at Bowood, where he died on May 7, 1805.
If life and health had been continued to him a little longer,' says Lord Edmond, he would probably have been a member of the Coalition Ministry formed in 1806 by Lord Grenville and Fox, or perhaps he would have been satisfied with seeing Lord Henry Petty filling the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer at the age of twenty-six. His remains were interred in the church of High Wycombe, in the county which has given five Premiers to Great Britain. No tasteless monument nor fulsome inscription disfigures his grave, but if any epitaph were needed to mark where he rests, it might be found in the words attributed to Bentham, that alone of his own time, the first Lord Lansdowne was 66 a Minister who did not fear the people."
For a fuller account of this eminent person, and of the public transactions in which he bore a prominent part, we must refer our readers to the well-written volumes before us. History has not done justice to the character of the first Marquis of Lansdowne, who only wanted the opportunity to have taken his place in the first rank of English statesmen. During his short Administration he concluded a disastrous war by a peace in which the interests and the honour of the country were duly regarded, and the domestic policy which he pursued was only in fault inasmuch as it was in advance of the knowledge and morality of the time. His personal failings were certainly not those of casuistry and duplicity which are popularly attributed to him. He rather erred from a stubborn faith in the virtue of principle, and a contemptuous neglect of those party connexions without which, even in this improved age, it is difficult to carry any measure bearing the stamp of novelty or progress. But in truth Lord Shelburne was even more of a political philosopher than a statesman, and his political philosophy was far above the level of his own age. He was an ardent champion of American independence. He hailed with enthusiasm the French Revolution. He had always firmly maintained that France ought not to be the enemy, but the friend and ally, of England. He was the strenuous advocate of free trade. He was for Catholic Emancipation and complete religious equality before the law. He would have proposed a Reform Bill and the disfranchisement of nomination boroughs. He was in favour of the rights of the neutral flag in time of war. He did institute a close search into the gross abuses that pervaded every branch of the Administration. His house became, what it continued to be for two generations, a centre of cultivated and liberal
society, for Priestley, Price, Morellet, Dumont, Romilly, Bentham, were among his most constant associates. On all these points Lord Shelburne was fifty years ahead of his own times; and whatever place may be assigned him in the ranks of party, he was undoubtedly one of the most genuine Liberals who has ever played a part in the affairs of England. If his public life was on the whole a failure, it was throughout consistent in its adherence to these Liberal principles; it was neither stained by corruption nor disfigured by faction; and in one respect Lord Lansdowne was most fortunate; his declining years were cheered by the early promise of a son who ultimately inherited his honours and added lustre to his name.
ART. VIII.--1. Discoveries at Ephesus. By J. T. WOOD, F.S.A. London: 1877.
2. Beiträge zur Geschichte u. Topographie Kleinasiens. Von E. CURTIUS. Berlin: 1872.
3. Ephesos. Von E. CURTIUS. Berlin: 1874. 4. Ephesos im ersten Christlichen Jahrhundert. ZIMMERMANN. Leipzig: 1874.
Von G. A.
MORE than twenty-two centuries ago, in the year 356 before the Christian era, two remarkable events are recorded to have taken place on the same night. The queen of Philip of Macedon gave birth to a son destined to be the conqueror of the East, and the Temple of the Ephesian Artemis was burnt by Herostratus. The Ephesian people were not long in repairing this great calamity, and the new temple which they erected far surpassed its predecessor in magnificence. It is this temple which, when St. Paul visited Ephesus, ranked among the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, and of which the site, long sought for by travellers, was found by Mr. Wood in 1873.
Before noticing the series of remarkable discoveries narrated in his book, it may be well to give some account of the earlier temples of the Ephesian Artemis, and of the city with which her world-famous worship was associated through so many centuries. The first event in the history of Ephesus which has any claim to be historical is the establishment there of a colony from Greece, under the leadership of Androklos, son of the Attic King Kodros. This event, which is said to have taken place B.C. 1044, is presented to us in that legendary garb in which the naked facts of Greek tradition were so con
stantly clothed before the beginning of regular history. Androklos, says the local legend as Pausanias gives it, landed with his band of adventurers at a particular spot on the Ionian coast, to which they were directed by an oracle. Here, some fishermen having lit a fire to broil some fish near a fountain, startled a boar out of the brushwood, which was chased over the rocky ground near the shore, and killed by Androklos. This incident is commemorated on the coins of Ephesus, as late as the second century of our era, on which Androklos, with the title of Ktistes, Founder,' is represented slaying the boar. In the time of the Antonines, the tomb of this hero was still to be seen at Ephesus, on the road leading from the Magnesian Gate to the Temple of Artemis.
Notwithstanding the legendary character of this story, there seems to be no just ground for rejecting the main fact which it embodies, that a band of settlers from Attica established themselves at Ephesus, somewhere about the middle of the eleventh century B.C., when the Ionic immigration took place along the west coast of Asia Minor. But even at this very remote period, if we are to believe Pausanias, the worship of Artemis had been established at Ephesus from time immemorial, and this tradition is mixed up with the story of that mysterious product of Asiatic myth, the Amazons, who are said to have been the first attendants of the goddess, and whose reputed descendants in after times dwelt round her temple, blended with a population of Lydians and Leleges. These aboriginal races Androklos gradually drove before him, so as to secure for his colony a strong mountainous position called Coressus, and the command of a harbour communicating with the sea through the channel of the Cayster. Then, by an arrangement very common in the early Greek colonies, there grew up side by side two communities, one composed of natives, who dwelt round the Temple of Artemis, the other of Greek new comers; and at Ephesus, as at Halicarnassus and elsewhere on the Ionian coast, a friendly understanding was after a time established between these two populations.
On reference to Mr. Wood's map we can easily recognise the site which must have been occupied by Androklos. It must have extended over the mountain formerly called Peion or Prion, but which Mr. Wood, for reasons which we shall have to explain, calls Coressus. The sacred harbour and the fountain Hypelaos, both of which figure in the legend of Androklos. must have been somewhere on the lower ground, at the foot of the mountain ridge which bounds Ephesus to the south, and which is called Prion by Mr. Wood. The native population
must have dwelt in the plain round the Temple of Artemis, and probably fortified the hill on which the Byzantine Castle of Ayasoluk now stands.
The goddess whose worship Androklos found so long established at Ephesus received the name of Artemis from the Greeks, from the resemblance which they discovered between her attributes and rites and those of the huntress-daughter of Latona, whom they themselves worshipped. But the distinction between the Asiatic and Hellenic deity was never lost sight of in Greek art and literature. The Ephesian Artemis, whose original name is said to have been Upis, was one of several deities in Asia Minor, whose worship the Greek settlers found much too firmly established to be rooted out, and whom they therefore adopted into their own system of mythology. Such were the Hera of Samos, the Zeus of Labranda, the Artemis Leukophryne of Magnesia, and the Artemis of Perga. The types of these primitive deities are barbaric and un-Hellenic. Most of them we know only from representations on coins struck by Asiatic cities under the Roman Empire; but the type of the Ephesian Artemis, from the world-wide celebrity of her worship, has come down to us in several statues of the Roman period, all probably derived from the idol so long and profoundly venerated at Ephesus.* The goddess in these Roman replicas is represented as a female figure, the body a mere trunk lessening to the base with feet placed close together, as if copied from a mummy. On her chest are several parallel rows of pendulous breasts, whence she was called Polymammia; below are various symbols, such as bees, flowers, fruit, rows of projecting heads of bulls and gryphons and other animals; on her arms, which are supported on each side by an oblique strut or stick, are lions crawling upwards. How far these strange symbols are part of the original type, or which of them may have been additions due to the Pantheistic tendency of Paganism under the Roman Empire, we have no means of determining; nor do we know much as to the import of these symbols, though volumes of erudition have been written in the hope of explaining them ever since the revival of learning. The statement of St. Jerome that the Artemis of Ephesus, whom he carefully distinguishes from the Greek huntress, is the mother of all animal life, and that therefore her type was Polymammia, is probably well founded. The modius, or corn measure, which she wears on her head, is certainly an attribute of Chtho
For the types of the Ephesian Artemis and other similar GrecoAsiatic Deities, see Gerhard, Antike Bildewerke,' Pll. 305, 307, 308.
nian or telluric deities, and so perhaps may be the flowers, fruit, and bees; the disk or polos round the head, the signs of the zodiac on the breast, the gryphons, and the lions seem rather to embody a lunar myth. The symbol of the bees must be viewed in connexion with the fact that the priestesses of the Ephesian Artemis were called Melissa, and certain of her priests Essenes; the name given by the Greeks to what, in ignorance of natural history, they called the king-bee.* Herr Curtius thinks that the worship of Artemis may have been founded at Ephesus by the Carians and the Phoenicians, to whom the abundance of springs here may have suggested the dedication of a shrine to the great goddess of nature, who makes the earth fertile by humidity.
After the death of the founder Androklos, his sons were expelled from power by an antimonarchical movement, and the Ionian colony was strengthened by the importation of new settlers from Teos and Karene. The original division into three tribes was enlarged, and the boundaries of the city extended, spreading from Coressus to Peion.† Some time in the seventh century B.C. a great host of Cimmerian invaders swept like locusts over Asia Minor, advancing as far as the west coast. The Ephesian Kallinoe, one of the earliest elegiac poets of Ionia, tried in vain at this crisis to awaken by his verse the martial ardour of his fellow-citizens. The Cimmerians encamped in the plain traversed by the Cayster, and partially burnt the Temple of Artemis, the plunder of which, however, is said to have been averted by the special intervention of the goddess. It is about this time that the history of Ephesus begins to be connected with the neighbouring kingdom of Lydia, then ruled by the dynasty of whom Gyges was the founder about B.C. 715-690. The tendency of this dynasty in the successive reigns of Ardys, Sadyattes, and Alyattes was to advance westward so as to menace the independence of the flourishing Ionic settlements. Sadyattes and Alyattes several times invaded the territory of Miletus, and the final subjugation of the Ionian cities was accomplished by their successor Croesus, whose wealth, derived from the gold of the Pactolus, has become a proverb for all time. Ephesus contrived to make better terms with the conqueror than any other Ionian city. Its position on the coast made it the
Curtius, Beiträge,' p. 7. Compare Zimmermann, pp. 87–105. For the orthography of this name, sometimes written Prion in ancient texts, see the coin of Ephesus cited by Curtius, Beiträge,' P. 2, note 2.