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the subscribers gave notice, that in the ensuing covering or 10ofing in of vessels, a plan which
session of parliament they meant to renew their seems to have been loug since used at Venice
application for forming docks at Wapping. In Roofs have been thus constructed at Plymouth
December following they petitioned for leave to of ninety-five feet span, without a single beam,
bring in a bill for this purpose. A few days and one at Chatham, under the direction of Mr.
after a petition was presented by the corporation Seppings, of 100 feet, and having an entrance
of London, with a view to similar objects, by width of 150 feet.
making a navigable canal or passage across The wicket-gate of docks, a contrivance re-
the Isle of Dogs from Blackwall' to Limehouse, sorted to where the abutments are too weak for
purchasing the mooring-chains in the river, swinging gates, is represented below. Fig. 1
which were mostly private property, and ap- the plan; fig. 2 the elevation. It consists of
pointing harbour-masters to regulate the navi- three parts, which, when opened, are removed
gating and mooring of vessels in the port; they separately, and is the most simple, though by no
also proposed to make wet-docks in some part means the most effective, contrivance for keeping
of the Isle of Dogs for the reception and dis- out the water.
charge of West India shipping. The latter part

Pig. 1.
of the plan had, however, been taken up by a
number of West India merchants and planters,
who had formed themselves into a company dis-
tinct from the subscribers to the London docks,
for the purpose of forming docks for the recep-
tion of the West India trade only, either alone,
or in conjunction with the other improvements
projected by the corporation. The general con-
viction of the necessity of some measure of this

Fig. 2. kind was not sufficient to produce a union of interests in favor of either of the proposed plans. At length the committee of the house of commons made a report, recommending the formation of wet-docks as the only remedy for the evils of the port, and that they should be made both at Wapping and the Isle of Dogs, but that the latter should be adopted first. The corpo

We also give below a diagram of swinging ration and the West India merchants of London gates, which open in the middle, and lie flat, one forming a junction, the act for making the West part against each wharf or side wall of the pasIndia docks passed in July, 1799. In the next sage, leading into the dock or basin. This kind session, on the 30th June, 1800, an act was

of gate is made with sound timber, and good passed for forming the docks at Wapping, which iron, of great strength, and the gudgeons on was followed by other acts for making docks at which the hinges turn, must be well secured in Blackwall for the East India trade.

the abutments. The bottom of the passage, and The first stone of these last docks was laid of the gates, must be also perfectly plane and in March 1805, and the first ship entered them parallel, to prevent leakage, and give facility to in August, 1806. The dimensions of the dock their opening and shutting. This is usually for unloading, inwards, are 1410 feet in length, aided by rollers fixed in a groove, and turned by and 560 feet in width, containing about eighteen

means of a small capstern on each pier. At top acres and one-eighth : the dock for loading out

is often placed a foot bridge with railing. wards, which was a part of Mr. Perry's dock, is 780 feet in length, and 520 feet in width, con- lligh Water taining nine acres and one-fourth. The extent of the entrance basin, which connects them with the river, is two acres and three-fourths; the length of the entrance lock 210 feet; the width of the gates forty-eight feet in the clear,

In docking a ship formerly, if her keel required and the depth of water at ordinary spring-tides inspection or repair, it was found necessary to twenty-four feet. The great West India dock lift up her whole immense weight off the blocks; is 420 yards in length, and 230 yards in width, but about twenty years ago, Mr. Seppings concovering an area of twenty acres.

A basin of trived a very simple and excellent improvement, three acres nearly connects it with the river. by which twenty men will suspend the largest The warehouses are most noble buildings: the ship in the navy, or, which amounts in practice tobacco warehouse is the most spacious erection

to the same thing, will disengage any one block of the kind in the world; being capable of con

that may be required in the space of two or taining 25,000 hogsheads of that article, and the three minutes, without the necessity of suspending vaults underneath as many pipes of wine. This her. This improvement may be thus exhibited; single building, under one roof, is said to occupy

K upwards of four acres of ground. These docks were opened in February 1805.

The dry docks and slips of his majesty's yards have recently added to their other improvements. that greatest of the whole, the actual


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K is the keel; W the wedge on which the keel war the general magazine of stores and necessaries rests, having its obtuse angle equal to 170°, and for the fleet, whence they were transmitted as ocPP are two inclined planes, having each an casion required to the other yards, the out-ports, acute angle of 5o. The wedge is of iron or and foreign stations. hard wood, having its two sides lined with iron; The great storehouse is a large quadrangular the iuclined planes are of cast iron. A few building surrounding a square, of three stories in smart blows on the two sides of the inclined height, with cellars underneath, for pitch, tar, planes will disengage them, when the middle rosin,&c. Its length is about 210 feet, but the sides part or wedge drops.

vary in width from forty-six to twenty-four feet. Dock-Yards, in the navy, are magazines of Parallel to the west front is the rigging-house naval stores, and timber for ship-building; the and sail-loft, 240 feet, and nearly fifty feet wide, royal dock-yards in England are those at Chat- in which all the rigging is fitted for ships and ham, Deptford, Pembroke, Plymouth, Ports- stowed away. On the eastern side is the pavimouth, Sheerness, and Woolwich. In time of lion, a long range of buildings, in which the peace, ships of war are laid up in these docks, in beds, hammocks, and slop-clothing are kept, and ordinary; those of the first rales mostly at Chat- in which also are the house-carpenters', the joinham, where, and at other yards, they receive, ers', and wheelwrights' shops. This range is from time to time, such repairs as are necessary. about 580 feet long by twenty-six feet wide. Other

Chatham dock-yard consists of a line of wall, buildings are an excellent blacksmith's shop, extending 5500 feet along the right bank of the plumbers', glaziers', and painters' shops, seaMedway, being 400 feet in width at the upper, soning-sheds, store-cabins, saw-pits, mast-house 800 at the lower end, and 1000 feet in the mid- and pond, boat-houses, mould-loft, timberdle. Its superficial area is about ninety acres. births, besides houses and gardens, coach-houses In front it has six building-slips of different and stabling, for the officers. The number of sizes, and four dry-docks. At the southern ex- men employed here, in time of war, was about tremity is the ropery, hemp, and yarn houses, 1500, of whom about one-half were shipwrights. rigging and general storehouses, 1000 feet in There were, besides, in constant employ, eighteen length, by about fifty in breadth; in front of which, or twenty teams, of four horses each. Adjoining and along the wharf, are the anchor racks, nearly to the dock-yard is the victualling-yard, the most 1000 feet long. Next to these are the slips and complete establishment of the kind in the kingdom. docks, with the working sheds and artificers' The principal naval stores kept at Deptford are shops in the rear, an excellent smithery, timber- small cordage, canvas and ship sails, hammocks, births, deal and iron yard, seasoning sheds, &c. beds and hair for beds, slops and marine clothThe commissioner's house and garden are in the ing, and anchors under the weight of about centre, and, on the eastern extremity of the yard, seventy-five cwt. the officers' houses and gardens. The lower Pembroke dock-yard was a small establishor north-east part is occupie! by mast-ponds, ment for the building of vessels undertaken at mast-houses and slips, s’ore boat-houses and the close of the war. It contains an area of sixty slips, ballast-wharf, timber'births, and saw-pits. acres, ascending from the southern shore of

The river Medway cor.stitutes the only wet- Milford Haven, about two miles from the town dock or basin appertaining to this yard; and it of Pembroke. Here are two dry-docks and is sometimes so shallow, and the navigation so twelve building-slips which are built of wood on intricate, that vessels are obliged to take in their a limestone foundation. There have never been stores and provisions at various different points, above 500 hands employed here. a circumstance that often delays them here much Plymouth dock-yard extends along the shores longer than even at Deptford.

of Hamoaze, in a circular sweep of 3500 feet, The saw-mill of Mr. Brunell, lately erected its width about the middle being 1600, and here, is supposed to be equal to the power of at each extremity 1000 feet. Its superficial area fifty saw-pits, and one hundred sawyers; and is is about ninety-six acres. In the front towards capable of supplying the dock-yards of Chatham the harbour are two dry-docks for ships of the and Sheerness with all their straight-sawn tim- first rate, a double dock for seventy-four gun ber. The greatest advantage of the plan is its ships, communicating with Hamoaze, and anapplication of the steam-engine to the manage- other dock for ships of the line, opening into ment and arrangement of the timber, by which the basin, which is 250 feet long by 180 feet the labor and expense of a vast number of wide. There is also a graving dock without horses are saved. See Saw-MILL.

gates, and

canal or camber, similar to In war the dock and rope-yard of Chatham that in Portsmouth yard, for the admission of employed together about 2250 mnen.

vessels bringing stores. This, communicating Deptford yard has a front or wharf wall facing with the boat-pond, cuts the dock-yard nearly the Thames, of about 1700 feet in length, the into two parts. Five jetties project from the enmean breadth of the yard 650 feet, and the sul- trances of the dry-docks into Hamoaze, along perficial area about thirty acres. It has three side of which ships are brought to be undocked. slips for ships of the line, and two for smaller These are situated between the centre and the vessels on the face next the river, with a basin, northern extremity of the harbour line. On the or wet-dock, 260 by 220 feet. Here are also south are three building-slips for the largest class three dry-docks, one of them a double dock, of ships, and two for smaller vessels, the smithery, communicating with the Thames. The proxi- the outer mast-pond and mast-houses, timbermity of Deptford Dock-yard to the capital is a births, and saw-pits. 'Higher up on this end is great corvenience, and it became, during the last an extensive mast-pond and mast-locks, with


plank-houses over them; and above these three many vast piles of timber for the service of the hemp magazines, close to which is the noble yard, a sort of square presents itself to the view, ropery of this establishment, consisting of two and displays in its centre a statue of William III. ranges of buildings, one the laying-house, tie in a Roman habit. On the east side of this other the spinning-house, each being 1200 feet in square is a row of handsome houses appropriated length, and three stories high. No wood has for the residence of the chief officers of the yard, been used in the construction of the rope-house, and on the north and south sides are various excepting the shingles of the roof, to which the offices, store-houses, &c. Proceeding onwards, slates are fastened. All the rest is of iron; so the next impressing object that arrests the attenthat the whole building is considered as fire- tion is the vast building called the anchor-forge, proof.

and, or entering it, both the eye and ear are conThe northern part of the yard, besides the founded by the terrific noise and scenes, which docks and basin, working sheds and artificers' spread throughout this Vulcanic abode. Many shops, contains a quadrangle of elegant stone of the anchors which are here wrought weigh buildings, the longer sides being about 450 feet, from seventy to ninety tons each. and the shorter 300 feet. Within are also two new Approaching nearer the harbour the visitor ranges of magazines, built principally with iron beholds, in time of war, numerous ships upon instead of wood. The upper and northern part the stocks, either building or repairing. The of the yard is occupied by a range of handsome jetty heads, with the basins and docks, are next houses, with good gardens, for the commissioner in order, and, with the shipping in the haven, and principal officers of the yard, the chapel, present a very grand and imposing spectacle, to guard-house, pay-office, stabling for the officers which the extraordinary capaciousness of the new and teams; and a fine reservoir of fresh water. range of docks greatly contributes. These imPlymouth is an excellent refitting yard, and em- mense works are all peculiarly adapted for their ployed, during the war, upwards of 3000 hands respective purposes, and while the ships are unof various descriptions. Here, as at Portsmouth, der repair are kept completely dry; but, in their is an unconnected victualling establishment. immediate vicinity, the depth of water is suffi

In the time of Edward VI. Portsmouth was cient to float the largest vessels in the navy. the only dock-yard that could be considered as a Many other parts of this celebrated arsenal, and national one; indeed it was almost the only particularly the rigging houses, claim the examinaval station in England. All the ships in nation of the curious. The number of workmen the public service, amounting to fifty-three in employed in this dock-yard is very great, but number, lay in this port, with the exception of varies considerably. In time of peace seldom three, two of which lay at Deptford and one at fewer than 2000 are kept at constant work in its Woolwich. The crews belonging to these ves- different departments. Here, as at Plymouth, the sels, including soldiers, marines, and gunners, workmen receive sixpence a day as a commutadid not amount to 8000 men; yet, from such tion for their former perquisite of chips. beginnings has the naval power of England risen The sea-wall of this yard extends from north to a height unparalleled in history. Edward, to south ahout 3800 feet, and has a mean depth sensible of the great consequence of this port tó of about 2000 feet. The area enclosed is about the future glory of his kingdom, augmented its 100 acres. The great basin, ir to which enter fortifications by the addition of two strong castles. four fine dry-docks, is 380 feet in length by 260, But Portsea has the advantage of having both and contains an area of two acres and one-third. the dock-yard and gun-wharf within its precincts. Here are two docks, at the ends, opening into the

The former is entered from the town by a harbour; the whole six being capable of receive lofty gateway, after passing which the first ob- ing vessels of the largest dimensions. Here is also jects that attract attention, are the porter's resi- a camber, with a wharf-wall on each side 660 feet dence, the mast-houses, and a large modern in length, and of sufficient width to admit of guard-house. A little further on stands the pay- transports and merchant-ships bringing stores to office; and beyond it is the royal naval academy, the yard. In the same face of the yard are three which consists of a centre and two wings. This building-slips capable of receiving the largest building is furnished with every requisite ac- ships; a small one for sloops; two building slips commodation for naval instruction, and has an for frigates on the northern face of the yard, and excellent observatory on its summit. The com- a smaller slip for sloops. The range of storemissioner's house next appears, and to it suc- houses on the north-east side, and the riggingceeds an immense range of store-houses, to the house and sail-loft on the south-west side of the right of which is a handsome modern chapel; camber, are inagnificent buildings. The two thence a visitor is generally conducted through hemp-houses and the two sea-store houses occupy the anchor-wharf, where hundreds of anchors of a line of building which extends 800 feet. The every size and description are piled up ready rope-house, tarring-house, and other appendages for immediate service; then to the rope-house, of the ropery, are on the same scale. The two a spacious pile three stories high, fifty-four feet sets of quadrangular store-houses, and the two broad, and 1094 feet long. Here the cables are corresponding buildings, with the intervening formed with immense labor; but of late years timber-births and saw-pits, at the head of the the operation is much facilitated by the use of dry-docks, issuing from the great basin, are also machinery. The operations in this division of all excellent. The smithery is on a large scale, the yard are particularly ingenious and highly and close by is an iron-mill, a copper-mill, and a interesting. Leaving it, and passing various copper refinery, at which is remelted and rolled store-houses, stables, and other buildings, and all the old copper which is taken from ships'

year 1760.

bottoms : here, also, are cast bolts, gudgeons, out some effectual measures for securing the dock-
and various articles of copper used in the navy. yards from similar attempts.
The number of sheets manufactured in one year Portsmouth dock-yard, during the war, em-
of the war amounted to about 300,000, weighing ployed above 4000 workmen, of whom about
above 12,000 tons.

1500 were shipwrights and caulkers; 500 joiners
The Wood Mills are at the head of the north and house-carpenters; the smiths nearly 200; the
dock, at which every article of turnery, rabbit- sawyers 250; the riggers 200; other laborers
ting, &c., is made for the use of the navy. The about 700; and the ropers 350.
principal part of these mills is the machinery Sheerness dock-yard is situated on the island
for making blocks contrived by Mr. Brunell. See of Sheppey, on a point of land composed of sand
our article BLOCK-MACHINERY.

and mud, brought from the sea on the one side Notwithstanding that every precaution that and down the Medway on the other. It comcan be devised is taken, to guard against the de- mands the mouths of both this river and the structive element of fire, three great conflagra- Thames. Till a short time ago this was a very tions have occurred in this dock-yard since the unhealthy and disagreeable place, and as a dock

The first, which appears to have yard totally destitute of convenience or arrangebeen accidental, broke out in the night of the ment. The whole premises of the dook-yard, 3rd of July, 1761, and raged for a long time indeed, divided among wharfs and buildings with dreadful fury. The night had been ex- belonging to the ordnance department, did not tremely tempestuous; and the fire was attributed exceed fifteen acres of ground. It had at this 10 the lightning striking upon the hemp store- period only two small inconvenient docks for house, the windows of which had been left open frigates or small vessels. These inconveniences to air it. By this conflagration many hundred of Sheerness suggested at one time an extensive tons of tar, 500 tons of cordage, 700 sails, and project for a new naval arsenal at Northfleet, but 1050 tons of hemp, were totally consumed. The a committee of engineers and others being apsecond fire occurred on the morning of the 27th pointed to report on the possibility of improving of July, 1770, when the damage done was still this station, among whom were Watt, Huddart, greater; and it was even for some time doubtful and Jessop, their plan was afterwards examined, whether any part of the yard would escape de- and some improvements suggested in it by Mr. struction. From its bursting forth at different Rennie. The first stone of a new establishment places at one time, and various other circum- was laid on the 19th of August, 1814. This plan tances, great suspicions were entertained of its embraced the addition of nineteen acres to the having been occasioned intentionally, but the area of the dock-yard, on the west shore of the officers were unable to discover the offenders. The Medway; the construction of a wet-dock or basin third fire happened on the 7th of December, 520 feet long by 300 feet in width, entered by a 1776, and in this instance was undoubtedly the lock from the Medway; the erection of three dryeffect of design, as the incendiary was traced, docks on the east side of this basin; the enclotried, condemned, and executed, upon inconteso sure of Major's marsh, as a further addition of table proof, afterwards confirined by his own con- ten to twelve acres of area; and the construction fession. The real name of this malefactor was of store and mast houses, mast-ponds, a smithery, John Aitken; but the appellation by which he is governor's, and officers' houses, as at the other commonly known is that of Jack the Painter.' royal yards. The whole area of the new yard is He is supposed to have acted under foreign in- about fifty acres. fluence, and had previously attempted to destroy We come, lastly, to the most ancient of our the docks at Plymouth and Bristol, but failed in dock-yards, that at Woolwich. This occupies a both those attempts, though he excited very con- frontage to the Thames 3300 feet; the breadth siderable alarm. His plans were laid with great extends irregularly from 250 to 750 feet: the sagacity and forethought; and, in order the more whole enclosed area being about thirty-six acres. effectually to ensure their success and avoid sus- It has five slips, which open into the river, three picion, he had invented a very ingenious ma- of which are for ships of the line, one for frigates, chine, which he contrived to lodge among the and one for small vessels. It has likewise three cordage over night, and setting fire to it left it, dry-docks, one double and one single dock; and passed out of the gates in the morning un- all of these are capable of receiving ships of the molested. In the course of the same day the line. fire broke out, as it luckily happened, several Woolwich yard has produoed some of the hours before the incendiary had purposed, for, largest and finest ships in the navy, and is chiefly had it not begun to display itself till after the fall important as a building yard; but of late years of night, the destruction would probably have the increasing shallowness of the river, and the been much greater than it was. The immediate immense accumulation of mud, which is often and effective assistance which was given to check found in a few weeks to block up all the entrances the progress of the flames, and the favorable di- into the docks and slips, has much injured it. In rection of the wind, confined the damage to the the Eighth Report of the Select Committee on rope-house, and a few adjoining store-houses. Finance (1818) it is stated, that the wharf wall The incendiary immediately quitted Portsmouth, at Woolwich, owing to the action of the tide on but was apprenended about two months after- the foundation, is in a falling state, and in danger wards, and, his villany being distinctly traced, he of being swept into the river, it being secured suffered the penalty of the law on the 7th of only in a temporary manner, and requiring to be March, 1777, having previously made all the re- immediately rebuilt in a direction that will preparation to his country in his power, by pointing serve it from similar injury hereafter.' This re

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commendation has been acted upon; but the works The officers of an established dock-yard are, are as yet, we believe, incomplete.

1. The commissioner. 2. The master attendant. The new mast-houses and mast-slip, the new 3. The master shipwright. 4. The clerk of the mast-ponds, and the houses here for stowing check. 5. The store-keeper. 6. The clerk of yards, topmasts, &c., with the locks under them, the survey; to which have recently been added are all excellent. The timber births are also well the subordinate officers of timber-master, and arranged, and the addition lately made to the the master measurer. There are besides several western extremity of the yard will allow the assistants to the master attendant and master stacking and classing of several thousand loads shipwright, foremen, sub-measurers, quartermen, of timber,

and converters, surgeon, chaplain, boatswain, The present situation of the ropery, at a dis- warden, &c. The establishment at Portsmouth, tance from the yard, is very inconvenient: but it which will convey an idea of the others, conis of good dimensions, being 180 fathoms long, sisted, at the close of the war, of and having store room for 2000 tons of hemp 1. The commissioner, having a salary of and 6000 barrels of pitch and tar. The process £1100 a year (all others £1000); three clerks of tarring, or passing the yarns through heated with salaries from £400 to £120. tar, and then drawing them through apertnres 2. Two masters attendant, one at £650, the in an iron plate, is here performed by four other at £500 a year; one clerk to both. horses. The laying of a cable of twenty-two or 3. Master shipwright, £720 a year ; three twenty-three inches is performed by the labor clerks from £300 to £120. of 170 or 180 men, and requires upwards of an 4. Clerk of the check, salary £600; eight hour of the most severe exertion of strength, clerks from £400 to £80. especially on the part of those who are stationed 5. Storekeeper, salary £600 a year; twelve at the cranks. Woolwich dock-yard is pretty clerks from £400 to £80. complete in its work-shops, store-cabins, Offices 6. Clerk of the survey, £500; eight clerks for the clerks, houses and gardens for the com- from £400 to £80. missioner and principal officers. The number 7. Clerk of the rope-yard, £350 ; one clerk. of men employed during the war amounted to 8. Engineer and mechanist, £600 (at Portsabout 1800, of whom nearly 1100 were ship- mouth only), with a draughtsman; one clerk. wrights and artificers. The spinners, knitters, 9. Timber-master, salary £500; seven clerks layers, laborers, &c., in the ropery, were about from £250 to £80. 260. Upwards of twenty teams of horses were 10. Three assistants to the master attendant also employed here daily

at £220 each; one assistant to the timber-master, Henry VIII, first established a royal dock- £200; three assistants to the master shipwright, yard at Woolwich; where it appears that the £400 each. Harry Grace de Dieu, of 1000 tons, was built 11. The master-measurer, £250 a year; ten in 1512. This ship is stated to have been in clerks from £200 to £80. length 128 feet, and in breadth forty-eight feet: 12. Thirty-five foremen, from £250 to £80 she had three flush decks, a forecastle, half-deck, each. quarter-deck, and round-house, and carried 176 13. Sub-measurers, quartermen, and converpieces of ordnance: she had eleven anchors, the ters, from £180 to £160 each. largest of which weighed 4400lbs. M. Dupin, 14. The master mast-maker, sail-maker, hoatwho regarded all our establishments with the eye builder, joiner, house carpenter, bricklayer, both of a man of science and of a jealous rival, smith, rope-maker, rigger, painter (wood-mills, says of our present ship-building: The English metal-mills, mill-wright, at Portsmouth only); ships of war, with all the improvements which with salaries each, from £260 to £200 a year. we have just made known, are superior to French 15. Twenty-two cabin-keepers from £100 to ships of war, 1st. As fabrics that are solid, du- £60 each. rable, and, as preserving their form, nearly un- 16. A surgeon, £500; assistant, £200. changeable; 2d. As military machines, without 17. Chaplain, £500. any weak points, being capable, within the same 18. Boatswain, £250. space, to discharge a mass of fire much more 19. Warden of the gate, £200. considerable; and nevertheless to exercise more Watchmen, warders, and rounders. at ease this accumulated artillery ; 3d. As habit- The total amount of the salaries paid to the able fabrics. They have banished from these above mentioned officers in the year 1817, in ships of war the fantastical mixture of mean and Portsmouth yard alone, was £50,065. 55.- Estihighly finished ornaments, of a species of deco- mates of the Ordinary of the Navy, 1817. ration more suited for dwelling houses, and fit According to the above estimates the expenses only to degrade the austere beauties of naval of the principal of these establishments in 1817, architecture. They have banished all those re- were as follow: finements of bad taste; refinements which always Deptford dock-yard £27,582 00 produced a most miserable effect, which, never- Woolwich ditto

32,440 120 theless, giving to the exterior an air of luxury Chatham ditto

36,883 10 4 and magnificence, encourage naval officers to Sheerness ditto

26,659 60 expend in the interior a still greater degree of Portsmouth ditto

59,969 5 0 luxury; in short, which pervert from its purpose Plymouth ditto

45,299 13 0 a floating fortress,by changing it into a furnished

See Navy. hotel, supported at a great expense to the nation.' DOCKUM, a town of the Netherlands, in tom. i. p. 165.

Friesland, seated at the mouth of a canal which


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