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Linen is dyed of the shades of olive and to the shade required, the quantity of cochineal drake's neck green, by first giving it a. blue is also adjusted in a similar manner; a little soground, then galling and dipping it in a bath of lution of tin is added for some reddish shades
, acetate of iron; afterwards passing it through a snch as peach blossom. It is to be observed, bath of weld, combined with verdigris; and that, though the quantity of cochineal is dimithrough another containing sulphate of copper, nished according to the lightness of the shade finally brightening the color by immersion in a required, the quantity of tartar is not lessened, sulution of soap.
so that the proportion of it, compared with that 246. The green, says M. Berthollet, obtained of the cochineal, is so much the greater, as the by giving a yellow color to a stuff which has color required is lighter. heen previously dyed blue, and afterwards 249. M. Poerner is of opinion, that, to procure washed, presents nothing obscure. The color the colors composed of red and blue, it is advaninclines more or less to yellow, or to blue, ac- tageous to employ the solution of indigo in sulcarding to the tint of blue given, and the strength phuric acid, because a great variety of shades is of the yellow bath. The intensity of the yellow thus more easily obtained, and the process is not is increased by alkalis, by sulphate of lime, by so long or expensive. But the colors thereby ammoniacal salts. It is diminished by acids, obtained are less durable than when the blue vat alum, and solution of tin. The shades vary is employed. He says, however, that they have likewise from the nature of the yellow substance sufficient permanence, if a solution of indigo employed.
be used to which some alkali has been added. These different effects will be obtained with The effects may be easily varied, by giving a the same ingredients in the formation of the preparation to the stuff with different proportions Saxon green, according to the process adopted. of alım and tartar, or with solution of tin; and If the Saxon blue be first dyed, and the yellow by dyeing with different proportions of cochicolor be next given separately, the effects will be neal and solution of indigo. analogous to those just mentioned. But if so- 250. A process for dyeing wool of a purple lution of indigo he mixed with the yellow ingre- color is given by M. Berthollet, as having been dients, the results are not the same, because the communicated to him by Descroizilles. It is sulphuric acid acts in this case on the coloring this :-If it be wool in the fleece which is to be particles, impairing the intensity of the yellow. dyed, one-third of its weight of mordaut is reif a succession of shades be dyed in a bath com- quired; if it be a woven stuff
, only a fifth is neposed of yellow and the solution of indigo, the cessary. A hath is prepared at a temperature last approach more and more to yellow, because which the hand can bear; the mordant is well the particles of indigo become attached to the mixed with it; and the wool or stuff is then imstuff in preference to the yellow ones, which mersed. It is to be properly agitated, and the therefore become predominant in the bath. same degree of heat is to be kept up for to
hours, which may be even increased a little toOf Dyeing Violet Color, &c.
wards the end. It is then lifted out, aired, and 247. Of Dyeing Wool Violet, &c.—From the very well washed. A new bath of pure water at mixture of red and blue are obtained violet, the same heat is prepared; a sufficient quantity purple (columbine), dove-color, pansy, ama- of violet wood is added to it; the stuff is then let ranth, lilac, mallow, and a great many other down, and agitated; and the heat is urged to the shades, determined by the nature of the sub- boiling point, at which it is maintained for a stances, whose red color is combined with a blue quarter of an hour. The stuff is then lifted out, color, of which one becomes more or less predo- aired, and carefully rinsed. The dye is now minant over the other, according to the propor- completed. If a decoction of one pound of logtions of the ingredients, and the other circum- wood has been used for three pounds of wool
, stances of the process. Hellot observes, that and proportionately for the stuffs which require stuff which has been dyed scarlet, takes an une- a smaller dose, a beautiful violet is obtained, to qual color when blue is to be united with it. which a sufficient quantity of Brasil-wood gives The blue is therefore given first, which, even for the shade known by the name of prune de monviolet and purple, ought not to be deeper than sieur. the shade distinguished by the name of sky-blue; 251. The ingenious author from whom we a boiling is given with alum mixed with two-fifths quote the above, thus endeavours to explain the of tartar; the stuff is then dipped in a bath com- process : posed of nearly two-thirds as much cochineal as If we may venture an opinion, without having for scarlet, to which tartar is always added. made direct experiments on a complicated pro248. The circumstance which distinguishes cess, such as that communicated by Descroizilles
, the process for purple from that for violet, is that and which is still employed advantageously in for the former a lighter blue ground is given, and some manufactories with modifications which we a larger proportion of cochineal is empioyed. do not know, we would suggest the following exThese colors are frequently dyed after the red- planation. dening for scarlet, such quantities of cochineal The muriate of soda is decomposed by the and tartar being added as are necessary; the sulphuric acid, and the muriatic acid set at operation is managed in the same way as for liberty dissolves the tin. scarlet. But lilacs, pigeon's necks, &c., are com- A portion of the tin is precipitated by the tarmonly dipped in the boiling, which has served taric acid, whence the deposite is occasioned. for violet, after alum and tartar have been added But a portion which remains in solutio to it: the blue ground baving been proportioned to modify the effect, as we have seen with regard
to cochineal. The oxide of copper, present in M. Decroizilles' process, above related, for dyethis preparation, forms blue with the coloring ing wool, was found to succeed equally well, particles of the indigo ; the oxide of tin with according to his account, in communicating a the same wood gives violet, and red with the violet color to silk. coloring matter of Brasil-wood.
256. Of Dyeing Cotton and Linen Violet, 8c.252. Of Dyeing Silk Violet, &c.—There are the process in most common use for dyeing cotton two kinds of violet colors given to silk, these are, and linen of the violet colors is the following :by the French writers on dyeing, distinguished into The stuffs have first a blue ground communicated the fine and the false. The fine violet may be to them in the indigo vats according to the shade given by dyeing the silk with cochineal, and required; they are then dried. After this they afterwards passing it through the indigo vat. must be galled in the proportion of three ounces The preparation and dyeing of the silk with co- of galls to a pound: they are left for twelve or chineal are the same as for crimson, with the fifteen hours in the gall bath, after which, they omission of tartar and solution of tin, by means are wrung and dried again. They are then of which the color is heightened. The quantity passed through a decoction of logwood, and when of cochineal made use of is always proportioned well soaked are taken out, and two drachms of to the required shade; but the usual proportion alum,and one of dissolved verdigris, for each pound for a fine violet color is two ounces of cochineal of stuff are added to the bath; the skeins are for every pound of silk. When the silk is dyed, then redipped on the sticks, and turned for a full it is washed at the river, twice beetled, dipped in quarter of an hour, when they are taken out to a vat of a strength proportioned to the depth of be aired; after which they are again completely the violet shade, and then washed and dried with immersed in the bath for' a quarter of an hour, precautions similar to those which all colors re- then taken out and wrung. The vat which has quire that are dyed in a vat. If the violet is to been employed is then emptied; half of the dehave greater strength and beauty, it is usual to coction of logwood which had been reserved is pass it through the archil bath, a practice which, poured in; two drachms of alum are added, and though frequently abused, is not to be dispensed the stuff dipped afresh, until it is brought to the with for light shades, which would otherwise be shade required. The decoction of logwood ought too dull.
to be stronger or weaker according to the shade 253. When silk has been dyed with cochineal, required ; this violet stands the action of the air as above directed, a very light shade of blue must tolerably well, but is not so durable as that obbe given it purple. Only the deepest shades tained by madder. are passed through a weak vat. For those which 257. Permanent purple and violet colors may are less so, cold water is had recourse to, into be given to cotton stuffs that have been dyed a which a little of the blue vat is put, because they Turkey-red, by adding to the alum steep a prowould take too much blue in the vat itself, how- portion of sulphate of iron suited to the shade ever weak it may be. The light shades of this required. Cotton also that has been dyed a light color, such as pink, gridelin, and peach-blossom, blue with indigo, may be changed to purple or are made in the same manner, with a diminution violet by passing the stuff through a bath preof the proportion of cochineal.
pared with the aluminous mordant, and dyeing 254. The spurious violets are given to silk in with madder. various ways. The most beautiful, and those
OF DYEING ORANGE. most in use, are prepared with archil. The strength of the archil bath is proportioned to the 258. Of Dyeing Wool Orange.- Orange cocolor wished for: the silk, to which a beetling in lors are produced by the mixture of red and the river has been given on its coming out of the yellow; and, by varying the proportions of the soap, is turned through it round the skein sticks. ingredients, an almost endless variety of shades When the color is thought to be deep enough, may be obtained. a trial is made on a pattern in the vat, to see if Poerner describes a great many varieties which it takes the violet that is wanted. If it is found he obtained by employing weld, saw-wort, to be at the proper pitch, a beetling is given to dyers' broom, and some other yellow substances; the silk at the river, and it is passed through the as also by introducing into the preparation of the vat as for fine violets. Less blue, or less archil, cloth, or into the bath, tartar, alum, sulphate of is given, according as the violet is wished to in- zinc, or sulphate of copper. cline to red or to blue.
Different colors may in like manner be pro255. A violet color may be imparted to silks cured from the madder, which is associated with by immersing them in water impregnated with yellow substances. It is thus that the mordores verdigris, as a substitute for aluming, and then and the cinnamons are dyed; colors commonly giving them a bath of logwood, in which they formed in two baths. The maddering is first assume a blue color; which is converted into a given, preceded by a bath of alum and tartar violet, either by dipping them in a weaker or as for ordinary maddering; and then a bath of stronger solution of alum, or by adding it to the weld is employed. bath ; the alum imparts a red shade to the color- For cinnamon a weaker maddering is given, ing matter of the logwood. This violet possesses and commonly a bath is used which had served but little beauty, or permanence, but if the for the mordore. The proportions are varied alumed silk be immersed in a bath of Brasil- according as the red or the yellow is wished to wood, and next in a bath of archil after washing predominate. Sometimes nut-galls are added, it at the river, a color is obtained possessing a and sometimes the color is deepened by a brownmuch higher degree of beauty and intensity. ing.
Occasionally the sole object is to give a reddish 261. Of Dyeing Cotton and Linen Orange tone to the yellow; the stuff just dyed yellow The usual combinations of scarlet and orange, may, in this case, be passed through a bath of are produced with difficulty. On this head Dr. madder, more or less charged according to the Bancroft remarks, that, as cochineal and the tin intention.
mordant cannot be advantageously employed to Brasil-wood is likewise employed along with dye linen or cotton, it is necessary for these subthe yellow substances, and sometimes it is asso- stances solely to rely on the aluminous mordant, ciated with cochineal and madder.
and to select the red coloring matter from other When, instead of weld or other yellow sub- dye stuffs, especially from madder, with which stances, root of walnut, walnut-peels, or sumach, the yellow of weld, quercitron bark, or fustic. are used, tobacco, snuff, chestnut, musk colors may be combined in such proportions as may be &c., are produced.
sufficient for the requirea color. M. Berthollet 259. Of Dyeing Silk Orange.—Morrones, gives some processes for colors, which he regards cinnamons, an 1 all the intermediate shades are as mixtures of red and yellow, though some of given to silk, hy logwood, Brasil, and fustic: a them may more properly be considered hrowns or bath is prepared by mixing decoctions of these greens. The various shades of morrone are three woods made separately; the proportion given to cotton, by first galling, and then dipping of each is varied according to the shade re- it in a bath of acetate of iron, formed by the quired, but that of fustic ought to prevail; the pyroligneous acid, and afterwards in a bath of weld bath should be of a moderate temperature; and verdigris, after which it is dyed with fustic, and the silk, after being scoured and alumed sometimes with the addition of soda and alum. in the usual manner, is immersed in it. The It is then completely washed, passed through a silk is turned on the skein sticks in the bath, strong madder bath; then dipped in a weak soand when taken out, if the color be uniform, it lution of sulphate of copper; and, lastly, passed is wrung and dipped in a second bath of the through a bath containing soap. three ingredients, the proportions of which are 262. The shades cinnamon and mordore are regulated according to the effect of the first bath, thus given: the stuffs are first dyed with verdiin order to obtain the shade required.
gris and weld, then dipped in a solution of sulFor some colors blue is united to red and phate or acetate of iron, out of which they are yellow, it is thus olives are produced: a blue wrung and dried. After this they are galled, ground is first given, then the yellow dye, and allowing three ounces of galls to each pound of lastly, a slight maddering. Olive may be dyed stuff, again dryed, alumed, and passed through a without using the blue vat, by dipping the silk madder bath. They are then washed and imin a very strong weld bath, after being first mersed in a warm soap lie, through which they alumed; to this a decoction of logwood' is after- are turned till the color is sufficiently bright. wards added, and, when the silk is dipped, a 263. The shades of color usually denominated little solution of alkali is put in, which turns it gray, have already been treated of, and the progreen, and gives the silk the olive color. The cesses for dyeing them need not here be repeated. silk is repeatedly dipped in this bath until it has 264. Several highly respectable writers who acquired the proper shade.
have done great justice to the subject of dyeing 260. For the color termed russet olive, or have connected with their treatises on it a brief rotten olive, fustet and logwood, without alkali, view of the process of calico printing : we should are added to the bath after the welding. If a have followed their example in the present inmore reddish color be wished for, only logwood stance, nad we not considered the subject, in its is added. A kind of reddish olive is also made by present highly improved state, as meriting a disByeing the silk in a bath of fustet, to which more tinct notice, which will be found in another part of or less sulphate of iron and logwood are added, our work. See Printing, CALICO.
ACIDS, their action on colors, 15.
BLUE, how to dye wool, 143. Silk, 154. Cotton ALKALIS, their action on colors, ib.
and linen, 158. ALUM, its use, as a mordant, 20.
BRASIL-WOOD used in dyeing red, 168. For false ALUMINA, acetite of, ib.
CANDLE-LIGHT, effect of on scarlet, 296. AZOTE, found in vegetables, 84.
CARTHAMUS used in dyeing silk, 176.
COCHINEAL used in dyeing reds, 168. lo dyeing B«NCROFT, Dr., his remarks on Berthollet, 77. Ob- scarlet, 185. Bancroft's experiments on, 192.
servations on dyeing Turkey-red, 182. Experi- COLOR, cause of, 9. ments on quercitron, 191-196.
COLORING SUBSTANCES resist the action of the air, 22. BERTHOLLET, his opinion of the action of acids, 16. COTTON, what obtained from, 99. Its nature and BLACK SUBSTANCES used in dyeing, 119. How pro- properties, ib. duced on wool, 121. On silk, 126.
On cotton CRIMSON, false, how dyed, 202. Grain, how pro. and linen, 134.
duced, 175. Dyed by various methods, 198. BLOOD used in dyeing Turkey-red, 182. Its efficacy denied by Thomson, 183,
DESCROIZILLEX, his method of dyeing purple, 250.
DOVE COLOR, how dyed, 247.
PURPLE COLOR, the origin of, 4.
mode of, 3. Progress of, in Britain, 8.
periments on, by Bancroft, 191–196.
EGYPTIANS, their mode of dyeing, 3.
Red, how to dye, on wool, 169. On silk, 173. On
fotton, 178. Adrianople or Turkey, 180, How
dyed at Rouen, 182.
Rose Color, a lively, 177. *
of, how extracted, ib.
SAW-WORT, its use in dyeing orange shades, 258.
Saxon Blue, bow dyed, 166. Green, how dyed, 239.
Use of, in dyeing black, 121. In making ink, 60. Bancroft, 191. Effect of candle light on, 196.
SHELL-FISH producing purple color, 4.
SILK, how freed from its gum, 92—97. How dyed
253, Yellow, 214.
SPIRIT, dyers', 193. Superior and cheaper kind, ib.
TANNIN, what, 66.
TARTAR, an earthy mordant, 22. Its action on alum,
Tin, oxide of, used as a mordant, 27.
TURKEY-RED, method of dyeing, 180.
URE, Dr., bis analytical experiments on the four
principal subjects of dyeing, 84.
URINE, a solvent of indigo, 153.
VAT, indigo, 152.
144. Liable to accidents, 147. Repelled, what,
ib. Two described by Hellot, 153. Method of re-
covering repelled, 148. Method of constructing at
VELVET, method of dyeing at Genoa, 132.
Venus's SUMACH, or fustet, 201.
VERDIGRIS used in dyeing black, 121. In dyeing
VIOLET COLOR, how dyed on wool, 247. On silk,
252. On cotton, 256.
WALNUT-PEELS, their use in dyeing, 227.
paring, 116. Hard, how to soften, 117.
WELD, its use in dyeing yellow, 203.
WoAD.used in dyeing blue, 144.
Wool, its nature, 87. Process of scouring it, 87.
Structure of its filaments, 89. Processes of felting,
and fulling, 90. Operation of fulling, 91.
YELLOW, process for dyeing wool, 203. For dyeing
thod used in the East, 226.
DYER (John), the son of Robert Dyer, Esq. awhile under his master, he became an itinerant
any solicitation of his own, obtained for and their other gods, cerevisia, a kind of malt him from the chancellor, Kirkby on Bane, of liquor, in the skulls of their enemies. The Dysæ £110. In 1757 he published the Fleece, his conveyed those who died a natural death to Hela, greatest poetical work; but a consumptive the goddess of hell, where they were tormented disorder, with which he had long struggled, car- with hunger, thirst, and every kind of evil. ried him off in 1758. Mr. Dyer's character, as DYSART, a royal borough in a parish of the a writer, has been fixed by three poems, Gron- same name, on the north shore of the Frith of gar Hill, The Ruins of Rome, and The Fleece; Forth, three miles east of Kinghorn, and eleven wherein a poetical imagination, perfectly original, north of Edinburgh. Its charter was granted a natural simplicity connected with and often about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and it productive of the true sublime, and the warmest is mentioned, at that time, as one of the principal sentiments of benevolence and virtue, have been trading towns in Fife. Before the middle of the universally observed and admired. These pieces eighteenth century, however, its trade had greatly were published separately in his lifetime; but, declined, and it only began to revive about 1756. after his death, they were collected and published. The church is very ancient, and is said to have in one volume 8vo. in 1761, with a short account been built by the Picts. The harbour is good, of him prefixed.
and the trade considerable; employing about Dyer (Sir James), an eminent English law- thirty-six vessels in the coal and foreign trade. yer, chief judge of the court of common pleas in So early as 1483 salt was manufactured here and the reign of queen Elizabeth. He died in 1581, exported to Holland. The ship-building also and, about twenty years after, was published his employs a considerable number of hands. Dylarge collection of Reports, which have been sari has a weekly market, and fairs in May, highly esteemed for their succinctness and soli- June, August, and November. dity. He also left other writings behind hir DY'SCRASY, n. s. Avokpagia. An unequal relative to his profession.
mixture of elements in the blood or nervous DYNAMICS, from ovvapıs, power, that branch juice; a distemperature, when some humor or of mechanics which has for its object the action quality abounds in the body. of forces on solid hodies, when the result of that In this pituitous dyscrasy of blood, we must vomit action is motion; and in which, since all motion off the pituita, and purge upon intermissions. occupies some portion of time, we introduce
Floyer on the Humours. time into our investigations. See MecuanICS. DYS'ENTERY, n. s. Fr. dysenterie, from
DY'NASTY, n. s. Avvastia. Government; Ovoevtepia. A looseness, wherein very ill husovereignty.
mors flow off by stool, and are also sometimes Some account him fabulous, because he carries up
attended with blood. the Egyptian dynasties before the flood, yea, and long
From an unusual inconstancy of the weather, and before the creation. Hale's Origin of Mankind.
perpetual changes of the wind from east to Fest, proGreece was divided into several dynasties, which our ceed epidemical dysenteries. Arbuthnot on Air, author has enumerated under their respective princes. DYSENTERY, DYSENTERIA; from ovs, difficulty,
Pope. and evtepa, the bowels. The flux. A genus of disI was detained repairing shattered thrones, ease in the class pyrexiæ, and order profluvia of Marrying fools, restoring dynasties,
Cullen's Nosology. It is known by contagious py; Avenging men upon their enemies,
rexia; tenesmus; mucous stools, sometimes mixed And making them repent their own revenge. with blood, the natural fæces being retained or
Byron. voided in small hard scybala, loss of appetite, DYNASTY; from ovvasns, Gr. a sovereign; and nausea. It occurs chiefly in summer and among ancient historians, signifies a race or suc- autumn, and is often occasioned by much moiscession of kings of the same family. Such were ture quickly succeeding intense heat, whereby the dynasties of Egypt. The Egyptians reckon the perspiration is suddenly checked; but the thirty dynasties within the space of 36,525 years ; cause which most usually gives rise to it, is a