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heaviest sunk first, and the lighter afterwards. earth make it 40,000 stadia : which it is thought Thus were the strata formed of which the earth is the number determined by Anaximander. Eraconsists; which, gradually attaining their solidity tosthenes, who lived about A. A.C. 200, was and hardness, have ever since continued distinct. the next who undertook this business : wbich, as The Doctor farther observes, that these sediments Cleomedes relates, he performed by taking the were at first all parallel and concentrical; and sun's zenith distances, and measuring the distance the surface of the earth formed of them perfectly between two places under the same merilian; by smooth and regular; but that, in course of time, which he deduced for the whole circuit about divers changes happening, from earthquakes, 250,000 stadia, which Pliny states at 31,500 volcanoes, &c., the order and regularity of the Roman miles, reckoning each at 1000 paces. strata were disturbed and broken, and thus was But this measure was accounted false by many the surface of the earth brought to the irregular of the ancient mathematicians, and particularly form in which it is now beheld.

by Hipparchus, who lived 100 years afterwards, The notion of the magnetism of the earth was and who added 25,000 stadia to the circuit of started by Gilbert; and Boyle supposes magnetic Eratosthenes. Possidonius, in the time of effluvia moved from one pole to the other. Vol. Cicero, next measured the earth, viz. by the I. p. 285, 290. Dr. Knight also thinks that altitudes of a star, and measuring a part of a the earth may be considered as a great loadstone, meridian; and he concluded the circumference whose magnetical parts are disposed in a very at 240,000 stadia, according to Cleomedes, but strong irregular manner; and that the south pole only at 180,000 according to Strabo. Ptolemy, of the earth is analogous to the north pole in in his Geography, says that Marinus. a celebrated magnets, that is, the pole by which the magne- geographer, attempted something of the same tical stream enters. See Magnet. He observes kind; and, in lib. i. cap. 3, he mentions, that that all the phenomena attending the direction of he himself had tried to perform the business in a the needle, in different parts of the earth, in a way different from any other before him, which was great measure correspond with what happens to by means of places under different meridians ; the needle, when placed upon a large terrella; but he does not say how much he made the if we make allowances for the different disposi- number, for he still made use of the 180,000 tions of the magnetical parts, with respect to each which had been found out before him. Snell, other, and consider the south pole of the earth professor of mathematics at Leyden, relates, from as a north pole with regard to magnetism. The the Arabian geographer Abulfeda, who lived earth might become magnetical by the iron ores about A.D. 1300, that about A. D. 800 Al Maiit contains, for all iron ores are capable of mag- mon, an Arabian king, having collected together netism. The globe might, notwithstanding, have some skilful mathematicians, commanded them remained unmagnetical, unless some cause had to find out the circumference of the earth. Acexisted capable of making that repellent matter cordingly they chose the fields of Mesopotamia, producing magnetism move in a stream through where they measured under the same meridian the earth. Now, the doctor thinks that such a from north to south, till the pole was depressed cause does exist; for, if the earth revolves round one degree lower ; which measure they found the sun in an ellipsis, and the south pole of the equal to fitty-six miles, or fifty-six and a half; earth is directed towards the sun, at the time of so that, according to them, the circuit of the its descent towards it, a stream of repellent mat- earth is 20,160 or 20,340 miles. It was long ter will thence be made to enter at the south after this before any more attempts were made. pole, and issue out at the north. And he sug- At length, however, the same professor Snell, gests, that the earth's being in its perihelion in about A. D. 1620, with great skill and labor, by winter may be one reason why magnetism is measuring large distances between two parallels

, stronger in this season than in summer. This found one degree equal to 28,500 perches, each cause for the earth's magnetism must continue, of which is twelve Rhinland feet, amounting to and perhajıs improve it from year to year. Hence, nineteen Dutch miles, and so the whole perithe doctor thinks it probable, that the earth's phery 6840 miles; a mile being, according to magnetism has been improving ever since the him, 1500 perches, or 18,000 Rhinland feet. creation, and that this may be one reason why See his Eratosthenes Batavus. The next who the use of the compass was not discovered sooner. undertook this measurement was Norwood, who, See Dr. Knight's Åttempt to Demonstrate, that all in 1635, by measuring the distance from London the phenomena in nature may be explained by to York with a chain, and taking the sun's me Attraction and Repulsion, prop. 87.

ridian altitude, June 11th, O.S., with a sextam The magnitude of the earth has been variously of about five feet radius, found a degree condetermined by different authors, both ancient and tained 367,200 feet, or sixty-nine miles and a modern. The usual way has been to measure half and fourteen poles; and thence the circumthe length of one degree of the meridian, and ference of a great circle of the earth is a little multiply it by 360 for the whole circumference. more than 25,036 miles, and the diameter a little See DEGREE. Diogenes Laertius informs us more than 7966 miles. See the particulars in that Anaximander, who lived about A.A.C. 550, his Seaman's Practice. Professor Snell's meawas the first who gave an account of the circum- surement, though very ingenious, and much more ference of the sea and land ; and it seems his accurate than any of the ancients, being still measure was used by the succeeding mathema- thought liable to small errors, the business was ticians till the time of Eratosthenes. Aristotle renewed, after Snell's manner, by Picard and (lib. 2. De Calo) says, the mathematicians who other French mathematicians, by the king's comhave attempled to measure the circuit of the mand, using a quadrant of 34 French feet to


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dius; by which they found a degree contained Earth Nuts, or Ground Nuts. See ARA342,360 French feet. See Mesure de la Terre, CHIS and GROUND NUTS. par Picard. M. Cassini, jun. in 1700, renewed Earth Nuts, or Pig Nuts. See BUNIUM. the business with a quadrant of ten feet radius Earth PUCERONS. See PUCERON. for taking the latitude, and another of 31 feet for An EARTHQUAKE is a sudden and violent contaking the angles of the triangles; and found a cussion of the earth, generally accompanied with degree, from his calculation, containing 57,292 strange noises under ground, or in the air; often toises, or almost sixty-nine and a half English destroying whole cities at once, throwing down miles. The results of many other measurements rocks, altering the course of rivers, and produare upon record; from the mean of all which, cing the most terrible devastations. Though the following dimensions are stated by Dr. Hut- there is hardly any country known, in which ton as near the truth. The circumference shocks of an earthquake have not at some time 25,000 miles; the diameter 7957} miles; the or other been felt, yet there are some much more superficies 198,944,206 square miles; the soli- subject to them than others. Northern countries, dity 263,930,000,000 cubic miles. The seas in general, are less subject to earthquakes than and unknown parts of the earth, by a measure- those situated near the equator, or in the southern ment of the best maps, contain 160,522,026 latitudes; but this does not hold universally. square miles; the inhabited parts 38,922,180; The islands of Japan, which are situated pretty of which Europe contains 4,456,065; Asia, far north, are nevertheless, exceedingly liable to 10,768,823; Africa, 9,654,807; and America, these dreadful convulsions. Islands, in general, 14,110,874.

are also more subject to them than continents; Tacquet draws some curious inferences, in the but neither does this' hold without exceptions. form of paradoxes, from the round figure of the Particular parts of continents, and particular earth: as, 1. That if any part of the surface of islands, are more subject to them than others the earth were quite plane, a man could no more lying in the neighbourhood, and differing little walk upright upon it

, than on the side of a from them in external appearance. Portugal is mountain. 2. That the traveller's head goes a more subject to earthquakes than Spain, and the greater space than his feet ; and a horseman than latter much more than France; Mexico and a footman, as moving in a greater circle. 3. That Peru more than the other countries of America, a vessel, full of water, being raised perpendicu- and Jamaica more than the other Caribbee Jarly, some of the water will be continually islands. Earthquakes are frequent, though not flowing out, yet the vessel still remain full; and, often violent, in Italy; but in Sicily they are on the contrary, if a vessel of water be let per- often terribly destructive. Asia Minor has been pendicularly down, though nothing flow out, yet remarkably subject to them from the remotest it will cease to be fall : consequently, there is antiquity; and the city of Antioch in particular more water contained in the same vessel at the has suffered more from earthquakes than any foot of a mountain than on the top; because the other in that country. The same phenomena surface of the water is compressed into a seg- are said also to occur very frequently in the exment of a smaller sphere below than above. tremities of Asia, even in very high latitudes. Tacquet's Astronomie, lib. i. cap. 2.

Although no natural phenomenon is more Eartus, in chemistry, are such bodies as calculated to impress the human mind with possess the following properties : insoluble in terror, and consequently to be well remembered water or nearly so; at least becoming insoluble and taken notice of, than an earthquake, yet the when combined with carbonic acid : little or no philosophy of them is but lately arrived at any taste or smell; at least, when combined with degree of perfection; and, even at this day, the carbonic acid : fixed, incombustible, and inca- history of earthquakes is incomplete. The depable, while pure, of being altered by the fire; struction occasioned by them engrosses the mind not altered when heated by combustibles : 110t too much to admit of 'philosophical speculations convertible into metals by all the ordinary me- at the time they happen; the same thing prevents thods of reduction, or, when reduced by scientific the attentive consideration of the alterations that refinements, possessing but an evanescent metallic take place in the atmosphere after the earthquake existence.

is over, and which might probably throw some Bodies possessing these qualities were ranked, light on the causes which produced it; and the till lately, among the unreducible elements, and suddenness of its coming on prevents an exact the following nine were classified under this be- attention to those slight appearances in the earth lief. 1. Barytes. 2. Strontites. 8. Lime. 4. Mag- or air which, if carefully observed, might serve nesia. 5. Alumina, or clay. 6. Silica. 7. as warnings to avoid the destruction. From the Glucina. 8. Zirconia. 9. Yttria. To the above observations that have been made, however, the nine earthy substances, Berzelius has added a following phenomena may be deduced, and tenth, which he calls thorina.

reckoned pretty certain. 1. Where there are But the brilliant discovery by Sir H. Davy, in any volcanoes or burning mountains, an earth1808, of the metallic bases of potassa, soda, quake may reasonably be expected more frebarytes, strontites, and lime, subverted the ancient quently than in other countries. 2. If the ideas regarding the earths, and taught us to re- volcano has been long quiet, a violent earthquake gard them as all belonging, by most probable is to be feared, and vice versa. But to this analogies, to the metallic class. See CHEMISTRY there are many exceptions. 3. Earthquakes are and METALS.

generally preceded by long droughts, but they CARTH FLAX. See AMIANTHUS.

do not always come on as soon as the drought EARTH-HOUSE. See ARCHITECTURE, Index. ceases. 4. They are also preceded by electrical


appearances in the air; such are the aurora bo- obliged to continue three days at Pelorus. At realis, falling stars, &c.; but this does not hold length, wearied with the delay, we resolved to universally. 5. A short time before the shock, prosecute our voyage; and, although the sea the sea swells up and makes a great noise; seemed more than usually agitated, yet we venfountains are troubled, and send forth muddy tured forward. The gulf of Charybdis, which water; and the beasts seem frighted, as if sen- we approached, seemed whirled round in such sible of an approaching calamity. 6. The air a manner as to form a vast hollow, verging to 2 at the time of the shock is generally calm and point in the centre. Proceeding onward, and serene; but afterwards commonly becomes oh- turning my eyes to Mount Ætna, I saw it cast scure and cloudy. 7. The shock comes on with forth large volumes of smoke, of mountainous a rumbling noise, sometimes like that of car- size, which entirely covered the island, and lotted riages; sometimes a rushing noise like wind, out even the shores from my view. This, toand sometimes explosions, like the firing of gether with the dreadful noise, and the sulphurcannon, are heard. Sometimes the ground heaves ous stench, which was strongly perceived, filled perpendicularly upwards, and sometimes rolls me with apprehensions that some more dreadful from side to side. Sometimes the shock begins calamity was impending. The sea itself seemed with a perpendicular heave, after which the other to wear a very unusual appearance; those who kind of motion commences. A single shock is have seen a lake in a violent shower of rain, all but of very short duration, the longest scarcely covered over with bubbles, will have some idea lasting a minute; but they frequently succeed of its agitations. My surprise was still increased each other at short intervals for a considerable by the calmness and serenity of the weather; Dot length of time. 8. During the shock, chasms a breeze, not a cloud, which might be supposed are made in the earth; from which sometimes to put all nature thus into motion. I therefore flames, but oftener great quantities of water, are warned my companion that an earthquake was discharged. Flame and smoke are also emitted approaching; and, after some time, making for from places of the earth where no chasms can be the shore with all possible diligence, we landed at perceived. Sometimes these chasms are but Tropæa. But we had scarcely arrived at the Jesuits' small; but, in violent earthquakes, they are college in that city, when our ears were stunned often so large, that whole cities sink down into with a horrid sound, resembling that of an infithem at once. 9. The water of the ocean is nite number of chariots driven fiercely forward, affected even more than the dry land. The sea the wheels rattling, and the thongs cracking. swells up to a prodigious height; much more Soon after this, a most dreadful earthquake enthan we could suppose it raised by mere sued, so that the whole tract upon which we elevation of its bottom by the shock. Sometimes stood seemed to vibrate, as if we were in the it is divided to a considerable depth, and great scale of a balance that continued waving. This quantities of air, flames, and smoke, are dis- motion, however, soon grew more violent; and, charged from it. The same irregular agitations being no longer able to keep my legs, I was happen to the

waters of ponds, lakes, and even thrown prostrate upon the ground. After some rivers. 10. The shock is felt at sea as well as time, finding that I remained unhurt amidst the on land. Ships are affected by a sudden stroke, general concussion, I resolved to venture for as if they had run aground or struck upon á safety, and running as fast as I could, reached rock. 11. The effects of earthquakes are not the shore. I did not search long here, till I confined to one particular district or country, found the boat in which I bad landed, and my but often extend to very distant regions; though companions also. Leaving this seat of desolano earthquake has yet been known extensive tion, we prosecuted our voyage along the coast ; enough to affect the whole globe at one time. In and the next day came to Rochetta, where we those places also where the shock Is not felt on landed, although the earth still continued in via dry land, the irregular agitation of the waters lent agitations. But we were scarcely arrived at above mentioned, is perceived very remarkably. our inn, when we were once more obliged to reAll these positions are verified by the account of turn to our boat; and in about half an hour we those earthquakes which have been particularly saw the greatest part of the town, and the inn described by witnesses of the best character. in which we had set up, dashed to the ground,

A terrible earthquake happened at Calabria in and burying all its inhabitants beneath its ruins. 1638, which affords an exception to the second Proceeding onward in our little vessel, we at general position above laid down. In Italy there length landed at Lopizium, a castle midway behad been an eruption of Mount Vesuvius five tween Tropæa and Euphemia, the city to which years before ; and in Sicily there had been an we were bound. Here, wherever I turned my eruption of Ætna only two years before this eyes, nothing but scenes of ruin and horror apearthquake The event, however, plainly showed peared ; towns and castles levelled to the ground; that the cause of the earthquake, whatever it Stromboli, though at sixty miles distance, belchwas, had a connexion not only with Mounting forth fames in an unusual manner, and with Ætna, which lies in the neighbourhood, but also a noise which I could distinctly hear. But my with the volcano of Stromboli, which is sixty attention was quickly turned from more remote miles distant. “On the 24th of March,' says to contiguous danger. The rumbling sound o. Kircher, 'we launched, in a small boat, from the an approaching earthquake, which by this time harbour of Messina, in Sicily, and arrived the we were grown acquainted with, alarmed us for same day at the promontory of Pelorus. Our the consequences. It every moment seemed to destination was for the city of Euphemia, in Ca- grow louder, and to approach more near. The labria; but, on account of the weather, we were place on which we stood began to shake most dreadfully; so that, being unable to stand, my the greater the shock; and that the cause thereof coinpanions and I caught hold of whatever shrub lay among them. Most of the rivers were stopgrew next us, and supported ourselves in that ped up for twenty-four hours, by the falling of manner. After some time, the violent paroxysm the mountains; till, swelling up, they formed ceasing, we again stood up, in order to prose- new channels, tearing up, in their passage, trees, cute our voyage to Euphemia, which lay within &c. After the great shock, those people who sight. In the mean time, while we were pre- escaped got on board ships in the harbour, where paring for this purpose, I turned my eyes to many continued above two months: the shocks wards the city, but could see only a frightfully all that time being so violent, and coming so dark cloud, that seemed to rest upon the place. thick, sometimes two or three in an hour, acThis the more surprised us, as the weather was companied with frighful noises, like a rushing so very serene. We waited, therefore, till the wind, or a hollow rumbling thunder, with brimcloud was passed : then turning to look for the stone blasts, that they durst not come ashore. city, it was totally sunk, and nothing but a dis- The consequence of the earthquake was a general mal and putrid lake was to be seen where it sickness, from the noisome vapors belched stood.'

forth, which swept away above 3000 people. In the year 1692 an earthquake happened in In 1693 an earthquake happened in Sicily, Jamaica, attended with almost all the terrible which may justly be accounted one of the most phenomena above stated. In two minutes it terrible of which we have any account. It shook destroyed the town of Port Royal, and sunk the the whole island, and even Naples and Malta houses in a gulf of forty fathoms deep. It was at- shared in the shock. It was impossible for any tended with a hollow rumbling noise, like that of body in this country to keep on their leys on the thunder : the streets rose like the waves of the dancing earth; nay, those that lay on the ground sea, first lifting up the houses, and then imme- were tossed from side to side, as on a rolling bildiately throwing them down into deep pits. All low: high walls leaped from their foundations the wells discharged their waters with the most several paces, &c. The mischief it did is amazviolent agitation. The sea burst over its bounds, ing; almost all the buildings in the countries and deluged all that stood in its way. The were thrown down; fifty-four cities and towns, fissures of the earth were in some places so great, besides an incredible number of villages, were that one of the streets appeared iwice as broad either destroyed or greatly damaged. Catania, as formerly. In many places it opened and one of the most famous, ancient, and Aourishing closed again, and continued this agitation for cities in the kingdom, had the greatest share in some time. Of these openings great numbers the tragedy. Anthony Serrovita, being on his might be seen at one time. In some the people way thither, at the distance of a few miles, obwere swallowed up at once; in others, the earth served a black cloud, like night, hovering over caught them by the middle, and crushed them the city, when there arose from the mouth of to death, while others, more fortunate, were Mont Gibello great spires of fame, which spread swallowed up in one chasm, and thrown out all around. The sea all of a sudden began to alive from another. Other chasms were large roar and rise in billows; and there was a blow enough to swallow up whole streets; and others, as if all the artillery in the world had been at still more formidable, spouted up immense quan- once discharged. The birds flew about, the cattities of water, drowning such as the earthquake tle ran crying, and the horses stopped short, had spared. The whole was attended with trembling; so that he and his companions were stenches and offensive smells, the noise of falling forced to alight. They were no sooner off, but mountains at a distance, &c.; and the sky sud- they were lifted from the ground above two denly turned dull and reddish, like a glowing palms; when looking towards Catania, he with oven. Yet, greatly as Port Royal suffered, more amazement saw nothing but a thick cloud of dust houses were left standing in it, than on the whole in the air. Of that magnificent city, there was island besides. Scarcely a planting-house, or not the least footstep to be seen. S. Bonajutus sugar-house, was left standing in all Jamaica. assures us, that of 18,900 inhabitants, 18,000 A great part of them were swallowed up, houses, perished therein. people, trees, and all in one gap: in lieu of which, The great earthquake, however, which hapafterwards appeared great pools of water; which, pened on the 1st of November, 1755, at Lisbon, when dried up, left nothing but sand, without affords the clearest example of all the phenoany mark that ever tree or plant had grown there- mena above mentioned, having been felt violently on. Although the shock was so violent, that in many places both on land and at sea, and exseveral houses were thrown some yards out of tended its effects to the waters in many other their places, yet they continued standing. A Mr. places where the shocks were not perceived. At Hopkins had his plantation removed half a mile Lisbon, in Portugal, its effects were most severe. from the place where it stood, withont any con- In 1750 there had been a sensible trembling of siderable alteration. All the wells in the island, the earth felt in this city : for four years afteras well as those of Port Royal, from one fathom wards there had been an excessive drought: into six or seven deep, threw their water out at the somuch that some springs, formerly very plentilop with great violence. Above twelve miles ful of water, were dried, and totally lost. The from the sea the earth gaped and spouted out, predominant winds were north and north-east, with a prodigious force, vast quantities of water accompanied with various, though very small, into the air: yet the greatest violences were tremors of the earth. The year 1755 proved among the mountains and rocks; and it is a very wet and rainy; the summer cooler than general opinion, that the nearer the mountains usual; and for forty days before the earthquake VOL. VII.

2 T

the weather was clear, but not remarkably so. and afterwards continued to issue in a greater or Toe 31st of October the sun was obscured, with a less degree. Just as the subterraneous rumblings remarkable gloominess in the atmosphere. On were heard, the smoke burst forth at the Fojo; the 1st of November, early in the morning, a and the quantity of smoke was always proporthick fog arose, wbich was soon dissipated by the tioned to the noise. On visiting the place from heat of the sun: no wind was stirring, the sea whence the smoke was seen to arise, to signs of was calm, and the weather was as warm as in fire could be perceived near it. At Oporto, near June or July in Britain. And thirty-five midutes the mouth of the river Douro, the earthquake after nine, without the least warning, except a began about forty minutes past nine. The sky rumbling noise, like the artificial thunder in our was very serene, when a dreadful hollow noise, theatres, a most dreadful earthquake shook, by like thunder, or the rattling of coaches at a disquick but short vibrations, the foundations of all tance, was heard ; and almost at the same inthe city, so that many buildings instantly fell. stant the earth began to shake. In the space of Then, with a pause scarcely perceptible, the nature a minute or two the river rose and fell'five or of the motions was changed, and the houses were six feet, and continned to do so for four hours. tossed from side to side, with a motion like that It ran up at first with so much violence, that it of a waggon violently driven over rough stones. broke a ship's hawser. In some parts the river This second shock laid almost the whole city in opened, and seemed to discharge vast quantities ruins, with a prodigious slaughter of the people. of air: and the agitation in the sea was so great The earthquake lasted in all about six minutes. about a league beyond the bar, that air was supAt the moment of its beginning, some persons posed to have been discharged there also. St. on the river, nearly a mile from the city, heard Ule's, a sea-port town about twenty miles south their boat make a noise as if it had run aground, of Lisbon, was entirely swallowed up by the rethough they were then in deep water; and at the peated shocks and the vast surf of the sea. same time they saw the houses falling on both Huge pieces of rock were detached at the same sides of the river. The bed of the river Tagus time from the promontory at the west end of the was in many places raised to its surface. Ships town, which consists of a chain of mountains, were driven from their anchors, and jostled to- containing fine jasper of different colors. The gether with great violence; nor did their masters same earthquake was felt over all Spain, except kuow whether they were afloat or aground. A in Catalonia, Arragon, and Valencia. At Ayalarge new quay sunk to an unfathomable depth, monte (near where the Guadiana falls into the with several hundreds of people upon it; nor Bay of Cadiz), a little before ten o'clock, on the was one of the dead bodies ever found. The bar 1st November, the earthquake was felt; having was at first seen dry from shore to shore; but been immediately preceded by a hollow rushing suddenly the sea came rolling in like a moun- noise. Here the shocks continued for fourteen tain; and about Belem Castle the water rose or fifteen minutes, damaged almost all the buildfifty feet almost in an instant. About noon there ings, throwing down some, and leaving others was another shock, when the walls of several irreparably shattered. In little more than half houses that yet remained opened from top to an hour after, the sea and river, with all the canals, bottom more than a quarter of a yard, and after- overflowed their banks with great violence, laying wards closed again so exactly, that scarce any under water all the coasts of the islands adjacent mark of the injury was left.

to the city, and flowing into the streets. The At Colares, about twenty-nine miles from Lis- water came on in vast black mountains, white bon, and two miles from the sea, on the 31st with foam at the top, and demolished more than October the weather was clear, and uncommonly one-half of a tower at the bar, named De Canala. warm for the season. About four o'clock P.M. In the adjacent strands every thing was irrecoverthere arose a fog from the sea, which overspread ably lost; for all that was overtlowed sunk, and the the valleys, a thing very unusual at that season. beach became a sea, without the least resemblance Soon after, the wind changing to the east, the of what it was before. Many persons perished, fog returned to the sea, collecting itself, and be- for, though they went aboard some vessels, yet coming exceedingly thick. As the fog retired, the part of these foundered ; and others being forced sea rose with a prodigious roaring. On the 1st out to sea, the unhappy passengers were so terNovember the day broke with a serene sky, the rified, that they threw themselves overboard. wind continuing at east; but about nine o'clock The day was serene, and not a breath of wind the sun began to grow dim; and about half an stirring. At Cadiz, some minutes after 9 A.M. hour after was heard a rumbling noise like that the earthquake began, and lasted about five miof chariots, which increased to such a degree, nutes. The water of the cisterns under ground that it became equal to the explosions of the rushed backwards and forwards, so that a great largest cannon. Immediately a shock of an froth arose. At ten minutes after eleren, a wave earthquake was felt, which was quickly succeeded was seen coming from the sea, at eight miles disby a second and third ; and at the same time tance, at least sixty feet higher than usual. It several light flames of fire issued from the moun- dashed against the west part of the town, which tains, resembling the kindling of charcoal. In is very rocky. Though these rocks broke a good these three shocks the walls of the buildings deal of its force, it at last came upon the city moved from east to west. In another situation, walls, beat in the breast work, and carried pieces from whence the sea coast could be discovered, of the building, of eight or ten tons weight, to there issued from one of the hills called Fojo, a the distance of forty or fifty yards. When the great quantity of smoke, very thick, but not very wave was gone, some parts that are deep at low black.' This increased with the fourth shock, water were left quite dry, for the water returned


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