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with the same violence with which it came. At them great quantities of fish. At Tangier th: half an hour after eleven came a second wave, earthquake began at 10 A.M. and lasted ten or and after that four other remarkable ones; the iwelve minutes. The sea came up to the walls first at ten minutes before twelve, the second (a thing never heard of before), and went down half an hour before one; the third ten minutes immediately with the same rapidity with which after one; and the fourth ten minutes before two. it arose, leaving a great quantity of fish behind Similar waves, but smaller, and gradually lessen- it. These commotions were repeated eighteen ing, continued with uncertain intervals till the times, and lasted till 6 P.M. At Tetuan the evening. At Gibraltar the earthquake was not earthquake began at the same time it did at Tanfelt till after ten. It began with a tremulous gier, but lasted only seven or eight minutes, motion of the earth, which lasted about half a There were three shocks so extremely violent, minute. Then followed a violent shock : after that it was feared the whole city would be dethat a trembling of the earth for five or six se- stroyed. In the city of Funchal, in the island of conds ; then another shock not so violent as the Madeira, a shock of this earthquake was first first, which went off gradually as it began. The perceived at thirty-eight minutes past 9 A.M. whole lasted about two minutes. Some of the It commenced with a rumbling noise in the air, guns on the battery were seen to rise, others to like that of empty carriages passing hastily over sink, the earth having an undulating motion. a stone pavement. The observers felt the floor Most people were seized with giddiness and iminediately after move with a tremulous motion, sickness, and some fell down; others were stu vibrating very quickly. The shock continued pified : and many that were walking or riding more than a minute; during which space the felt no motion in the earth, but were sick. The vibrations, though continual, were weakened and sea rose six feet every fifteen minutes; and then increased in force twice very sensibly. The infell so low, that boats and all the small craft near crease after the first remission of the shock was the shore were left aground, with numbers of the most intense. The noise in the air accomsmall fish. The flux and retlux lasted till next panied the shock during the whole of its conmorning, having decreased gradually from 2 tinuance, and lasted some seconds after the moP.M. At Madrid the earthquake came on at the tion of the earth had ceased ; dying away like same time as at Gibraltar, and lasted about six a peal of distant thunder rolling through the air. minutes. At first every body thought they were At three quarters past ten, the sea, which was seized with a swimming in their heads; and quite calm, it being a fine day and no wind afterwards that the houses were falling. It was stirring, retired suddenly some paces; then rising not felt in coaches, nor by those who walked on with a great swell, without the least noise, and foot, except very slightly'; and no accident hap- as suddenly advancing, overflowed the shore, and pened, except that two lads were killed by the entered the city. It rose fifteen feet perpendifall of a stone cross from the porch of a church. cular above the high water mark, although the At Magala a violent shock was felt, the bells tide, which flows there seven feet, was then at rung in the steeples; the water of a well over- half ebb. The water immediately receded; and flowed, and as suddenly retired. Saint Lucar after having fluctuated four or five times between (at the mouth of the Guadalquivir) was violently high and low water mark, it subsided, and the shocked, and the sea broke in and did much mis- sea remained calm as before. In the northern chief. At Seville (sixteen leagues above) several part of the island the inundation was more viohouses were shaken down; the fainous tower of lent, the sea there retiring above 100 paces at the cathedral, La Giralda, opened in the four first, and suddenly returning, overflowed the sides; and the waters were so violently agitated, shore, forcing open doors, breaking down the that all the vessels in the river were driven walls of several magazines and storehouses, leavashore.
ing great quantities of fish ashore, and in the This earthquake was also felt almost as severely streets of the village of Machico. All this was in Africa as it had been in Europe. Great part the effect of one rising of the sea, for it never of Algiers was destroyed. At Arzilla (a town in afterwards ftowed high enough to reach the highFez), about 10 A.M. the sea suddenly rose with water mark. It continued, however, to fluctuate such impetuosity, that it lifted up a vessel in the here much longer before it subsided than at Funbay, and dropped it with such force on the land, chal ; and in some places farther to the westward, that it was broken to pieces; and a boat was found it was hardly, if at all, perceptible. two musket shot within' land from the sea. At Such were the phenomena with which this reFez and Mequinez, great numbers of houses fell, markable earthquake was attended in those places and multitudes of people were buried in the where it was violent. The effects of it, however, ruins. At Morocco, by the falling of houses, reached to an immense distance; and were permany people lost their lives : and about eight ceived chicfly by the agitations of the waters, leagues from the city the earth opened and or some slight motion of the earth. The utmost swallowed up a village with all the inhabitants, boundaries of this earthquake to the south are who were known by the name of the Sons of unknown; the barbarity of the African nations Besumba, to the number of about 8000 or rendering it impossible to procure any intelli10,000 persons, together with all their cattle, gence from them, except where the effects were &c., and, soon after, the earth closed again in dreadful. On the north, however, we are asthe same manner as before. At Sallee, a great sured, that it reached as far as Norway and deal of damage was done. Near a third part of Sweden. In the former, the waters of several the houses were overthrown; the waters rushed rivers and lakes were violently agitated. In the into the city with great rapidity, and left bebind latter, shocks were felt in several provinces, and all the rivers and lakes were strongly agitated, Cobham in Surry, at Dunstall in Suffolk, in especially in Dalecarlia. The river Dala sud- Oxfordshire, Derbyshire, and near the city of denly overflowed its banks, and as suddenly Durham, at half after ten in the morning, the retired. At the same time a lake three miles like phenomena are recorded to have appeared. distant, which had no communication with it, At Èyam-bridge, in the Peak of Derby, the bubbled up with great violence. At Fahlun, a overseer of the lead mines, sitting in his writing town in Dalecarlia, several strong shocks were room about eleven o'clock, felt a sudden shock, felt.
which raised him from his chair, and shook the Shocks of this great earthquake were felt in plaster from the sides of the room. The roof several places of France : commotions of the was so violently shaken, that he imagined the waters were observed at Angoulesme, Bleville, engine shaft had been falling in. At this time Havre de Grace, &c.; but considerable shocks two miners were employed in carting, or drawing were felt at Bayonne, Bourdeaux, and Lyons. along the drifts of the mines, the ore and other In many places of Germany its effects were also materials to be raised up at the shafts. The very perceptible, and throughout the duchy of drift in which they were working was about 120 Holstein. In Brandenburg, the water of a lake yards deep, and the space froin one end to the called Libsec, ebbed and Aowed six times in other fifty yards or upwards. The miner at the half an hour, with a dreadful noise, the weather end of the drift had just loaded his cart, and was oeing then perfectly calm. The same agitation drawing it along; when he was surprised by a was observed in the waters of the lakes Muplgast shock, which terrified him from his employand Netzo; and at this last place they emited ment, and while he was consulting with his felan intolerable stench. In Holland, the agitations low-workmen what means they should take for were more remarkable. At Alphen on the Rhine, their safety, they were surprised by a second between Leyden and Woerden, in the afternoon shock more violent than the first. Another of November 1st, the waters were agitated to miner who worked about twelve yards below, such a degree, that buoys were broken from their told them that the violence of the second shock chains, large vessels snapped their cables, smaller had been so great, that it caused the rocks to ones were thrown out of the water upon the land, grind upon one another. His account was inand others lying on land were set afloat. At terrupted by a third shock, which, after an inAmsterdam, about 11 A. M., the air being per- terval of four or five minutes, was succeeded fectly calm, the waters were suddenly agitated by a fourth; and, about the same space of time in the canals, so that several boats broke loose; after, by a fifth ; none of which were so violent chandeliers were observed to vibrate in the as the second. They heard, after every shock, churches; but no motion of the earth, or con- a loud rumbling in the bowels of the earth, which cussion of any building was observed. At Ley- continued about half a minute, gradually decreasden also, between half an hour after 10 and ii ing, or seeming to remove to a greater distance. A. M., the waters rose suddenly in the canals, and At White Rock in Glamorganshire, about two made several perceptible undulations. Round hours ebb of the tide, and near three quarters the island of Corsica, the sea was violently agi- after 6 P. M., a vast quantity of water rushed up tated, and most of the rivers of the island over- with a prodigious noise; floated two large vessels, flowed their banks. Throughout the Milanese, the least of them above 200 tons; broke their sbocks were felt; at Turin there was felt a very moorings, drove them across the river, and almost violent one, and in Switzerland many rivers turned overset them. The whole rise and fall of this suddenly muddy without rain. The lake of extraordinary body of water did not last above Neufchatel swelled near two feet above its natural ten minutes, nor was it felt in any other part level for a few hours. An agitation was also of the river, so that it seemed to have gushed perceived in the waters of the lake of Zurich. out of the earth at that very place. At Loch At the island of Antigua, there was such a sea Lomond in Scotland, about half an hour after without the bar as had not been known in the 9 A. M., all of a sudden, without the least gust memory of man; and after it the water at the of wind, the water rose against its banks with wharfs, which used to be six feet deep, was not great rapidity, but immediately subsided, till it two inches. At Barbadoes, about 2 P. M. the sea was as low as any person then present had ever ebbed and flowed in an unusual manner; ran seen it in the greatest summer drought. Instantly over the wharfs and streets into the houses, and it returned towards the shore, and in five minutes tontinued thus ebbing and flowing till ten at rose again as high as before. The agitation conaight.
tinued at the same rate till fifteen minutes after This agitation of waters was perceived in va- 10 A. M. taking five minutes to rise, and as many rious parts of Great Britain. At Barlborough, to subside. From fifteen minutes after ten ull in Derbyshire, between 11 and 12 A. M., in a eleven, the height of every rise came somewhat boat house on the west side of a large body of short of that immediately preceding, taking five water called Pibley dam, was heard a surprising minutes to flow, and as many to ebb, till the and terrible noise; a large swell of water came water was entirely settled. The greatest perpenin a current from the south, and rose two feet on dicular height of this swell was two feet four the sloped dam-head at the north end of the inches. A still more remarkable phenomenon
It then subsided; but returned imme- attending the earthquake in this lake was, that a diately, though with less violence. The water large stone lying at some distance from shore, was thus agitated for three quarters of an hour; but in water so shallow that it could easily growing gradually weaker and weaker every be seen, was forced out of its place in the lake time, till it entirely ceased. At Bushbridge and upon dry land, leaving a deep furrow in the ground all along the way in which it had moved. of reddish ochre. After this it became clear In Loch Ness, about half an hour after nine, a and flowed as pure as before. It still continues, very great agitation was observed in the water. to do so; but the water is in greater quantity, About ten the river Oich, which runs on the and hotter, than before the earthquake. "At Annorth side of Fort Augustus, into the head of the goulesme in France, a subterraneous noise like loch, was observed to swell very much, and run thunder was heard; and presently after the earth upwards from the loch with a pretty high wave, opened, and discharged a torrent of water mixed about two or three feet higher than the ordinary with red sand. Most of the springs in the neighsurface. The motion of the wave was against bourhood sunk in such a manner, that for some the wind, and it proceeded rapidly for about 200 time they were thought to be quite dry. In yards up the river. It then broke on a shallow, Britain no considerable alteration was observed and flowed three or four feet on the banks, after in the earth, except that, near the lead mine in which it returned gently to the loch. It conti- Derbyshire, a cleft was observed about a foot nued'ebbing and flowing in this manner for about deep, six inches wide, and 150 yards in length. an hour.
The shocks of this earthquake were felt most In Ireland the effects of this earthquake were violently at sea. Off St. Lucar, the captain of confined to remarkable agitations of the water, the Nancy frigate felt his ship so violently snaken, similar to those already described.
that he thought she had struck the ground; but, The above are the most striking phenomena on heaving the lead, found he was in a great with which the earthquake of November 1st, 1755, depth of water. Captain Clark from Denia, in was attended on the surface of the earth. Those N. lat. 36° 24', between 9 and 10 A. M., had his which happened below ground cannot be known ship shaken and strained as if she had struck but by the changes observed in springs &c., which upon a rock, so that the seams of the deck were in many places very remarkable. At Colares, opened, and the compass was overturned in the on the afternoon of the 31st of October, the water binnacle. The master of a vessel bound to the of a fountain was greatly decreased : on the morn- American Islands, being in N. lat. 25°, W. long. ing of the 1st of November it ran very muddy; 40°, and writing in his cabin, heard a violent and, after the earthquake, returned to its usual noise, as he supposed, in the steerage; and state both as to quantity and clearness. On the shortly after the ship seemed as if she had been hills, numbers of rocks were split; and there suddenly jerked up and suspended by a rope were several rents in the ground, but none con- fastened to the mast head. Coming on deck, he siderable. In some places where formerly there found a violent current crossi the ship's way to had been no water, springs burst forth, which the leeward. In about a minute, this current continued to run. Some of the largest moun- returned with great impetuosity, and, at a league tains in Portugal were impetuously shaken distant, three craggy-pointed rocks appeared as it were from their foundation; most of them throwing up water of various colors resembling opened at their summits, split and rent in a fire. These phenomena, in two minutes, ended wonderful manner, and huge masses of them in a black cloud, which ascended very heavily, were thrown down into the subjacent valleys. and after it had risen above the horizon, no rocks From the rock Alvidar, near the hill Fojo, a were to be seen. Between 9 and 10 A. M. anokind of parapet was broken off, which was ther ship, forty leagues west of St. Vincent, was thrown up from its foundation into the sea. At so strongly agitated, that the anchors, which Varge, on the river Macaas, during the earth- were lashed, were thrown up. Immediately quake, many springs of water burst forth, some after this, the ship sunk in the water as low as spouted up eighteeu or twenty feet, throwing up the main chains. The lead showed a great depth sand of various colors, which remained on the of water, and the line was tinged of a yellow ground. A mountainous point, seven or eight color and smelt of sulphur. The shock lasted leagues from St. Ube's, cleft asunder, and threw about ten minutes, but they felt smaller ones for off several vast masses of rock. In Barbary a twenty-four hours. Such' were the phenomena
large hill was rent in two; the two halves fell of this very remarkable and destructive earth• different ways, and ouried two large towns. In quake, which extended over a tract of at least
another place, a mountain burst open and a 4,000,000 of square miles. stream issued from it as red as blood. At Tan- The earthquakes, which in 1783 ruined a great gier, all the fountains were dried up, so that part of Italy and Sicily,though much more confined there was no water to be had till night. A re- in their extent, than that of 1755, seem to have markable change was observed in the medicinal been not at all inferior in violence. Sir William waters of Toplitz, a village in Bohemia famous Hamilton thus states their effects, “If on a map of for its baths. These waters were discovered in Italy, and with your compass on the scale of Italian 762 ; from which time the principal spring of miles you measure off twenty-two,' says this writer, them had constantly thrown out hot water and then fixing the central point in the city of Opin the same quantity, and of the same qua- pido, form a circle, the radii of which will be lity. On the morning of the earthquake, be- iwenty-two miles; you will include all the tween 11 and 12 A. M. the principal spring cast towns, villages, &c., that have been utterly forth such a quantity of water, that in half an ruined, the spots where the greatest mortality hour all the baths ran over. About half an hour happened, and where there have been the most before this, the spring had flowed turbid and visible alterations on the face of the earth: then muddy; then, having stopped entirely for a mi- extend your compass on the same scale to nute, it broke forth again with prodigious vio- seventy-two miles, preserving the same centre, lence, driving before it a considerable quantity and form another circle, you will include the whole country that has any mark of having been shocks of the earthquake came with a rumbling affected by the earthquake.' A circumstance was noise from the west, beginning usually with the remarked in which this earthquake differed from horizontal motion, and ending with the vorticose, others, viz. that if two towns were situated at an by which last the greatest part of the buildings equal distance from this centre, one on the hill, the in this province were destroyed. Before a shock other on the plaire or in a bottom, the latter always the clouds seemed to be still and motionless, but, suffered most. From the most authentic accounts immediately after a heavy shower of rain, a shock received by the king of Sicily's secretary of state, quickly followed. During a slock, the peasants it appeared that the part of Calabria which had told him that the horses and oren extended their been most affected by this calamity, was compre- legs wide asunder, that they might not be thrown hended between 38° and 39° of N. lat. ; that the down; and that they gave evident signs of being greatest force of the earthquake had been exerted sensible of its approach. 'I myself,' says he, from the foot of those mountains of the Apennides have observed, that, in those parts which have called Dijo, Sacro, and Caulene, extending west suffered most by earthquakes, the braying of an to the Tyrrhene sea; that the towns, villages and ass, the neighing of a horse, or the cackling of a farm-houses nearest these mountains, situated goose, always drove people out of their barracks, either on the hills or the plain, were totally ruined and was the occasion of many Pater Nosters and by the shock of the 5th of February about noon; Ave Marias being repeated, in expectation of a that even the more distant towns had been greatly shock.' From Monteleone he descended into the damaged by the subsequent shocks of the earth- plain, passing through many towns and villages quakes, and effectually by those of the 7th, 26th, which had been more or less ruined according to and 28th, of February, and that of the 1st of their vicinity to the plain. The town of Mileto March; that from the first shock of the 5th of had not a house left standing. At some distance February, the earth had been in a continual tre- he saw Soriano, and the Dominican convent, a mor; and that the motion of the earth had been heap of ruins. Passing through the ruined town either whirling like a vortex, horizontal, or by of St. Pietro, in his way to Rosarno, he had a pulsations, or by beatings from the bottom up- distant view of Sicily and the summit of Ætna, wards. This variety of motions increased the which then sent forth a considerable smoke. Just apprehensions of the miserable inhabitants, who before his arrival at Rosarno, be passed over a expected every moment that the earth would open swampy plain, in many parts of which he was under their feet, and swallow them up. These shown small hollows in the earth, of the shape of phenomena had heen attended with irregular and an inverted cone. They were covered with sand, furious gusts of wind : and from all these causes, as was the soil near them. · He was informed the face of that part of Calabria comprehended that, during the earthquake of February 5th, a between 38° and 39° was entirely altered. fountain of water, mixed with sand, had been See Calabria. The number of lives lost was driven up from each of these spots to a consiestimated at 32,367; but Sir William Hamilton derable height. Before this appearance, be said, is of opinion, that, including strangers, it could the river was dry; but soon after returned and not be less than 40,000. The fate of the inhabi- overflowed its banks. The same phenomenon tants of Scilla was extremely affecting. On the had been constant with respect to all other rivers first shock of the earthquake, February 5th, they in the plain, during the dreadful shock of the 5th had fled to the sea-shore, where they hoped for of February. In the other parts where this phesafety; but in the vight a furious wave overflowed nomenon had been exhibited, the ground was the land for three miles, sweeping off in its re- always low and rushy. Between this place and turn 2473 of the inhabitants, among whom was Rosarno they passed the river Metauro on a the prince himself, who were at that time either strong timber bridge, 700 palms long. By the on the strand, or in boats near the shore. cracks made in the banks and in the bed of the
Sir William Hamilton landed on the 6th of river by the earthquake, it was quite separated May at Pizzo in Calabria Ultra. This town is in one part; and, the level on which the piers situated on a volcanic tufa, and had been greatly were placed having been variously altered, the damaged by the earthquake of February 5th, but bridge had taken an undulated form, so that the completely ruined by that of the 28th March. rail on each side was curiously scolloped; but, the He was told that the volcano of Stromboli, which separated parts having been joined again, it was is in full view of the town, though distant about then passable. The town of Rosarno, with the duke fifty miles, had smoked less and thrown up a of Monteleone's palace, was entirely ruined; but . smaller quantity of inflamed matter during the the walls remained about six feet high, and were earthquakes, than it bad done for some years be- at that time fitting up as barracks. The only fore; and that slight shocks still continued to be building that remained unhurt at Rosarno was felt
. Sir William had soon a convincing proof the town gaol, in which were three notorious that this last information was true; for, şleeping villains, who would probably have lost their that night in his boat, he was awakened with å lives if they had remained at liberty. From Rosmart shock, which seemed to lift up the bottom sarno Sir William proceeded to Laureana, where of the boat, but was not attended with any sub- he was conducted to the place where two tene terraneous noise. From Pizzo he passed through ments were said to have exchanged situations. a most beautiful country to Monteleone, formerly These were situated in a valley surrounded by interspersed with towns and villages : but at that high grounds: and the surface of the earth time they all lay in ruins. Monteleone had suf- which was removed, had probably been underfured little on the 5th of February, but was mined by rivulets from the mountains, ther greatly damaged on the 28th of March. The plainly discernible on the bare spot, which the
tenements had qnitted. Their course down the ploughing his field in this neighbourhood with a valley was sufficiently rapid to prove that it had pair of oxen, was transported with his field and not been a perfect level. The earthquake, he team clear, from one side of a ravine to the other, supposes, had opened some depositories of rain and that neither he nor his oxen were hurt. water, in the clay hills which surround the valley; Having walked over the ruins of Oppido, I dewhich water, mixed with the loose soil, taking scended into the ravine, and examined carefully its course suddenly through the undermined sur- the whole of it. Here I saw indeed the wonderface, lifting it up with the large olive and mul- ful force of the earthquake, which has produced bery trees, and a thatched cottage, floated the exactly the same effects as those described in the whole piece of ground, with all its vegetation, ravine at Terra Nuova, but on a scale infinitely about á mile down the valley, where it then greater. The enormous masses of the plain, destood with most of the trees erect. These two tached from each side of the ravine, lie sometimes tracts were about a mile long and half a mile in confused heaps, forming real mountains, and broad. 'I travelled,' says he afterwards, four having stopped the course of two rivers, one of days in this plain, in the midst of such misery as which is very considerable, great lakes are already cannot be described. The force of the carth- formed; and if not assisted by nature or art, so as quake there was so great, that all the inhabitants to give the rivers their due course, must infallibly of the towns were buried, alive or dead, in the be the cause of a general infection in the neighruins of their houses in an instant. The town of bourhood. Sometimes I met with a detached Polistene was large, but ill situated between two piece of the surface of the plain, of many acres in rivers that were subject to overflow: 2100 out extent, with the large oaks and olive trees, with of 6000, lost their lives here on the fatal 5th of corn or lupins under them, growing as well and February.' At Casal Nuova the princess Gerace in as good order at the bottom of the ravine as Grimaldi, with 4000 of her subjects, perished on their companions, from whence they were sepathe same day by the explosion. Some who had rated, do on their native soil, at least 500 feet been dug alive out of the ruins, told our author, higher, and at the distance of about three quarters that they had felt their houses fairly lifted up of a mile. I met with whole vineyards in the without having the least previous notice. An in- same order in the bottom, that had likewise taken habitant of Casal Nuova was at that moment on the same journey. As the banks of the ravine, a hill overlooking the plain; when, feeling the from whence these pieces came, are now bare shock, and turning round, instead of the town he and perpendicular, I perceived that the upper soil saw only a thick cloud of white dust like smoke, was a reddish earth, and the under one a sandy the natural effect of the crushing of the buildings, white clay, very compact, and like a coft stone. and the mortar flying off. Casal Nuova was so The impulse these huge masses received, either effectually destroyed by this dreadful shock, that from the violent motion of the earth alone, or neither house nor street remained, but all lay in that assisted with the additional one of the volone confused heap of ruins. Castillace, and Mili- canic exhalations set at liberty, seems to have cusco, were both in the same situation. Terra acted with greater force on the lower and more Nuova, situated in the same plain, stood between compact stratum, than on the upper cultivated two rivers, which, with the torrents from the crust: for I constantly observed, where these mountains, nad cut deep and wide chasms in the cultivated lands lay, the under stratum of comsoft sandy clay soil of which it is composed. At pact clay had been driven some hundred yards Terra Nuova the ravine is not less than 500 feet farther, and lay in confused blocks; and, as I deep, and three quarters of a mile broad. “Here, observed, many of these blocks were in a cubifrom the great depth of the ravine, and the vio- cal form. The under soil, having had a greater lent motion of the earth, two huge portions of impulse, and leaving the upper in its flight, the latter, on which a great part of the town stood, naturally accounts for the order in which the which consisted of some hundred honses, had been trecs, vineyards, and vegetation fell, and remain detached into the ravine, and nearly across it, at at present in the bottom of the ravine. In about the distance of half a mile from the place another part of the bottom of the ravine, there is where they formerly stood; and what is very extra- a mountain composed of the same clay soil, and ordinary, many of the inhabitants who had taken which was probably a piece of the plain detached this singular leap in their houses, were neverthe- by an earthquake at some former period : it is less dug out alive, and some unhurt.' Sir Wil- about 250 feet high, and 400 feet diameter at its liam's guide there, who was both a priest and basis. This mountain, as is well attested, has physician, having been buried in the ruins of his travelled down the ravine near four miles; havhouse by the first shock, was immediately blɔwn ing been put in motion by the earthquake of the out of it and delivered by the second. There 5th of February. The abundance of rain which were many well attested instances of the same fell at that time, the great weight of the fresh circumstance having happened in different parts detached pieces of the plain, which I saw heaped of Calabria. Part of the rock on which the city up at the back of it, the nature of the soil, of stood at Oppido was detached, with several which it is composed, and particularly its situhouses, into the ravine: “But that,” says Sir ation on a declivity, account well for this William, “is a trifling circumstance in compari- phenomenon; whereas the reports which came son of the very great tracts of land, with planta- to Naples, of a mountain having leaped four tions of vines and olives, which had been de- miles, had rather the appearance of a miracle. tached from one side of the ravine to the other, I found some single timber trees also, with a though the distance is more than half a mile. It lump of their native soil at their roots, standing is well attested, that a countryman, who was upright in the bottom of the ravine, and which