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kind of pressure to be used in re- with complicity in the outbreak. gard to language, and will ener- He
in a letter to Sir H. Bulgetically oppose any attempt to wer, our Minister at Constantiinake mischief between the dif- nople * :ferent nationalities."
** There can be little doubt but With respect to Croatia and that the late massacres, and all the Sclavonia, he declared :
wars, quarrels, and disturbances “ The Croato-Sclavonic repre- which have agitated the Lebanon sentation will, in accordance to for the last fifteen years, may be orders to be issued by me, meet attributed to the dissatisfaction of and take into consideration the the Turkish Government with the question relative to the relations partial autonomy it (the Lebanon) between Croatia and Sclavonia on enjoyed. Their policy has been the one side and Hungary on the to prove the scheme adopted by other. The wishes and views of the Great Powers in 1845 imposthe Croato-Sclavonian representa sible. With this object, they tion will be taken into considera- stimulated, as occasion served, the tion by me, and my decision made chronic animosity existing between known."
Maronites and Druses. In proThe Hungarians, however, were portion as foreign influences exaltnot satisfied, and they still persist- ed the arrogance and fanaticism of ed in their demands of -1. The the Christians, their independence restoration of the Constitution, became more insufferable to the and the reunion of the Banat and Turks, and a determination was Voivodina with the present king. arrived at to inflict on them, dom of Hungary; 2. T'he coronation through the instrumentality of the of the Emperor at Pesth as King of Druses, a severer means of chastiseHungary; and 3. The nomination ment than they had yet received." by the monarch of a Palatine, who Aud in another despatch he should be one of three persons says :chosen by the nation.
** For some time past the Chris
tian population, already agitated MASSACRE OF CHRIS. by the success of the anti-feudal TIANS IN SYRIA.-Frightful movement, and stimulated to furatrocities were committed this year ther efforts by the intrigues of in Syria, where a vast number of their priesthood, had been long the Maronite Christians were mas- meditating an onslanght on the sacred by the Druses. The animosity Druses, which was eventually to between these religionists was bitter end in the overthrow of Turkish and of long stauding, por is it easy authority in Lebanon. The Turks, to determine with whom the blame perceiving what was intended, and rests of giving the first provoca- afraid probably of using force to. tion which led to the deplorable wards the Christians, determined catastrophe.
to chastise them through the inLord Dufferin, who was, as we strumentality of the Drases." shall afterwards relate, appointed Early in May, a monk was dis. British Commissioner in Syria, covered murdered in a convent, and had peculiar means of ascertaining the truth, does not hesitate
Mee Papets reparting disturbances to charge the Turkrab Goverument in Syria, pre enterit. l'artiment, 1861.
most of them stripped and muti- went on that day through the city lated in every possible way. My and broke open and plundered road led through the town, and their shops ; and all day hundreds through some of the streets my of houses were on fire, and, as far horse could not even pass, for the as I can learn, from 1000 to 2000 bodies were literally piled up. Christians were butchered on that Most of those I examined had day alone, with as little hesitation many wounds, and in each case was or remorse and as much exultathe right hand either entirely or tion as a sportsman shoots partnearly cut off; the poor wretch, in ridges. It is true that great inumdefault of weapons, having in- bers of the Moslems did save the stinctively raised his arm to parry fleeing Christians and concealed the blow aimed at him. I saw them, but the mob of Moslems, little children, of not more than Kurds, Druses, and Arabs killed three or four years old, stretched them wherever they found them, on the ground, and old men with hiding or flying. Then multitudes
hid in cellars, closets, presses, Beyrout itself was threatened wells, &c., and the houses were by the infuriated and victorious burnt over their heads. How Druses, and the presence of an many of them perished God alone English pleasure-yacht in the har. knows. All the Christian quarter, bour, with a single gun, is sup- except scattered houses adjoining posed to have had more effect in the Moslems', is burned, and is a averting the danger than all the heap of ruins. Yesterday, it is troops of the Turkish Pasha, whose said, there was no slaughter, and conduct in fact showed that he to-day there appears to be no fire. connived at the massacres.
“On Monday there were about On the 9th of July, similar out- 18,000 or 20,000 Christian inharages began at Damascus. A mob, bitants in the city, and 7000 or consisting of the lowest order of 8000 poor refugees from other Moslem fanatics, assembled in the places. Between 11,000 and streets, and instead of being dis- 12,000 are collected in the Castle persed by the Turkish troops, of and fed by the Government. Wowhom there were 700 in the town, men and children have been and under the command of Ahmed are, I suppose, still being carried Pasha, they were allowed to in- off by Kurds, Druses, and Mos
crease until they began a general lems at their will. A very large attack upon the houses in the Chris- number of men, women, and chil. tian quarter, aud committed many dren are kept, with more or less murders. The soldiers sent to quell kindness, in Moslem houses; but the disturbance joined the mob, how many thousands have perished and next day the work of destruc- God alone knows."* tion was renewed with greater violence. A letter written on the
* In a letter from Mr. Graham to spot says :
Lord Dufferin, dated July 18, 1860, he " The sun never shone ou a says:-“It is difficult to say how many more awful scene than the Chris- Christians bave been killed in all the
The numbers are tian quarter presented on the 10th. mountain massacres. The mob were plundering not only number of deaths at 4000, others at as
rated very differently ; some rating the the houses of the Christians, but many as 10,000. This last number is a The Consulates of France, Aus- the authorities to avert or arrest tria, Russia, Holland, Belgium so awful a calamity. and Greece were destroyed, and “ The surprise will not be ditheir inmates took refuge in the minished when it is added that house of Abd-el-Kader, who be- this has occurred without any prohaved most nobly on the occasion, vocation, in a time of peace, not by and sheltered about 1500 Chris- an irruption of tribes inimical or tians from the fury of the assail- exasperated against the Christians, ants. For this conduct he after- but by a portion of their fellowwards received the thanks of the citizens, apparently stimulated British Government.
only by a fanatical hatred of the At last, on the 14th, a body of Christians and by the lust of 2000 Turkish troops left Bey plunder. rout to march upon Damascus, “ The Pasha should be called which is distant 70 miles from that on to explain why he was never place, but before their arrival the seen without the walls of his work of devastation and murder Serai ; why the greater part of had ceased.
his troops were kept to defend his In a letter from Mr. Consul Excellency; why no officer of rank Brant to Lord John Russell, ever headed his detachments of dated “ Damascus, July 16," he troops occasionally sent out; why said :
cannon sent to the Christian quar“I dare not attempt to give any ters to clear it of the plunderers details of the destruction by fire were never used; and, during the and pillage of the Christian quarter whole course of the massacre, why of Damascus, a city of itself. the troops fired but few shots, and Europe will be astonished to hear those mostly without effect." that a Christian community has The news of these events exbeen attacked, and possibly a third cited the profoundest sensation in part of the male population mas- Western Europe, and especially sacred, with scarcely an attempt in France, where the Emperor, at resistance on their part, and a obeying the national impulse, at very feeble effort on the part of once determined to send troops to
Syria. But as such a measure, to
prevent misinterpretation as to very great exaggeration, and I should French objects in the East, replace the maximum at 4000 ; for, from quired the concert of the great the best information I have been able to Powers, he applied to them to collect from many sources, I rate the sanction the expedition. The ex. number of killed at Drir-el-Kammar, 1100 to 1200; at Hasbaya and Rasheya, 700; cuse was the apathy or inability at Sidon, 550 : so that in the three great of the Turkish Government to massata from 2250 to 2350 males fell. put down the outbreak and punish Above 200 refugees were cut to pisces of the authors of the massacre, and the 30th and 31st of May, near Beyrout, ani if 1000 more Christians were killed certainly the conduct of the Turkin the villages, I should say that was ish authorities in Syria justified quite the outaide ; so that I should not the interference. be inclined to think that more than 3500 A convention was accordingly have actually perished. but 3500 males; and sint takes a great deal out of a popu agreed upon between Her Mas lation whose whole wealth and prosperity jesty, the Emperors of Austria, depends on its energy."
Russia, and France, the Prince Regent of Prussia, and the Sultan, tion of the occupation of the Euand a protocol was signed at Paris ropean troops in Syria.” on the 3rd of August, whereby it In another protocol, signed the was provided by Art
. I., that same day, the Plenipotentiaries “A body of European troops, declared " in the most formal mauwhich may be increased to 12,000 ver, that the contracting Powers do men, shall be sent to Syria to con- not intend to seek for, and will tribute towards the re-establish- not seek for, in the execution of ment of tranquillity.
their engagements, any territorial “Art. II. His Majesty the Em- advantages, any exclusive influence, peror of the French agrees to fur- or any concession with regard to nish, immediately, the half of this the commerce of their subjects, body of troops. If it should be- such as could not be granted to come necessary to raise its effec- the subjects of all other nations." tive force to the number stipulated General Beaufort d'Hautpoul in the preceding article, the high was appointed to command the Powers would come to an under. French expeditionary force, which standing with the Porte without left Marseilles at the beginning of delay, by the ordinary course of August. Before the troops quitted diplomacy, upon the designation of Paris, the Emperor addressed those among them who would have them, and said, to provide it .
"Soldiers,—You leave for Syria. * Art. 111. The Commander-in. France hails with joy an expediChief of the expedition will on his tion the sole aim of which is to arrival enter into communication cause the rights of justice and with the Commissioner Extraordi- humanity to triumph. You do not nary of the Porte, in order to con- go to make war against any foreign cert all the measures required by Power, but to assist the Sultan in circumstances, and to take up the bringing back the obedience of positions which there may be occa- his subjects, who are blinded by sion to occupy in order to fulfil the the fanaticism of a former cenobject of the present Convention. tury. In that distant land, rich in
" Art. IV. Their Majesties the great reminiscences, fulfil your Queen of the United Kingdom of duty,-show yourselves the worthy Great Britain and Ireland, the children of those who once gloriEmperor of Austria, the Emperorously carried into that country the of the French, His Royal High- banner of Christ. You do not ness the Prince Regent of Prussia, leave in great numbers, but your and His Majesty the Emperor of courage and your prestige will all the Russias, promise to main- supply the deficiency, because, tain sufficient naval forces to con- wherever the French flag is seen tribute towards the success of the to pass, nations know that a great common efforts by the re-establish- cause precedes it, and a great ment of tranquillity on the coast people follows it." of Syria.
In the meantime, the Sultan “Art. V. The high parties, con- had invested Fuad' Pasha, the vinced that such a period will be Minister for Foreign Affairs, with sufficient to attain the object of full powers to proceed to Syria, at pacification which they have in the head of a strong force, to exeview, fix at six months the dura- cute summary justice upon the guilty participators in the outrage. The arrival of the French was He left Constantinople early in viewed, as might be expected, with July, and whatever doubts may the utmost aversion by the Mahohave been entertained as to the metans, but with a general feeling complicity beforehand, of the Turk- of relief and sense of security by ish Government in the attack upon the Christian population, both Euthe Christians, there can be noue ropean and native. By a later as to the zeal and sincerity with convention between the Great which Fuad Pasha accomplished Powers, the stay of the French his mission. At Beyrout he hanged troops was agreed to be prolonged and shot a great number of Mos- until the 5th of June, 1861, to lems, and the following despatch, enable a plan to be formed for the transmitted by him to Constan- organization of a Government of tinople from Damascus, dated the Lebanon, and to secure the Angust 1th, will show the vigour tranquillity of Syria. At the end with which he executed his task. of July, Lord Dufferin was ap
“ Yesterday I arrested 330 per- pointed to act as British Commissons guilty of having taken part in sioner in Syria, in conjunction the massacres. To-day the number with commissioners on the part of of arrests exceeds 400. By the France, Austria, Prussia, and Rusday after tomorrow, at the latest, sia. The object of the commission the principal persons who are se- was to inquire into the origin of riously compromised will have been the disturbances and outbreak-to apprehended.
alleviate the sufferings and losses * Those who are found guilty, of the Christians, and make arand condemned by the extraordi- rangements for the future adminisnary commission I have already tration of Syria, so as to prevent named, will be immediately exé- as far as possible a recurrence of cuted."