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EXTRAOTS FROM THE CORRESPONDENCE RELATING
TO THE CESSION OF SAVOY AND NICE.
(SAVOY AND NICE Papers, No. 2624.) No. 3.-Lord J. Russell to Earl have made to your Lordship. He Cowley.
dwelt on the little value of Savoy, Foreign Office, July 5, 1859. a bare rock, as he said, but which My Lord, I have to state to might avail Piedmout for an attack your Excellency, with reference to on France if Sardinia should bethe report contained in your de come a great Power. I purposely spatch of the 4th instant, of a con. abstained from any discussion of versation which you had had with the value of Savoy. That part of Count Walewski, that Her Ma- the subject may be reserved for jesty's Government have learned future comment. with extreme concern that the
I am, &c. question of annexing Savoy to (Signed) J, RUSSELL. France has been in agitation.
The Emperor's declaration at No. 4.- Earl Cowley to Lord J. Milan that the "enemies" of Russell.-(Received July 9.) the Emperor represented him as making war to aggrandize the
Paris, July 8, 1859. territories of France, gave great
My Lord,- In the course of satisfaction in this country. "But the interview which I had with in Germany it was confidently Count Walewski this afternoon, said that this declaration would not his Excellency said that I might be adhered to.
give your Lordship the assurance If Savoy should be annexed to that the Emperor had abandoned France, it will generally be sup- all idea of annexing Savoy to posed that the left bank of the France. Rhine, and the natural limits,"
I said that Her Majesty's Go. will be the next object; and thus vernment would receive this in. the Emperor will become an object telligence with unmixed satisfacof suspicion to Europe, and kindle tion, and that I rejoiced that the the hostility of which his uncle was Emperor had relinquished a prothe victim.
ject, the success of which would In conforming your language to have been of no real value to Count Walewski to the tenour of France, and would have seriously this despatch, your Excellency will have affected His Majesty's posimake him understand that the ob- tion in the eyes of Europe. servations of Her Majesty's Go
I have, &c. vernment are dictated by the most
(Signed) COWLEY. friendly feelings towards the Emperor,
No. 5.-Lord J. Russell to Earl Count Persigny spoke to me to
Couley. day on the same subject, and I Foreign Office, July 9, 1859. made to him the same remarks I My Lord, I have received your Excellency's despatch of Baroche received him this afteryesterday, stating that Count noon, and in reply to Dr. Kera's Walewski had informed you that inquiry whether there was any you might give me the assurance truth in the above rumour, said, that the Emperor had abandoned “Cette question n'a aucun intérêt, the idea of annexing Savoy to ni actuel ni prochain;" but that France; and I have to instruct should any change occur hereafter, your Excellency to state to Count he thought itonly just that it should Walewski that Her Majesty's Go- only be made after a complete vernment highly appreciate the understanding between France spirit which has prompted His and Switzerland, and with due reImperial Majesty thus distinctly gard to those provisions of the Treato disclaim a project which, while ties of 1815 which stipulated that it would have contributed no real in case of the cession of Savoy to benefit to France, would have France, a portion of it sufficient very materially affected the Em- to insure a good line of defence peror's reputation in Europe. should be at the same time ceded For the Powers of Europe not to Switzerland. only attach considerable import- Dr. Kern said that Switzerland ance to the maintenance of Savoy would of course prefer the status in its present relation towards quo, but that he was glad to hear Sardinia, but they would also what his Excellency said with rehave looked upon any attempt gard to the Treaties of 1815; and to sever that connection for he left M. Baroche apparently sethe augmentation of French ter- tisfied with the assurances he had ritory as a manifest contradiction received, although M. Baroche's of the disinterested policy which expression, "should any change the Emperor has declared in- occur hereafter," was open to anoduced him to engage in the ther interpretation. He appears, present war.
however, subsequently to have been
&c. alarmed by one of his colleagues, (Signed) J. RUSSELL. who repeated to him that he was
sure the cession of Savoy to France No. 13.-Mr. Grey to Lord J. was already determined upon by Russell.-(Received January 10.) Sardinia, in return for which
Paris, January 9, 1860. France was to sanction the an. My Lord, Dr. Kern, the Swiss vexation of the Duchies and RoMinister at this Court, has in- magna to Sardinia, and that M. formed me confidentially that in Baroche, in giving him the assurconsequence of the rumour of the ances quoted above, had spoken in approaching cession of Savoy by ignorance of the real state of affairs. Sardinia to France having lately The question, Dr. Kern repeated been renewed to such an extent, again and again, was so serious and having reached him from so and so materially affected, not many quarters, he had thought it only the independence, but the advisable to seek an interview with very existence of Switzerland, that M. Baroche, and to question his he hoped Her Majesty's GovernExcellency on the subject, which ment would give it their earnest he felt himself justified in doing, consideration in that spirit of as it had repeatedly been men. friendship which Great Britain had tioned in the public prints. M. so often shown towards his country.
with regard to the annexation of No. 17.-Earl Cowley to Lord J. Savoy and the County of Nice to Russell.-(Received January 28.) France.
You will recollect that on the Paris, January 25, 1860.
occasiou of announcing to Parlia. (Extract.)
ment the intelligence of the Pre. It is more than probable that liminaries of Villafranca, I stated your Lordship has been made ac- the satisfaction which I felt in quainted with a rumour prevalent assuring the House of Commons to a certain extent in Paris, that that no cession of Savoy to France there exists a secret Treaty be- was in contemplation, and that, tween France and Sardinia en- had it been otherwise, great alarm tered into before the late war, by would have been felt on the Rhine which the latter binds herself, in and throughout Germany. case her territory should be con- Your Lordship had at this time siderably increased in Italy by the received the solemn assurrance events of the war, to cede Savoy from Count Walewski that the to France.
idea of the annexation of Savoy I bave no reason to believe in and Vice to France had, if once the existence of this Treaty, and entertained, been abandoned. for many reasons am inclined to I do not wish, at present, to do doubt it; still I cannot undertake battle in argument upon the upon myself to affirm that some question. If ever entertained, it sort of engagement or understand. must be considered by all the ing respecting Savoy has not been Great Powers of Europe, and the entered into between the two Go- grounds of such a proposal crirernments.
tically examined. But let this be as it may, it is But I wish you to state to M. my duty to call your Lordship's Thouvenel at once the view which attention to the fact that the ques. we take of this question in contion of the annexation of Savoy to nection with the general interests France is beginning to occupy the of Europe, and the position of public mind very seriously, and I the Emperor of the French. cannot doubt is more or less in the The Emperor cannot fail to contemplation of the French Go- have present to his mind the vernment, should the Duchies, and alarm and anxiety which premore particularly the Romagna, be vailed in Europe during the past annexed to Sardinia.
summer; the arming of Prussia
and the German Powers; the No. 19.-- Lord J. Russell 10 Earl hopes of revolution excited; the Couley.
rumours of alliances, offensive
and defensive, which agitated the Foreign Office, January 28, 1860.
public mind. The Emperor can My Lord, I have received well recall that period; for he and laid before the Queen your stated how much of glory he was Lordship's despatch of yesterday, content to forego, how much of respecting Savoy.
noble aspirations to disappoint, I have no difficulty in giving in order to give satisfaction and you instructions as to the lan. peace to Europe. guage which you should hold, It is to be hoped and desired In speaking to M. Thouvenel, contingencies, however, did not I said that I did not desire to occur when peace was made. The enter into any controversy with Emperor had thought that if the him, nor did I intend that my chances of war had given such a interpellations should bear any large accession of territory to other than a friendly character; Sardinia as would have altered but I really wished to ascertain the relative proportions of the how matters stood—whether there military strength of the two counwas any understanding between tries, he might with justice have the French and Sardinian Go- demanded such territorial convernments, and whether he main- cessions of Sardinia as would tained the declarations of Count have preserved those relative proWalewski.
portions. But so long as the In order that his Excellency sole addition made to Sardinia might know exactly what I asked, was the province of Lombardy, I read to him my despatches of there was no sufficient reason, in the 4th and 8th of July last, to the Emperor's opinion, for asking your Lordship.
of Sardinia the sacrifice of any M. Thouvenel replied, that not part of her ancient territory, and having had as yet an opportunity therefore Count Walewski had of speaking to the Emperor on made the declaration referred to this matter, he could only state by me. his personal opinions, which he The Preliminaries of Villaproceeded to do at great length; franca, and subsequently the but as he promised to take the Treaty of Zurich, left the terriEmperor's orders without loss of torial distribution of Italy, with time, after which he undertook the exception of Lombardy, as it to give me an official answer, and had been before the war. The as he yesterday realised this pro- different States were to form a mise, I need not trouble your Confederation of a purely defenLordship with any details of sive character. The French Gothis first conversation. I will vernment desires no better than merely state that I took care that that this plan should be realised, M. Thouvenel should be under and there will be no motive for no illusion as to the opinions of raising the question of any terri. Her Majesty's Government. torial concessions in regard to
Yesterday, then, the official an. France. swer which I received from M. But the aspect of the whole Thouvenel was to the following matter has completely changed, effect. He read it from a written and Her Majesty's Government paper:
have themselves made proposals It was true that among the which must lead to one of two possible arrangements discussed results. Either the people of between the French and Sardinian the States of Central Italy will Governments, when they found pronounce themselves in favour themselves likely to be engaged of a Central Kingdom, or they side by side in war with Austria, will persist in asking to be an. was the cession to France, under nexed to Sardinia. In the former certain contingencies, of Savoy case the French Government, and the County of Nice. These considering that the solution
would partake of the nature of he believed that the wish of the the arrangements made at Zurich, Savoyards was to be united to will not think it necessary to look France; and that he could not to the more immediate safety of understand why, in the case of the French frontier. But the the Duchies, the wishes of the French Government could not populations were to be attended consent to the formation of a to, and that the same principle kingdom of above ten millions of should not prevail with respect to souls in the South of Europe Savoy. without taking precautions for His Majesty, however, disthe future security of France. claimed all intention of annexing This would be done not in a Savoy against the will of the spirit of conquest or aggrandise- Savoyards themselves, and withment, but simply as a measure of out having consulted the Great necessary precaution.
Powers. But while the French Govern
I have, &c. ment ask for guarantees for the (Signed) COWLEY. safety of France, they have no intention of violating or infringing upon those which Europe No. 32.—Lord J. Russell to Earl has thought necessary to take for
Cowley. her own safety. The annexation, therefore, of Savoy to France Foreign Office, February 13, 1860. would not break the engage
(Extract.) ments entered into for the neutrality of the districts of Chablais I have laid before the Queen and Faucigny: indeed, in the your Excellency's despatch of the opinion of the French Govern. 5th instant in respect to Savoy. ment, it would be well that those M. Thouvenel states, in subdistricts should be united per- stance, that the French Governmanently to Switzerland.
ment have never concealed their opinions that if the territories of
the King of Sardinia greatly in. No. 31.- Earl Couley to Lord creased, the addition of Savoy and J. Russell.-(Received February Nice to France would be required
for the security of the French
Empire; that the Treaty of Zurich Paris, February 10, 14;0.
did not contemplate such an My Lord, -I had an oppor aggrandizement of Sardinia ; tunity of seeing the Emperor and therefore the project of yesterday, and I had the honour annexing Savoy was no longer of having some conversation with entertained. But that, if the His Majesty on the subject of the votes of Central Italy should enannexation of Savoy to France. large the dominions of the King
His Majesty did not deny that, of Sardinia, and place him at the under certain eventualities, and head of 11,000,000 of Italians, on the grounds stated in my de. the security of France would respatch of the 5th instant, he quire the annexation of Savoy might think it right to claim a and Nice to France. proper frontier for France; that I have to state, in reply, that