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although the project of the an- your despatch, and from another nexation of Savoy to France has despatch received on the 11th been sometimes mentioned to instant, that the Emperor would your Excellency, yet it was in consult the Great Powers of contradiction to the language of Europe on this project if serithe proclamations of the Emperor ously entertained, and that it of the French before and during never entered his thoughts to the war in Italy, and that it is constrain either the will of the only very lately this annexation King of Sardinia, or that of the has appeared in the light of a people of Savoy and Nice. probable arrangement.
Further correspondence, thereIt is only of late, therefore, fore, may be reserved for future that it has been thought neces- occasion. sary by Her Majesty's Govern. ment to state their serious objections to the project of transferring No 34.—Sir J. Hudson to Lord Savoy and Nice to France.
J. Russell.-(Received February Her Majesty's Government
16.) cannot conceive that the security
(Extract.) of France, a country so rich, so populous, and so military, pos
Turin, February 10, 1860. sessing 36,000,000 of inhabitants, Such being the case, I conwithout counting her colonies, ceived it my duty to bring under can be endangered by the ex- Count Cavour's consideration, istence, on the other side of the without loss of time, your Lord. Alps, of a State of 1,000,000 of ship's despatch of the 6th inpeople, lately joined by a cement stant, received yesterday by mes. not yet dry, threatened, on the senger Vyner, and I therefore side of Lombardy, by Austria, called upon his Excellency this and not very certain of its own morning, and placed that despatch independence.
in his hands. It is said the danger to France The Count said that he could arises not from Sardinia alone, only repeat to me what he had but from Sardinia as Member of already stated, that Sardinia was a Confederation. But it is not at under no engagement to cede, all evident that a Confederation sell, or exchange Savoy, or any of which Sardinia were a member, other part of her dominions. He with only 5,000,000 of inhabi. was not aware that Savoy had tants, might not be quite as for- anything to complain of : there midable to France as a Confedera- was no political or military pres. tion with which Sardinia would sure applied to her; on the conenter with 11,000,000 of in- trary, she had demanded troops habitants. The danger, if any, to assist in the maintenance of to France would consist not in order at the approaching elections, the small difference in the popu. in order to relieve the National lation of Sardinia, but in the Guard, which had been doing strength, whatever it might be, continued military and police of the other Powers who might duty for the last ten months. have so combined against France. The question, then, is a question
I understand, however, from for Savoy, and not for the rest of
the kingdom. His Excellency endeavoured in all conjunctures did not speak of French pressure, to follow the courses best suited neither did he appear to fear it. to withdraw it from the chances
of the future. The stipulations (ITALIAN PAPERS, Part IV.)
of Zurich, and those of Villa
franca, entirely excluded it. No. 1.-M. Thouvenel to Count Per. Although the possession of Lom.
signy.- (Communicated to Lord bardy fortified Piedmont on the J. Russell by Count Persigny, Alps, we, without any hesitation, March 15.)
silenced our own interest, and,
far from favouring the developParis, March 13, 1860.
ment of a state of things which (Translation.)
might furnish us with legitimate M. Le Comte, -The Emperor, and pressing reasons for demandin his Speech to the Great Bodies ing guarantees, we employed, as of the State, at the opening of the Europe knows, all our influence Legislative Session, made known to realize, in their literal tenour, his opinion in anticipation of a the dispositions of the Treaties re-adjustment of a considerable which reserved the maintenance territory on the other side of the of the territorial limits in the Alps, and announced the inten- centre of Italy. tion of submitting to the wisdom I need not now recur to the and equity of Europe a question circumstances which prevented which is not raised by the ambi- the success of our efforts. The tion of France, but put, as it Government of Her Britannie were, by events themselves. His Majesty was the first to appreMajesty has decided that the ciate the character of them. It moment is come to fulfil this en- will suffice to recall the fact that gagement, and I hasten, in con- the necessity of occupying our formity with his orders, to put selves above all, and in the gene. you in a position to communicate ral interest, with the establishour explanations to the Cabinet ment of a definite state of things of London. Solemn acts, freely in the Peninsula, was alone able subscribed to at the end of a cam- to determine us to seek in dif. paign fortunate for our arms, have ferent combinations from that of established in the most irrefraga- which we had vainly essayed to ble fashion, that we had not for effect the triumph, the means of our object a territorial aggrandize settling the pending questions. ment when the force of circum- A new situation then pressed stances induced us to interfere in on our attention; and without the affairs of Italy. If the Impe- putting ourselves in antagonism rial Government has been able to with the policy which has condiscern, in the cases in which stantly inspired the acts, as well disinterestedness should not en- as the language, of the Emperor, tirely banish prudence, a sitn- we hal nevertheless to consider ation analogous to that which the prejudice which new arrangenow presents itself, it flatters ments in Italy might be capable itself not only that it has not of causing to our own interests. sought to produce this situation, It is impossible to deny that but that it has, on the contrary, the formation of a considerable
State, possessing at once both when the question arose of setslopes of the Alps, is an event of tling eventually the Spanish sucdeep gravity from the point of cession, and later when the quesview of the security of our fron- tion of the Austrian succession tiers. The geographical situation was opened, combinations were of Sardinia acquires an import- discussed which extended the ance which it could not have possessions of Piedmont in Italy when that kingdom comprised and granted her the acquisition scarcely 4,000,000 souls, and either of Lombardy or of other found itself beaten back, as it contiguous territories. In these were, by a mass of Conventions concessions, much less vast as. outside the Peninsula. With a suredly than that of which there development which must almost is now question, the annexation treble her population and her of Savoy and the County of Nice material resources, the possession was always considered by several of all the passes of the Alps of the principal Powers of Europe would permit her, in case of her as a necessary compensation to alliances making her at any time France. Certain that my mean. our adversary, to open to a foreign ing cannot be open to false interarmy the access to our territory, pretations, I experience no emor to disturb, with her forces barassment in citing a precedent alone, the security of an im- of a more recent date. May it portant part of the Empire, by in- not be permitted to seek exam. tercepting our principal line of ples from the history of our age commercial and military commu- also, without evoking irritating nication. To demand guarantees recollections which present geneagainst an eventuality, the peril rations repudiate? I will, then, of which is not lessened by the recall the fact that at a moment remoteness of its occurrence, when Europe was certainly little which we have, doubtless, the disposed to use moderation with right to except, is simply to obey regard to France, she recognized the most legitimate considera- the necessities of our geographitions, as well as the most ordi- cal situation on the side of the nary maxims of international Alps, and unanimously conpolicy, which has at no epoch sidered it just to leave us a portaken gratitude and sentiment as tion of the territory become now the sole basis of the relations of much more indispensable to our States.
security. It was only under the Besides, are these guarantees impression of the events of the calculated to give umbrage to succeeding year that this clause any Power? Are they not, on the was annulled. The Emperor, on contrary, agreeable to the con- his accession to the Throne, ditions of an equal balance of spontaneously declared that he power, and indicated, moreover, took as the rule of his relations by the nature of things, which has with Europe respect for the placed our system of defence at Treaties concluded by the prethe foot of the western slope of ceding Governments, and this is the Alps ?
a principle of conduct to which At various periods of history His Majesty will always impose during two centuries, especially it on himself as a law to remain
DOCUMENTS. 253 faithful. But the exceptional of which will have trebled in the character cannot be ignored of course of a year? In claiming the circumstances which deter- the modification of the Treaties mine us to demand that a modi. on this point, we confine our. fication be introduced into the selves, as it were, to demanding delimitation of the frontier wbich that one of their stipulations was finally traced between France should not acquire, against the and Sardinia. The result of the intention even of the Powers war has been to make, by the ces- which signed them, a graver bearsion of Lombardy to Piedmont, a ing and a more disadvantageous primary change in the territorial interpretation. limits of Italy; the annexation I hasten to add that the Go. of other States to that kingdom vernment of the Emperor has constitutes a new change, the no wish to hold the guarantees consequences of which have a which it demands except with special gravity for us, and it is the free assent of the King of not at variance with the respect Sardinia and of the populaaccorded on every occasion by tions. The cession, therefore, the Government of the Emperor which will be made to it will to existing Treaties to demand remain exempt from all violence that they should not be in reality and from all constraint; it is, bealtered to our detriment.
sides, our firm intention to ar. In a communication which ad- range it, as far as concerns the dresses itself above all to the territories of Savoy subject to good faith of the Cabinets, and eventual neutralization, in such which testifies to that which ani. a way as to injure no acquired mates the Government of the right and to affect no legitimate Emperor, should I hesitate to say interest. that, in restoring Savoy to Pied- In accord with our interests, mont, it was desired to constitute and with the will of the King of that country guardian of the Alps, Sardinia, and not in contradiction in order that it might keep the to the general interests of Europe, passes open into France? Un- the cession of Savoy and the pleasant as this situation was, we County of Nice to France, does loyally 'resigned ourselves to it not, Monsieur, raise any questions during half a century; much fur. incompatible with the best estather, we again accepted it on our blished and most rigorous rules return from a campaign in Italy, of public right. If the character, which might easily have furnished the language, and the habits of us with the opportunity of chang- the populations destined to be ing it: but should we allow that united to France assure us that the conditions which we have this cession is not contrary to scrupulously respected in order their sentiments ; if we think to prevent any disturbance of our that the configuration of the soil international relations should be has entwined their commercial aggravated ? and can Europe, on interests, as well as their political her side, consider it just that, interests, with ours; if, in fine, to the weight with which they we say that the Alps constitute already pressed on us should be the barrier which ought eternally added that of a State the strength to separate Italy from France, the Emperor, there was a nego- But Her Majesty's Government tiation on foot for the cession of would beg to observe that to imaSavoy to France, asserted that if gine that Sardinia, even with a such a scheme had ever been en- population of 12,000,000, would tertained, it had been then en- ever think of invading France tirely abandoned.
with a population of 36,000,000, Her Majesty's Government are is to suppose that which amounts led to infer from M. Thouvenel's to a moral impossibility. Sardespatch, that the hypothetical dinia, so augmented, will become contingency to which he alludes a respectable State, capable of atwas the conquest of Venetia by taining a great degree of internal France, and its transfer to Pied- prosperity, and sufficiently strong mont, and that in such case it to defend herself against any had been contemplated that Savoy other Italian Power ; but that the should be demanded by France; French Empire, the first military but that the Agreement of Villa- Power of the Continent, with a franca and the Treaty of Zurich vast, compact territory, full of having left to Austria the posses- natural resources, and with a sion of Venetia, the idea of a population characteristically warcession of Savoy to France, which like, should be in danger of being it now appears had been enter-attacked by her far weaker neightained, was given up, as stated by bour, is not in the nature of Count Walewski.
things. There are, besides, many M. Thouvenel, however, goes political considerations which go on to say, that combinations in to show that the tendency of SarCentral Italy, different from those dinia must always be towards which the French Government maintaining the most friendly had fruitlessly laboured to bring relations with France. about, compelled the French Go. We may, then, at once dismiss vernment to consider the inquiry the notion that France can require which new arrangements in Italy any other guarantee than her own might carry with them to the inherent strength affords her, interests of France; and he pro- against any attack from Sardinia ceeds to argue, that when Sar- acting alone. dinia, by acquisitions of territory But M. Thouvenel conceives in Central Italy, was about to that Sardinia might be a member increase her population from of a Confederacy arrayed against 4,000,000 to three times that France, and by having both sides amount, it became necessary, for of the Alps she might open the the security of France, that Sa. road for other Powers to make voy should be ceded to her, in an invasion of the territory of order that she might have in her France. own hands the northern slopes Now, on this Her Majesty's of the Alps. The new danger to Government would observe that which M. Thouvenel alleges that there never can be a Confe. France would thus be exposed deracy organized against France would be invasion from Sardinia unless it be for common defence alone, or from Sardinia acting as against aggressions on the part a member of a Confederation of of France, and that, therefore, hostile Powers.
France has it at all times in