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As to the distribution of these 116 happened in daylight, between disasters over the year, 115 OC- 6 A.M. and 6 P.M. curred in January; 139 in Feb- Amid these records of woe and ruary; 136 in March; 126 in April; disaster, it is consolatory to reflect 32 in May ; 27 in June; 34 in that much energy has been shown July; 52 in August; 86 in Sep- in adopting means for saving life. tember; 343 in October; 170 in The number of life-boats estaNovember; 156 in December. blished on our coasts is 158—an

As to the localities of their oc- increase of 9—and these have all currence, 621 were on the east been kept up in a state of efficiency, coast: 136 on the south coast; and have rendered valuable ser466 on the west coast of Eng. vices ; and new stations for miortar land. On the Irish coast, 99 and rocket apparatus have been -a considerable decrease from provided. By the courage and the number in the previous self-devotion of the crews of the year, when there were 168. On life-boats, 291 persons were resthe Scilly Islands, the number cued from certain death ; by the fell from 14 to 3. The number of rocket apparatus and assistance casualties on the north coasts and from shore, 260. By luggers, the northern islands of Scotland coast-guard boats, and small craft, differs very slightly from the num- 1009 persous were rescued; by ber in the previous year: there ships and steam-boats, 766; and were 60 in 1858, and 55 in 1859. by individual exertion, 6. The most fatal of the rocks and To the Report is appended a shoals that beset our coasts are most valuable memorandum of -the Goodwin Sands, 7 wrecks; Rear-Admiral FitzRoy, chief of Hasborough Sands, 14 wrecks; the Meteorological Department, Holme Sands, 12 wrecks; the relative to the gales of October Kentish Knock, 5 wrecks; the and November. This eminent Long Sands, 8 wrecks; Scroby and scientific observer has deduced Sands, 5 wrecks.

from numerous data that the great The geographical distribution storm of October 25-26 was a of these disasters is brought complete horizontal cyclone, which home forcibly by a “ Wreck travelled bodily northward, with an Chart,” which exhibits by distin- area of sweep 300 miles in diaguishing marks every casualty on meter, and that its iufluence affectthe spot where it occurred. The ed only the breadth of our own first feeling of astonishment and island, and the coast of France, terror got over, it will immediately exclusive of the rest of Ireland. occur that by far the greater num. The cyclone travelled northward at ber are attributable to preventible the rate of twenty miles an hour ; causes. This is especially appli- the velocity of the eddy near the cable to the “collisions," which centre (where there was a void or can very rarely take place without lull) near 80 miles an hour. The great carelessness on the part of veering and direction of the rotaat least one of the commanders, tors current was very varying. The but more generally of both. The storm of November 1 was of much total number of collisions was the same character. 349; of these those involving Some phenomena have been retotal loss was 58-partial loss 291. marked, which will serve to guide

an accurate and practised observer Wiltshire, where it operated like as to the point whence the cyclone a tropical tornado. It formed for comes, and so to enable him to itself a path of six miles in length, steer out of it.

with a breadth of from 100 to From these observations, Adm. 150 yards. Within this spaceFitzRoy derives some practical which included a part of Bowood applications of singular interest Park-it levelled every obstacle. and value. First, it seems estab- Large trees were snapped off or lished by observation that, in the uprooted—some were torn up out northern hemisphere, when the of the earth and lodged upon admariner faces the wind, the centre joining trees-one fine elm was of the storm is on his right hand, uprooted and reversed, its limbs in the southern hemisphere it is on being forced into the earth, and the his left. Second, it is not only pos- trunk and roots raised high in air: sible, but perfectly feasible, to give straw and hay-ricks were torn to warning, by means of the electric pieces, and scattered cottages were telegraph, of the prevalence and uproofed and thrown down ; & probable course of a storm, many heavy four-wheeled waggon was hours in advance of its travel. thrown or forced over a high That all storms, if not absolutely hedge. Heavy lumps of ice fell, cyclones, are more or less curvi. which killed in their descent nulinear, and that strong gales are merous birds, hares, and rabbits. the most curved in their progress, The passage of the tornado lasted and much stronger towards the not more than five minutes. Its centre, and weaker as their curves boundaries were sharply defined : increase in diameter; and that

without its limits the trees were storms are comparatirely limited little injured ; in some instances in extent or area. These valuable one-half a cottage thatch and a suggestions have already borne corner of the building were swept fruit, iuasmuch as the state of the away, and the remainder left. In weather at the ports along our Blackland Park, the seat of Mr. coasts and at the large inland Marshall Hall, the force of the towns is daily and systematically tornado was specially exhibited. telegraphed to London.

Hundreds of trees were thrown STORMS AND SHIPWRECKS.—The down-trees eight and ten feet in disastrous year 1860 was ushered circumference were snapped like in by a severe gale, which com- matchwood; others, especially inenced on the 30th December, beavy-topped firs, were blown out and committed great damage. The of the plantation across the road gale was accompanied by thunder, into an adjoining field. Hunlightning, and hnil. In the south- dreds of persons have since visited west the wind blew a hurricane. the scene of devastation. The Sir Henry Pottinger, with a During the gale of the 1st cargo of silver ore, and other valu- January, the Arethusa, of Glasgow, able freight, insured for 40,0001., with a valuable cargo of tobacco, was wrecked in Carmarthen Bay; &c., was wrecked near Wrexford, and an American ship, of 2000 and many other disasters were retons, laden with cotton, near Bar- ported. In the month, 206 vessels mouth. The centre of the storm were wrecked or damaged by colappears to have passed over Calne, lisions on the British coasts; the


number of lives lost, 53 ; but no ing the striking body, was much fewer than 389 persons were res- injured by the sudden arrest of its cued.

vis motûs. The engine, on the Accounts from Gibraltar state collision with the Barking carriage, that a gale of almost unprecedented sprung round and shot across the violence raged there on the 7th and permanent way, where it buried 8th inst., when a great number of itself in the embankment; the merchant vessels were wrecked tender was disconnected and thrown there and along the coast of Spain. across the rails, and the break-carThe Spanish squadron, on the riage was thrown off the rails and coast of Morocco, suffered very hurled to the abutment of the severely. Two war-steamers were bridge, where it was turned up onwrecked, and a fleet of armed to its end and crushed into a second feluccas, gun-boats, driven class carriage. Eleven persons, in ashore; the rest of the squadron, both trains, received injuries more including several steamers, were or less severe; and the driver and driven from their anchors.

guard of the Norwich train were 1. Railway DISASTERS.—A se- much hurt. rious collision, by which many pas- On Friday, the 27th January, sengers were injured and much a number of labourers were emproperty destroyed, occurred late ployed on the works of the London in the evening of the 1st January, and Chatham and Dover line; they near Forest Gate Junction of the were excavating a cutting through Eastern Counties' Railway. The Beaksbourne hill, at a depth of 45 6.30 train left Barking for London feet. The heavy rains had loossomewhat behind its time, and was ened the soil of the banks, and a passing the junction with the main large land-slip took place, which line at the moment when the Nor- overwhelmed three of the men. wich up-train-proceeding in the So large was the mass of fallen same direction - came up. The earth, that the readiest way of engine-driver of the Barking train rescuing the men was thought pushed on, probably hoping to pass to be by sinking a shaft. It was on before the other train, when the not until the following Sunday engine of the latter struck his last night that the workmen found the carriage in a slapting direction, corpses. shivering it to pieces. Most pro- On the 13th February, on the videntially there was not a single Ramsgate line, the lines being passenger in this carriage. The car. partly blocked with snow, a pasriage next preceding it, and which senger train and an engine were was full of passengers, was thrown allowed to meet on the same line. off the rails, dragged some distance Fortunately three only of the pasalong the permanent way, until it sengers received injuries. came in contact with a telegraph On the 18th February, about post, by which it was overturned 1.30 A.M., the mail train from onto an embankment. The coup. Edinburgh to London came into ling was broken by the shock, and collision with a train of empty coal the rest of the train rushed on un. waggons near Wigan. The engine injured, except by the momentary crushed three of the waggons and check. The case was different was then itself forced off the line with the Norwich train, which, be- and fell onto its side. Some of the passenger carriages were da- large practice and a good position, maged; but fortunately there were could afford to keep a large estanot more than half-a-dozen travel- blishment; and in fact it was shown lers and none were materially in that his domestic expenditure was jured. The pointsman's thigh was at the rate of 40001. a-year. In broken, four Post-office guards, and the year 1858 all this splendid a guard of the train, were hurt respectability collapsed and laid somewhat severely. On the same open to view a hideous ruin. Mr. day a passenger train ran off the Hughes suddenly left the country main line through the facing points and fed to Australia, with his wife into a siding near Plymouth, and and family. It was then discovered came into collision with an engine. that this trusted adviser had for Three of the passengers and three many years misappropriated the of the railway servants received funds of his too-confident clients, injuries.

entrusted to him for investment; On the 27th February a passen- and that he had habitually fabriger train, on the Edinburgh and cated securities with the object of Glasgow railway, overtook and allaying suspicion and evading decame into collision with a goods tection. It turned out that his train near Greenhill junction, and liabilities—the bulk of them being seven passengers received injuries tainted with fraud--amounted to from the shock.

no less than 170,0001.; only be4. FRAUDULENT ATTORNEYS.-At tween 40001. and 50001. has since the Central Criminal Court, David been realized for his creditors, and Hughes, 50, described as a solicitor, his assignees have the further comwas placed at the bar to plead to fort of being made parties to seven various indictments; the charge Chancery suits. This atrocious which was proceeded with being peculator was followed to his place that of not surrendering to pro- of refuge, captured, and brought ceedings in bankruptcy, under the back, and was now placed at the bar Bankruptey Act.

to answer for his malpractices. The case of this prisoner was A considerable number of the another instance of those frightful prisoner's victims gave evidence of social crimes which were exempli- the frauds he had committed upon fied in the cases of John Sadleir them. The sums misappropriated and the brothers Hall. David varied greatly in amount ; for the Hughes was a solicitor in very ex. prisoner-at least in the later pe tensive practice, first in the old riod of his career, when he had Jewry, with a partner, and after large defalcations to conceal by mak1851, in Gresham Street, singly. ing prompt payments of necessary He was very extensively and con- sums—laid his hands on all that fidentially employed by wealthy came into his net. The estate of clients ; but, so far at least as ap- a deceased lady was lessened 70001., peared by these proceedings, more the lowest amount named was 2501. as a prudent adviser in the invest. Nor were the victims always of the ment of money-as a scrivener, in confiding and unsuspicious class. short-than in the ordinary course Messrs. Currie, the bankers, were of an attorney's business. He was cheated of 25001., and a London himself, to all appearance, an open Alderman of a considerable sum. and free-hearted man, who, having a The prisoner, after two days' trial, was convicted and awarded and in less than two hours the roof ten years' penal servitude— a sen- fell in, and the whole interior was tence at which he seemed greatly destroyed. The building had no astonished. But this punishment, pretensions to architectural beauty, severe as it is, is certainly not out but was a substantial and commoof proportion to the crime. If the dious pile. The fire was probably heinousness of the offence is to be caused by the over-heating of flues. measured by the amount of misery 10. AWFUL CATASTROPHE IN THE it inflicts on human beings, fraudu- UNITED STATES. — Although the lent bankers, fraudulent directors, Chronicle of the AxNUAL REGISTER and, above all, fraudulent solicitors, contains the record of many harroware the greatest criminals known ing catastrophes that have occurred to the law.

during the century of its existAnother offender of this class ence, it records none more terrible was Evans, an attorney of Farn- than that which is now reported ham, who made a very indiscrimi- from the United States. It may nate sweep of his clients. He had be doubted, indeed, whether in appropriated trust-money to the any country or in any age so many extent of 18,0001. in one case ; he human beings have ever perished had “invested ” 1981. for a poor so terribly by an accident of orlabourer; 2401. for a jobbing car- dinary life. War may produce penter; and numerous sums he parallel scenes of horror, but the had abstracted from many parties andals of peace may be searched under many pretences. When he in vain for any calamity so appall. could keep up the game no longer ing as the disaster at Lawrence. he became bankrupt, as a "scrive. In the manufacturing settlement ner,” for 33,0001., alleging unsuc- so called, and situate on the Mercessful building as the cause of his rimac river, in the State of Masfailure. The Commissioner refused sachusetts, stood several mills, as his certificate, hinting that it was large apparently as the most capaa proper case for a criminal court. cious structures of the same cha

6. WRECK OF THE STEAMER racter at Manchester or Rochdale. “ NORTHERNER.” — Advices have One of these establishments, been received of the wreck of the Pa- known as the Pemberton Mills, cific MailCompany's Steamer North. was founded some seven years ago, erner, on the 6th January, on Cape and gave employment to nearly Mendocino, between St. Francisco 1000 operatives. The building and Oregon. The ship had struck is said to have been originally of upon a rock and received so much bad construction; the foundations damage that it was thought necesary were imperfect, the walls were to run her on shore. In landing, se. weak, and pierced by numerous venteen passengers and twenty-one apertures, which detracted still of the crew were drowned; among further from the strength of the the former was Mr. Blomfield, à fabric. As the weight of the mason of the late Bishop of London. chinery was added to that of the

8. DESTRUCTION OF ST.ANDREW's numerous work people engaged in CHURCH, DUBLIN.- At 10 A. M. the business, it will not be thought the parish church of St. Andrew's surprising that the mill should Dublin, better known as the Round have fallen; but the ruin was renChurch, was observed to be on fire, dered unspeakably hideous by the

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