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derably different from that which exists in our country; that the excellent men there, falling into the common error of ardent minds, had confounded the abuse with the allowable use of spirituous beverages; and that, in their commendable zeal against an enormous evil, they had carried their conclusions to an untenable extreme. I was also under the influence of the common opinion, iniplicitly adopted by many who, like myself, have not much experience or opportunity of observation, that spirituous liquors in moderate quantity, diluted with water, and made palatable with sugar, are not only lawful, but good and healthful beverages for the ordinary use of life, and especially for supporting the animal frame under fatigue, or restoring it after exhaustion. In a word, I had the very same notions on the whole subject as those advanced by your worthy reviewer.
But thankful I am for the instrumentality of one who has long and eminently devoted himself to the advancement of the highest interests of mankind, Mr. Collins, of Glasgow, which awakened me to the duty of giving a fair examination to the question. Some of the results of that examination are given in the Preface to Professor Stuart's Essay. While the reviewer speaks of that preface in too complimentary a strain, he has misunderstood some of its minor parts, imputing applications which were not intended, and he has apparently overlooked the FOUNDATION-PRINCIPLE of the argument. This principle is a fact in physical science, that stimulating is not strengthening, but is weakening and impairing. Let this be only correctly understood, and then well considered in its various applications, and I can scarcely doubt what the result will be. One principal inference is, that spin rits, whether diluted or not, should be regarded only as a inedicine, and that it is a medicine falling under the class of the vegetable poisons, whose operation on the human frame is the commission of a certain degree of invasion, in order to counteract a greater immediate derangement. It is a balancing of two evils; and, under the pressure of an exigency, a submission to the less of the two. It further follows, that the submission to this minor evil should be confined within the narrowest boundaries possible: that the frequent repetition of it (like the frequent use of calomel, arsenical medicines, tincture of opium, foxglove, &c.) is a slow and insidious, but sure sapping and mining of the citadel of health, and sooner or later
either shortening life, or enfeebling and embittering it: and that to bring it, in any form or disguise, out of the class of medicines into the class of food, is, to say the least, a most unwise and perilous course. I wish that your reviewer had found room for the following extract from Mr. Collins's speech.
“ That spirits are not good or necessary to men in health, is becoming one of the best established and most incontrovertible truths in medical science. If testimony is to be admitted at all, who are the men best fitted to give sound and experimental evidence for determining the question ? Surely it must be the physicians and surgeons of our country. They are not only best acquainted with the nature and effects of spirits, but they witness most extensively their influence on the human constitution. And what are the results of their experience? Besides numerous individual tes. timonies, have not forty-eight of the physicians and surgeons in Dublin, seventyseven in Edinburgh, eighteen in Manchester, fourteen in Bradford,* and many other collective bodies, both here and in America, nobly stepped forwards as the benefactors of their country, to disabuse the public mind of the false and delusive opinions which prevail in relation to spirits; and have united in declaring, that spirits do not communicate any nourishment whatever to the constitution; that their use is the most frightful source of disease among our people; and that nothing would conduce more to the health and comfort of the community than the entire disuse of them ? Do they not declare, that more than one-half of the diseases which exist in our country originate in intemperance? And that, not only does the habitual use of spirits predispose to disease, but, while it aggravates almost every disease, it renders many of them hopeless and incurable? In short, the concurring testimony of a large proportion of the medical profession confirms the
* In the Leeds Mercury of the 3rd inst. appeared the following Declaration :
*** We, the undersigned, do declare our conviction that ardent spirits are not to be regarded as a nourishing diet; that the ha. bitual use of them is a principal cause of disease, poverty, and misery; and that the dience of them except when prescribed medicinally, would powerfully contribute to improve the health, morals, and comfort of the community.”
Signed by five physicians and forty-two
statement of Dr. Paris, that “the art of preparing spirituous liquors is the greatest curse ever inflicted on humanity;" and, from their destructive influence on the constitution, well might Sir Astley Cooper designate them evil spirits,' and affirm with truth that spirits and poisons are synonymous terms.'” .
All this, and much more, refers to the dietetic, prudential, and personal branch of the subject. The other branch is its vast importance in relation to the community. But I can scarcely venture to proceed upon it, from the fear of being tedious. “The best authorities attribute to drinking one-half of all madness, three-fourths of all beggary, and four-fifths of all crime in our country.”-(Brit. and For. Temp. Soc. Tracts, No. i.) That this dreadful torrent of wickedness and misery may be reduced and even stopped by the operations of the Temperance (i. e. total abstinence) Societies, I appeal to the reasonings and the facts presented in the tracts of the American, Irish, Scottish, and, last and slowest in the train, English societies. You could not afford room for the details; but surely the trifling trouble and expense of obtaining the documents will not be refused by any man of common sense and Christian feelings, when an evil so awful is to be avoided, and so great a good is to be obtained.
Thus, then, runs the argument. If even it were admitted that the use of spirits brought to us a little, yea even a considerable benefit, yet, because such use encourages and maintains the source and supply for the noxious abuse, and that abuse can not be effectively controlled by any other means, it becomes our duty to renounce the supposed or real benefit, from the motive of love to our fellow-creatures, to our country, and to the cause of religion. But again, be it observed, we deny that there is any benefit, except within the strict limits of medicinal use; and this is freely allowed : and in support of our denial we entreat our friends to inquire for themselves, and to hear the voice of reason and experience. By the operation of the temperance societies, within about six years, in the United States generally, the consumption of spirits has been diminished one-third; and in the New England division of those states, one-half; and this most happy change is still increasing.
The reviewer is not, perhaps, aware that his plan of a “well-defined temper ance," meaning moderation in the use of spirits, in distinction from uncompromis
ing abstinence, has been tried, and has been found impracticable in application and unavailing in effect.* No rule or limit could be intelligibly defined. The most unhappy wretch that ever sunk into sottishness, was far advanced in his career before he would admit that he took of his rum, or brandy, or whiskey, more than he judged proper and really necessary for him; what he would have called a reasonable allowance. He would have said to the most moderate drinker of spirits, 'You take so much as you judge fit for yourself to do you good, and I do only the same thing; for my wants and feelings crave all that I drink; I take only what is abso. lutely necessary to raise my sinking spirits, to bring me up to cheerfulness and vigour, to do me good in the degree which my circumstances require." And further,
- it would be somewhat incongruous, it would be a constructive affront, to ask persons of blameless character to enter into an engagement not to drink to excess. But, for a more full refutation of this well-intentioned, but most fallacious idea, I beg to refer to Mr. Collins's first Edinburgh speech, No. 10 of our Tracts. If, also, the reviewer will bestow, not a cursory glance, but a seriously reflective reading, on No. 9 of those Tracts, “A Letter by a Minister of the Gospel,” (apparently of Scotland), I am greatly mistaken if he does not find all his objections answered, and become a thoroughly-convinced and ardent supporter of the Temperance Societies. The same request I would, with the greatest earnestness, make to every professed Christian, and especially every minister of the gospel.
I humbly conceive that the reviewer has greatly erred in his apprehension of
* “ I belonged to the old Society in Massachusetts for the Suppression of Intemperance, and was one of the counsellors, but very little was effected. There were annual meetings and addresses ; the former were thinly attended, and the latter devoid of deep interest. The resolution was modified somewhat in this form;-- that no one should use or give ardent spirits except in urgent cases. So, amidst much discussion and jocular remark, the resolution passed, and the pledge was signed. It is now, I suppose, in the archives of the Massachusetts' Society." Of the proper American Temperunce Society the writer goes on to say,—" They inscribed on their banner, TOTAL ABSTINENCE; and their efforts, under the Divine blessing, bid fair to save the country.”-A Correspondent in the New York T, S. Report for 1830, p. 35.
the sense and design of those positions of Mr. Stuart's essay on which he has animadverted. But I must desist. Believe me, my dear Sir,
Faithfully yours, Homerton, Dec, 8, 1831. J. Pye Smith.
The reviewer, who has fallen under the animadversion of his highly esteemed friend Dr. Smith, is not able to plead ignorance as an apology for his temerity. His objections to certain features in the practical economy of Temperance Societies have been the result of a careful examination both of American and English publications on the subject. The public must judge between the worthy doctor and the reviewer;* this we can assure them, they are both temperate men, and both
* See Dec. Magazine.
alike anxious to see all the precepts of the gospel faithfully observed. It will be as well, perhaps, in future, for the totally abstinent not to judge their brethren, who may not feel that the authority of Christ and his apostles demands this sacrifice. Indeed, we are satisfied it does not, and that every disciple of Christ is left at perfect freedom to make such use of spirits or wine as may comport with the holy precepts of the gospel. This must be his rule, and not the mere human restrictions of Temperance Societies. As Dr. Smith allows himself to be but a recent convert to the doctrine of entire abstinence, he will no doubt, with his ordinary candour, wait patiently for the conversion of his reviewing brother, and we pledge ourselves for that brother that he will not hesitate for a moment to avow any change of mind that he may undergo.-EDITOR.
THE NEW YEAR.
But God shall for ever abide,
Eternity never can end;
And who from his love can divide
The soul he esteems as his friend ? " For now we see through a glass darkly."
The struggles of life shall be past I Cor. xii. 12.
The day of affliction shall close
The foe shall be vanquish'd at lastInvisible God of all grace,
The pilgrim shall sweetly repose. Though darkness and clouds intervene, The wintry storms shall be goneThou fillest all time and all space,
The beauties of spring shall appear-A Saviour belov'd though unseen.
And time, as its changes move on,
May bring us a happy new yeur.
Oh, ye who salvation await,
Yet tarry with patience awhile, Shall yield us abundance again.
The billows within shall abate,
Your gloom shall be chang'd to a smile. We know not events that may come
Time's circles must shortly conclude,
And life everlasting begin,
Where sorrow can never intrude, .
Nor pleasure be poisoned with sin.
No mists shall the beauties disguiseThine eye is our guardian and guide,
No distance the prospect obscureThine arm is our strength and our stay.
No doubts or delusions shall rise,
But glory seen perfect and sure. We look to the kingdom on high,
Then face unto face you shall meet, And dimly behold it in part;
The King in his beauty behold, But faith on the promise can fly,
And share in the rapture complete,
That never on earth can be told.
We know not how bless'd we shall be, No war can your mansions invade,
No tongue can the fulness explainNo ages their glory deface.
No vision the splendour can see
No bosom that glory sustain. The world and its forms pass away,
Then Faith shall reality prove, Its princes and kingdoms must fall;
And Hope its long'd objects possess, As dreams are dispers'd by the day,
And Charity heighten her love, So time shall demolish them all.
Midet endless and pure loveliness,
Impostors and tyrants foreboded their doom,
And angels rejoic'd over kingdoms regain’d.
John i. 50.
dour o'er night;
light. How wondrous the change which Judæa be.
held, When on it the Day-star of Righteousness
shone, When the shadows of death by its beams
were expellid, And glory of God through the Saviour
lose, And strove to extinguish celestial flame. The sparks were dispersed through nations
abroad, Truth gleam'd on their minds and love.
glow'd in their hearts; They cast down their idols and worshipp'd
the Lord, And shar'd in the joy true religion im
The promise gives more than has been or is
now ;“ The knowledge of God all the nations
shall bless, And every knee to the Saviour shall bow,
And every tongue shall his glory confess." Behold they go forth, the meek heralds of
peace, Where savages roam or barbarians dwell; Their labours, their dangers, their converts
increase, And Time's remote page shall their victo
ries tell. What wonders shall open with Time's final
year! The Crucified coming in glory againThe dead shall be rais'd at his bar to appear,
And sinners redeem’dshall perfection attain. The earth shall be cleans'd in a furnace of
And spirits immortal with angels unite : And sin, with its sorrows, and death shall
expire, And heaven, unveil’d, shall accomplish
REVIEW OF RELIGIOUS PUBLICATIONS. 1. A Sermon preached at Hull, on the 13th of in the Scots' Church, Swallow Street, on Sub
Nov. 1831, on the UNKNOWN TONGUES. bath, the 6th of Nov. 1831. To which are By R, M. Beverley, Esq. 8vo.
now added a few prefatory Remarks. By Westley and Davis.
ROBERT BURNS, D.D., F.S.A., Minister 2. THE UNINOWN TONGUES discovered to be
of St. George's, Paisley. 8vo. English, Spanish, and Latin ; and the Rev. Douglas, Portman Square; and Nisbet, Edward Irving proved to be erroneous in
Berners' Street. attributing their utterance to the influence of
Our views of the miraculous pretensions the Holy Spirit. Also, a private arrange
of the new school are already well known to ment in his closet previous to a prayer-meet.
the public. We have honestly denounced ing, and consultation in the vesiry, to which them as an insult of the very highest order to the writer was invited by Mr. Irving, because
the Spirit of wisdom and truth ; and however he believed him to be in “the Spirit,” and Mr. Irving and his friends may profess to prayed that he might receive the gift of in
mourn over our impiety for so doing, we terpretation. Various interesting colloquies
shall continue to warn simple-hearted and between the writer and Mr. Irving and his unwary Christians against the deep entanglefollowers; and observations which manifestly ments and blasphemies of a scheme which show that they are all under a delusion. By tends more to strengthen the hands of infide. GEORGE PILKINGTON, who interpreted be lity and impiety than any exhibition of relifore the congregation. 8vo.
gious imposture that has been obtruded on Strange, Paternoster Row.
the public mind during the last hundred
years. We are glad to find that this un. 3. Tue CHURCH Revived WITHOUT THE AID blushing evil begins to be exposed, very un.
OF UNKNOWN TONGUES ; a Sermon preached ceremoniously, from a variety of quarters;
and we cannot allow ourselves to think that speak the languages of those countries from any considerable number of persons, pos- which they had come, but where the apostles sessed of common sense, will long be found themselves had never been ; ' and they were sufficiently credulous to attribute the absurd all amazed and marvelled, saying one to anravings of the “gifted sisters,” to an imme other, Behold, are not all these which speak diate and uncontrollable inspiration from Galileans ?—and how hear we every man in Heaven.
our own tongue, wherein we were born ? Mr. Beverley's sermon contains many Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and pungent remarks on the utter and inconceive he dwellers in Mesopotamia, in Judæa, and able folly of the new pretensions. We quote Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, the following paragraph as a fair specimen and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of his mode of dealing with his antagonists. of Lybia about Cyrene, and strangers of His text is 1 John iv. 1,-" Believe not Rome, Jews and proselytes, Cretes and Araevery spirit, but try the spirits," &c.; upon bians, we do hear them speak in our tongues which he remarks,
the wonderful works of God and they were “ It is our lot, however, my Christian all amazed. Now here the wonder all conbrethren, to live in days when other spirits sisted in hearing persons hitherto ignorant of a new and strange order have come among and unlettered, and knowing only their own us, the trial of which can hardly be by any tongue, speaking of a sudden many lanrules left us in the word of God. I speak of guages of widely distant nations. Had the the gift of the unknown tongues, claimed by apostles only uttered sounds which none of some individuals in this country—a .gift the foreigners recognised there would have which it is supposed is a revival of the mira been no amazement on their part—they would culous powers recorded in the New Testa have paid no attention to the sounds, and ment, by the outpourings of the Holy Ghost have expressed no surprise. But in the moon those whom the Lord has chosen for this dern oracles no sentence has yet been spoken office. Not to occupy your time with any of any recognised language. Not only have narratives of those extraordinary exhibitions, the numerous strangers resident in our vast I will simply state, that there are persons in metropolis not met with their own tongue in London and elsewhere, at this present time, the sounds of the oracles, but the researches who either in places of public worship, or on of the learned for some months past have occasions of private prayer-meetings, have never succeeded in tracing these strange spoken words and sentences, or else frage words to any dialect spoken in any country. ments of a sort of rhyming structure, in a Two things, then, only remain to be urged language, or languages, which are not known for those who believe that the oracles are to be spoken by any nation on the earth. dictated by the Holy Ghost :-1st, Either The persons who are supposed to have this that a more diligent search may yet discover gift do not, I believe, much exceed twenty the real language of which the oracles are in number at present, though it is hoped and supposed to utter fragments; or, 2ndly, That believed by their friends, who are converts to the same ambiguity attended the gift of their claims, that the number of oracles will tongues in the days of the apostles; and that soon greatly increase. And here let me po. in fact the gifted disciples uttered sounds tice, that I do not wish to use the word which no one could interpret but themselves. oracle in any invidious sense, but in its pure “ Now, for the first proposition, we may and proper meaning of a mystical voice, of remark, that owing to the number of literary which a select few only have the interpreta societies at present existing in London, and tion. To call them tongues would at present the increased knowledge of the oriental dia. be premature, for it is not yet clear that they lects, besides the researches made by misare really tongues; and, indeed, the whole sionaries in all parts of the world, either for question does, according to my apprehension, the purpose of converting the Gentiles to the turn on this very point. Neither can I call faith of Christ, or of translating the Scripthe speakers of these sounds prophets, for if tures into foreign tongues, there is hardly they have prophesied any thing it is far from the possibility of any entirely new language
rtain that their prophecies will come true. being discovered in any part of the earth, Perhaps the more proper title for these sounds except it be amongst some of the tribes of would be omphe, but as this is a word of eru- central Africa ; and even into those regions dite origin I shall be content to use the more travellers have lately penetrated, and brought common word oracle.
back specimens of various dialects which “ The gift of tongues recorded in the - have no affinity with the sounds uttered by second chapter of the Acts of the Apostles the oracles. Upwards of fifty languages are was put to a test the most satisfactory the known and recorded amongst us, and to none very day it was made manifest, for there of these do the oracular sounds bear any rewere dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout semblance; and though the number of spoken men, out of every nation under heaven ;' and tongues is in reality much greater, yet there these Jews, who had been born in other coun. is always such a resemblance in dialects tries, heard with amazement the apostles which have branched off from a cominon