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mortals, your agents at this station are still ducted as usual by Mr. Young, who has enabled to hold on their accustomed course kept charge likewise of the Chinese schools, without any material interruption. Our divine and, by his devoted piety and discreet deSaviour has graciously prolonged our unwor- meanour, has increasingly endeared himself thy lives, and preserved us in health and activity to all around. The three members of our up to the present period. The usual routine native church continue steady, while their of missionary duties has been gone through, number is likely to be increased by a few and no available opportunity wilfully ne, additions from among the native Christians glected, of endeavouring to communicate here. The service, formerly mentioned as the saving knowledge of the gospel to them conducted in the Dutch church, every alterthat sit in darkness and the shadow of death; nate afternoon, has been continued, as also

but still we cannot but feel our need of the lecture in the open air to the convicts, a revival, and of a double portion of the whose numbers have lamentably increased to Spirit of all grace, to prevent our despond. upwards of five hundred. Their wild untu. ing under the long trial of our patience, and tored minds seem sometimes impressed, and to invigorate us while waiting for the early their attention considerably arrested by the and the latter rain ; particularly as we see truth. On Friday evenings, a sermon is so little good resulting from the long-con- preached in the Malay language, and on tinued operations at this station, and the Tuesdays a prayer-meeting is held in the heathen mind still remaining proof against same tongue.' Depok is visited occasionally, repeated efforts to bring them acquainted and evidence of good appears.—In addition with the truth as it is in Jesus. Those only to these stated services, daily visits are made who know the worth of immortal souls, and to the natives in the streets, campongs, and who feel the stirrings of a Saviour's love, bazaars, for the purpose of conversation and can have any adequate conception of the tract distribution; on these occasions, when sorrow and anguish that fill the missionary's a few are found collected together, or even mind, when, going from house to house, day one seen seated alone and unemployed, the after day, he meets the same cold reception, opportunity is embraced for the introduction observes the same chilling indifference, and of sacred things, and for the exposition of the is dunned by the same stale objections, main doctrines of the gospel. The certainty which have been answered a thousand times, of future retribution, the demerit of sinful and still a thousand times recur, as if men, the need of a Saviour, and the suitablethey had never been refuted. To keepness of the gospel to our state and wants, are up the spirit of vigorous effort in spite the main topics. of opposition, is easy, compared with the maintaining of it amidst inattention and ne

Defective and erroneous Notions of Moral Obli. glect. Grace and prayer alone can keep

gation entertuined by the Chinese at Batavia. alive the flame of missionary zeal amid such The chief difficulty with the Chinese discouragements--oh, that the Lord would seems to be, to make them at all sen. visit us in mercy, and make all grace to sible of their guilt and danger, princiabound towards us! And, oh, that every

pally because sin, in their estimation, is a well-wisher to missionary objects would be very different thing from what it is in ours; fervent in prayer on our behalf, and give the the word sin, in their language, being sy: Lord no rest till he come and rain righteous. nonymous with crime, and those things only ness upon us !

being accounted sinful which are cognizable Missionary Labours at the Station.

and punishable by human laws ;-thus mur

der, arson, theft, and adultery, are considered Notwithstanding, however, the despond. sins; but lying, deceit, fornication, gaming, ing and self-condemning tone, in which I drunkenness, pride, anger, lust, and covethave been compelled to commence this ousness, together with all bad passions of communication, yet have we had, during the the human heart, which do not proceed to last half-year, some reason to thank God and any glaring act injurious to our fellow-creatake courage. The English congregation, tures, are none of them considered in the on Sabbath mornings, has maintained, yea, light of sins. Whatever Chinese moralists increased, its usual numbers, and a propor and philosophers may assert and teach, tionate degree of seriousness and attention Chinese men and women in common life do has been visible. I'wo of our English friends not regard these things as criminal, do not have, within the last few months, given de strive against them, nor feel any misgivings cided evidence of a work of grace on their on account of their prevalence in their hearts souls, and have joined us in celebrating a and lives. I have heard them openly and Redeemer's love. One of these has been unblushingly plead for the policy and even brought by affliction to seek an interest in necessity of deceit in business, without the best things, and the other has been con which, they pretend, that they could not strained to devote his youth to God as the live ; fornication I never heard condemned most reasonable service. The Malay service, as unlawful, so long as both parties were wil. every Lord's-day at noon, has been con- ling to live in that state, and no connubial en.

gagement was infringed thereby ; gaming is recollection of the same does or will accomthe more strongly pleaded for on account of its pany them, they are, therefore, the less conbeing licensed by law; and drunkenness, with cerned about their fate in this respect, and its cognate vice, opium-smoking, can be the apprehension of it has no salutary effect looked upon as no offence, in their estima- on their conduct and lives. The retribution tion, so long as the intoxicating drug or which the Chinese most dread, is the repriliquor is purchased with their own money. sal that may be made on their posterity in Indeed, no evil disposition, which can be the present life : they are sometimes greatly concealed from human observation, is con- 'alarmed lest, in consequence of their fraud sidered by them as criminal; and, in their and oppression, their children and grandreasonings among themselves, their blinded children should suffer, and the widow's mite consciences fail not to excuse without accus- and orphan's portion, which have been by ing them for their transgressions. The law them kept back by fraud, should be wrung of God has been frequently laid before them, out of the purses of their posterity after their in all its strictness and impartiality—but it decease. Such a motive as this, however, is not so easy for a Chinese to apprehend is too weak to bring them to entertain any the ground of its authority, or to receive it serious alarm; and, without being aware of as a divine communication on the mere their danger, we can hardly expect them to be words of a stranger; particularly when, earnest in fleeing from the wrath to come. instead of recommending itself to their judg. Thus we never hear any bewailing their lost ments, all the precepts of the first table, and condition-their whole concern is, What shall not a few of the second, when explained in we eat ? &c., and none saith, Where is God, their utmost latitude, run directly contrary my Maker ?--or what shall I do to be saved ? to their pre-conceived notions of religion No opportunity has been omitted of making and morality. The only faults which they known the Saviour of representing his ever tax themselves with, are, in reality, sharp sufferings, bitter death, amazing love, no faults; such as the quitting their native and unlimited power to save; but, though country while their parents are alive, dying these things be insisted on over and over without posterity or laying up for their again, these people seem to have no heart to wives and children; also treading unwitting them. ly on an ant, eating beef, or allowing hungry ghosts to starve ;-convictions of conscience Their Indifference to the Offers of the Gospel. for such like offences sometimes seize them,

Instance of their Superstition. but these, instead of furthering, only hinder their sincere humiliation for sin, and heart All the day long have we stretched forth our felt repentance on account of it.

hands to a disobedient and gainsaying peoTheir Modes of purifying Conscience, and Ideas

ple-oh, that the Lord would appear in the

thunder, in the whirlwind, or rather in the of future Punishment.

still small voice, speaking to the hearts of Again, when convinced in the slightest degree this people, and melting them into obedience of sin, they have so many methods of pacifying by the all-constraining influence of a Satheir consciences, and putting far off the evil viour's love.--The following instance of atday, that it does not follow that concern tachment to idolatry may serve to shew the should be manifested for their eternal safety. blindness and ignorance of these people : a Those who do believe in a hell think that man's house, in a neighbouring village, beonly the worst of criminals and vilest of ing on fire, and there being just time to save mankind will be consigned to that awful a few of his most valuable commodities, he place, the punishment of which they are rushed in and rescued-not his goods—but still far from considering eternal. But the his parental tablet, which stood on the altargreater part of them do not believe in a piece, leaving his valuable clothes and merhell, because they do not see it ; and though chandize a prey to the flames. He was they are in the constant habit of sacrificing thus reduced to beggary, and was obliged to the dead, providing for hungry ghosts, afterwards to take refuge in a wretched hovel, and conveying money, food, and apparel, exhausted with disease and hunger, still through the smoke for the use of their de clinging to his parental tablet, which he had ceased relatives in Hodes, yet they have not saved at so much peril and at so great a cost. the slightest apprehension of being them This tablet is nothing more than the name of selves consigned to that dismal place, and a parent, with the date of his birth and make no attempts to escape from it. They death, engraved on a piece of wood, which believe, indeed, that they may be punished they look upon as a kind of representative of by coming out into the world again in an the deceased, offer to it the daily meed of in

er and a worse shape than that which cense, and rely on the same for health and mey now inhabit that they may even be prosperity. The Catholics, in China, on

spars, slaves, dogs, horses, or the meanest the accession of a convert, insist on the dea pales, yet, as consciousness will then struction of this tablet, as a proof of an ene est, and, whatever they were or may be, no tire rejection of their former faith.

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Distribution of Tracts among the Mohammedans.

Interesting Discussion with their Priests.

In the Malay bazaars, the distribution of tracts continues as great and encouraging as when I last wrote-latterly, on going to the markets, I have had no occasion to offer our tracts to a single individual, they being all begged from me, before half the market is gone through--thus, sometimes, fifty or sixty, and sometimes a hundred or two are freely circulated in one day. Some tracts beginning with the parable of the sower, were eagerly accepted by the natives, because it happened to be about the time when they were sowing their paddy fields; and some on the miracles of Jesus were the more readily received, as they themselves ascribe miracles to our Saviour. The objections to the circulation of our tracts are every day diminishing, and those who do object in the outset, yet scruple not to take a tract when they see others receiving them. The plan for establishing native schools throughout the island under the pa. tronage of government has not yet succeeded, but the deliberations on the measure have brought me into contact with the high-priest and some of the most influential men among the Mahometans. The former invited me to meet him and his friends to debate on the points controverted between us ;—though I do not promise myself much from such discussious, on account of the bigotted prejudice of our adversaries, and the hatred and contempt which they conceive for the doctrines of the gospel, previous to examination and in spite of arguments, yet I attended as requested. About a score of their holiest men were assembled, some of whom were prepared, by sophistry and cunning, and some by banter and ridicule, to oppose the truth. Their shafts were principally directed against the divinity of Christ, and the doctrine of the Trinity, while it was evident that the notions which they had formed of these great mysteries were gross and erroneous, in attacking which they were only fighting with a creature of their own imagination, appa. rently countenanced by some unguarded expressions taken from the Athanasian creed, and the hymns and prayers of various professing Christians. I said I was by no means accountable for those, and was not prepared to defend anything that was not decidedly scriptural, at the same time laying before them a plain statement of these doctrines taken from the New Testament, which lay open before them. They could thus see for themselves that the doctrines in question were contained in our Scriptures, and were obliged to come to the conclusion, either that our Scriptures were adulterated, or that the doctrines were true. They, of course, chose the former alternative, notwithstanding they could not point out who altered them, when they were altered, or in how many instances, as neither

could they reconcile the apparent inconsis. tency of supposing Christians themselves the authors of the alleged interpolations, while Christians looked to these writings as the standard of their faith, and the foundation of their hopes, and who might as soon be expected to set fire to their own dwellings, or sink their own ships, as falsify their Scriptures. The declarations in the first chapter of John, respecting the divine Word, not a little stumbled them, particularly when compared with a passage in the Koran, which I pointed out to them, asserting Jesus Christ the son of Mary to be the Word of God. They could answer this only by quibbles, as to what was meant by the divine word, and finally by denying the passage in John to be genuine. The usual reference was then made to the supposed prophecies concerning Mahomet, contained in our Scriptures, and particularly to the Paraclete, which word they asserted, meant not only a comforter, advocate, and teacher, but also apostle, and, therefore, must refer to the prophet of Mecca, the apostle of God. This was met by pointing out the parallel passages and the context, in which the Paraclete was expressly called the Holy Ghost, was promised in the course of a few days, was intended to dwell in the disciples of Christ, and to abide with them for ever.—They then referred to the prophecy of Moses, recorded in Acts iii. 22, « À prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me," &c., which they said must refer to Mahomet and not to Christ, as the prophet in question was not to be raised up from among the Jews, but from among their brethren, the Ishmaelites, or Arabians, who were the brethren of the Jews, being alike descended from the same patriarch Abraham. They also affirmed that there were more points of resemblance between Moses and Mahomet, than between the former and Christ, the prophet of Mecca being, like Moses, a leader of the people, a lawgiver, a warrior, and one who punished unbelievers and rebels by fire and sword, which Christ did not do. I said, when the Jews spoke of their brethren, they never meant the Ishmaelites, but always the descendants of Ja. cob, who were united not only as the de. scendants of one patriarch, but as the subjects of one government and the professors of one religion. That Christ most resembled Moses in the meekness of his character, as well as in the greatness of his miracles, and that though he came not to destroy men's lives but to save, and thus refrained from calling down fire from heaven to destroy his opponents, when he might have done it,

--yet the time was coming when all who obstinately rejected his easy reign would be brought forth and slain before him.--I now began, in my turn, to attack the more vulnerable parts of their system, and adduced a number of passages from the Koran, in

Select Committee are so kindly bringing it through the press, gratis, may be attempted at a future period under fewer advantages. Anxious as I am, therefore, to leave dictionary work, and to return to the composition of religious tracts, I cannot let this opportunity slip of giving a complete view of the Hok-këèn dialect. The second part, now in hand, will be nearly as bulky as the first, and will, I trust, be accomplished by next midsummer. • We have reason again to praise God for the circumstances of health and comfort which we have enjoyed during the past year. My dear partner, and our four children, together with our valuable coadjutor, Mr. Young, have all been preserved from sickness and danger for a considerable period. May we beg an interest in your prayers, that these blessings may be continued to us, and that to temporal mercies may be added the richer blessings of grace, to enable us to live usefully and die happily! With affectionate regards to all the Directors, in which I am most heartily joined by all our household, I remain, (Signed)



which so many carnal enjoyments are pro mised to the faithful, as well as allowance given to polygamy - a particular license being taken by the prophet himself for the gratification of his own passions. On these points, however, they refused to answer me, as they said the very agitation of the question implied reflections on their prophet which they were not permitted to listen to or indulge. On the subject of the pardon of sin, they had no hopes beyond the undefined mercies of God, and completely rejected the idea of a substitute or sacrifice ;-thus the doctrines of Christ's divinity and the atonement stand or fall together, and here, as in the west, the denial of one involves a rejection of the other. We may hope, however, that the time is not far distant, when even these blinded and bigotted Mahometans will be led to acknowledge the truth as it is in Jesus. Further particulars as to the Labours of the

Mission. The distribution of Malay tracts having so remarkably increased, and being capable of still wider extension, I have been induced to set the lithographic press again in motion, and have printed about 30 pages of a Malay tract, containing five hundred. During the last year we have continued to distribute the remainder of the old Chinese tracts, which were still on hand, but we hope soon to recommence printing in that language, either some new compositions or revisions of former publications.

The schools here have continued as usual -two Chinese and one Malay. Mr. Young has been engaged in the superintendence of the former, while the latter, being taught on the mission premises, is more immediately under our eye. They contain together about forty scholars.

The translation of the Scriptures into low Malay, which I was engaged in revising and correcting, is now brought to a close. It has required so many alterations that I have been obliged to recompose nearly the whole of it; my labour, however, is abundantly recompensed by the consideration of the ser. vice it may be to the native Christians on the Island of Java. The printing of it at the government-press goes on but slowly, having only advanced as far as the epistle to the Romans.

My Hok-këèn dictionary, forwarded to Canton last summer, has been put to press, and proofs having arrived here, testifying to me of the neatness and accuracy with which it is likely to be executed under the superin tendence of Mr. John Robert Morrison, son of Dr. Morrison, I have been induced to prepare a second part-viz., English and Chinese, to be printed with the former. This was much wanted to render the work complete ; and if not now attempted, while the


Neyoor, Oct. 5, 1831. DEAR SIR, In a letter dated 10th ult., I inclosed the Inverkeithing Reader's Report, translated from the Tamul. I have now the pleasure to send you a similar brief account of the labours of twelve other readers,* written by themselves, and conveyed, as near as possible, in their own language. The English might have been improved ; but that would consume time, and destroy the simplicity of the original statement. I have selected, and continue to employ, men of moderate abilities, rather than some in the mission who are more intelligent, but not possessing so good a report of them who are without. Most of them are married men. Some of them enjoyed greater privileges in their youth than others, namely, the Inverkeithing Reader, Robert Pinkerton, and John Lockyer. The two former have made the best use of their advantages, and are invaluable helpers in our work. They came to us young, and have been employed in different parts of India, and have always retained an unimpeachable character. They are the earliest and some of the best fruits of our labours among the rising generation in South Travancore. The Inverkeithing Reader lives near the mission-house, and prosecutes hiş labours under my immediate inspection. All the readers are super

* The report of the reader, Edw. Parsons, will be sent ere long.

intended in their labours, and continue to re. has just abandoned idolatry, is a native doce ceive constant instruction and advice, as cir- tor, who is called Munthera Vathee, as he is a cumstances require. Short discourses, and celebrated soothsayer and astrologer. I have plans of sermons, enlarged and translated told him, I hope to have his “curious books” from the “ Daily Bread,” are now printing, and instruments, which he has promised to as tracts, for the readers and assistant readers part with when I visit his neighbourhood of this station. The state of their congrega. again. He is also a rich man, and, having tions is compared with their reports, and the made great inquiry into the Hindoo and Ropeople are always examined in the catechisms man Catholic systems, subsequently appears and scriptures when we visit them, which is to have read the scriptures, and is now anxiprincipally on the Sabbath. The people of ous to know the way of God more perfectly. This district are either cultivators in the moun I hope soon to send a description of the tains, or possess paddy-fields of their own in image and devil's bow, &c., of which rough the vicinity of their villages, or are weavers, sketches are inclosed. who are engaged very early in the morning,

Believe me, and throughout the whole of the day; others

Yours, respectfully and faithfully, carrying articles of merchandize from one

C. MEAD. market to the other; the remainder are pal P.S. I was happy to hear of Mr. and myra climbers, but are not numerous in this

Mrs. Harris's safe arrival at Quilon on the mission—these, in the season, are occupied 28th ult.

C. M. early and late. The Sabbath is therefore the principal, and in many places the only time,

The Report of the Readers adverted to in when a congregation can be collected.* The

Mr. Mead's letter will be in our next.–Ed. readers daily go from house to house, and teach the catechisms, principally, to the women and

SOUTH AFRICA. children, while engaged in spinning cotton. The men can only attend on these occasions,

CAFFRARIA. when they have time to spare from their gar

Extracts of the Journal of Rev. F. G. Kayser, dens, and happen to be at home. Many cul.

Missionary at Buffalo River, from 2nd tivate the beatle leaf of a vine that requires

March to 28th June, 1830. constant watering and attention. Some of the March 2nd, Tuesday.-Captain Molo, the women are employed in boiling the juice of brother of our native assistant, Jan Tzatzoé, the palmyra into coarse sugar, called jaggary; who is a well-disposed young man, having, this is an operation that must be attended to some time ago, removed with his Kraal nearer before the liquid ferments, or it becomes to the station, has since been regular in his toddy and is spoiled. In the moonlight attendance on divine service, and also on in evenings we are able to collect a tolerable struction in the Sabbath and day schools. congregation at some of the villages; and He is taught both to read and write. those seasons are embraced, and are frequently March 8th, Monday.-— With the assist very interesting. We are generally fatigued ance of our Finko I began to-day to whitebefore our hearers, who have been accustomed wash our house. While thus occupied my to spend the hours of the night in the cele- eyes became affected, and from the pain bration of sacrifices and services to the prince occasioned by the inflammation, I had for of darkness. The more distant places, espe- several nights no rest. Nearly a fortnight cially since the revival to the westward, have I was obliged to sit in a dark room, and recently had a great share of our personal during this trial I sometimes said to myself, labours. The people in the Neyattangherry What a mercy it is that it has not become district are eagerly inquiring for instruction. dark in my heart! I remembered then what Three characters, of considerable influence the Lord says in Matthew vi. 22, 23. there, have set the example of abandoning March 19th, Thursday.-To-day we had idolatry. One is a respectable and wealthy the pleasure of welcoming Dr. Philip at our Nadan at Kallymatory, a worshipper of Sattan, station, accompanied by Messrs. Fairbairn, whose stone image now lies before me in one Read, and two French missionaries. To corner of the printing-office. The second me it was a matter of regret, that I was not character I allude to was a player on the de permitted, on account of my sore eyes, to vil's bow, by which he got his livelihood. enjoy the company of these friends, more The bow is unstrung, and lies near Sattan in than some few days before they left us, the corner, with other idolatrous appendages, when I became able to go out a little. Dr. viz. the devil's walking-sticks, clubs, and Philip and his fellow-travellers left us on the shield. A third influential character, who 29th of March. It was not till about the

middle of April that I got well, and was - * Frequent visits are made besides to the able to write and read without perceiving villages mentioned in the report; but princi. any weakness. pally with a reference to the schools, which April 29th, Wednesday.-To-day, as I afford opportunities of addressing the hea- was engaged with Jan Tzatzoe in studying then, distributing tracts, &c.

the Caffer language, Captain Soko came in

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