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“ Liutprand, king of the Lombards, and the Exarch of the Greek Emperor, marched to the conquest of Spoleto and Rome: the Storm evaporated without effect; but the policy of Liutprand alarmed Italy with a vexatious alternative of hoftility and truce. His fucceffor Aistulphus, declared himself the cqual enemy of the Emperor and the Pope: Ravenna was subdued by force or treachery ; and this final conquest extinguished the series of the Exarchs, who had reigned with a subordinate power since the time of Justinian, and the ruin of the Gothic kingdom. Rome was summoned to acknowledge the victorious Lombard as her lawful fovereigns the annual tribute of a piece of gold was fixed as the ranfom of each citizen, and the sword of destruction was unsheathed to exact the penalty of her disobedience. The Romans hesitated; they intreated; they complained ; and the threatening Barbarians were checked, by arms and negociations, till the Popes had engaged the friendship of an ally and an avenger beyond the Alps."
" In his distress the first Gregory had implored the aid of the hero of the age, of Charles Martel, who governed the French monarchy with the humble title of Mayor, or Duke,
and who, by his fignal victory over the Saracens, had faved his country, and perhaps Europe, from the Mahometan yoke. The ambassadors of the Pope were received by Charles with decent reverence: but the greatness of his occupations, and the shortnefs of his life, prevented his interference in the affairs of Italy, except by a friendly and ineffectual mediation. His son Pepin, the heir of his power
and virtues, assumed the office of champion of the Roman Church P.”
When Aistulphus began to make preparations for the conqueft of Rome,
“ the terrified Pontiff, Stephen II. addresses himself to his powerful patron and protector, Pepin ; reprefents to him his deplorable condition, and implores his assistance. The French Monarch embarks with zeal in his cause, croffes the Alps A.D.
a numerous army; and having defeated Aiftulphus, obliged him by a folemn treaty to deliver up to the fee of Rome, the exarchate of Ravenna, Pentapolis, and all the cities, castles, and territories which he had seized in the Roman dukedom. It was not however long before the Lombard prince violated without remorse, an engagement which he had
Gibbon, vol. v. p. 1140 115.
entered into with reluctance. In the year 755, he laid siege to Rome for the second time, but was again obliged to sue for peace, by the victorious arms of Pepin, who returned into Italy, and forcing the Lombard to execute the treaty he had so audaciously violated, made a new grant of the Exarchate, and of Pentapolis, to the Roman Pontiff and his fucceffors in the apostolic See of St. Peter. And thus was the Bishop of Rome raised to the rank of a temporal Prince 9.”—“ The splendid donation was granted in supreme and absolute dominion, and the world beheld for the first time a Christian Bishop invested with the prerogatives of a temporal prince; the choice of magistrates, the exercise of justice, the imposition of taxes, and the wealth of the palace of Ravenna. Before the end of the eighth century some apostolical fcribe, perhaps the notorious Ifidore, composed the Decretals, and the Donation of Constantine, the two magic pillars of the fpiritual and temporal monarchy of the Popes. This memorable donation was introduced to the world by an Epistle of Adrian the first, who exhorts Charlemagne to imitate the liberality, and revive the name of the
Constantine. According to the legend, the first of the Chrif
9 Molheim, vol. i. p. 353.
tian Emperors was healed of the leprosy, and purified in the waters of b.pt:sm by St. Silvefter, the Roman Bishop. His royal profelyte withdrew from the seat and patrimony of St. Pe'er ; declared his resolution of founding a new capital in the East; and resigned to the Popes the free and perpetual sovereignty of Rome, Italy, and the provinces of the West. This fiction was productive of the most beneficial effects. The Greek princes we e convicted of the guilt of usurpation; and the revolt of Gregory was the claim of his lawful inheritance. The sovereignty of Rome no longer depended on the choice of a fickle people; and the Successors of St. Peter and Constantine were invested with the purple and prerogatives of the Cesars ?."
Thus did the mystery of iniquity begin to work, with all deceivableness of unrighteousness. Thus was the sovereign Pontiff mighty in power +, but not by his own power; and thus did he practise and prosper, and through his policy bę caused craft to prosper in his band. Thus Rome " acquired a new seat and dominion in this patrimony of St. Peter, which has continued for above a thousand
* Gibbon, c. 49, p. 124, 125, 126,
tion of hostile neighbours and loyal subjects. Since the union of the dutchies of Ferrara and Ur
The beast appeared to be wounded to death, but the deadly wound inflicted by the sword of Odoacer, King of the Heruli, was healed, after the Roman Empire had received fuch an injury in one of its heads, or forms of
government (that is, the fixth) as left no probable profpect that Rome should ever more rise to
empire. And all the world wondered after the beast: for this event of a new and extraordinary form of government, divers from all others" this facerdotal monarchy," as Gibbon calls it, excited the astonishment of mankind in the succeeding ages of its aggrandizement.
“ After their return from Avignon, the keys of St. Peter were guarded by the sword of St. Paul. Rome was commanded by an impregnable citadel : the use of cannon is a powerful engine against popular seditions : a regular force of cavalry and infantry was enlisted under the banners of the Pope : his ample revenues fupplied the resources of war; and, from the extent of his domain, he could bring down on a rebellious city an army