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i 7 the Roman Empire in the West, did not leave a memorable era in the history of mankind._ Such was indeed the case, for thus the beast was wounded, be that letteth was taken out of the way; and few obstacles remained to retard the full developement of the Man of Sin. Theodoric, the successor of Augustulus, by removing the seat of Empire to Ravenna, took from Rome all its dignity-her senate and consuls were abolished, and she was reduced to the level of the other cities of Italy. :

" During a period of 200 years, Italy was unequally divided between the kingdom of the Lombards and the exarchate of Ravenna. The offices and professions, which the jealousy of Constantine had separated, were united by the indulgence of Justinian ; and eighteen successive Exarchs were invested, in the decline of the Empire, with the full remains of civil, of military, and even of ecclesiastical power. Their immediate jurisdiction, which was afterwards consecrated as the patrimony of St. Peter, extended over the modern Romagna, the marshes or valleys of rerrara and Commachio, five maritime cities, from Rimini to Ancona ; and a second, inland Pentapolis, between the Adriatic coast and the hills of the Apennine. Three subordinate B 4


[ 8 provinces of Rome, of Venice, and of Naples, which were divided by hostile lands from the palace of Ravenna, acknowledged, both in peace and war, the supremacy of the Exarch. The dutchy of Rome appears to have included the Tuscan, Sabine, and Latian conquests, of the first 400 years of the city; and the limits may be distinctly traced along the coast, from Civita Vecchia, to Terracina, and with the course of the Tyber from Amerią. and Narni to the port of Ostia ."

. “ Rome was oppressed by the iron fceptre of the Exarchs ; and a Greek, perhaps an enuch, insulted with impunity the ruins of the Capitol.”_" On the map of Italy, the measure of the exarchate occupies a very inadequate space; but it included an ample proportion of wealth, industry and population, The most faithful and valuable subjects escaped from the Barbarian yoke ; and the banners of Pavia and Verona, of Milan and Padua, were displayed in their respective quarters, by the new inhabitants of Ravenna, The remainder of Italy was possessed by the Lombards !!. .

& Gibbon, vol. iv. p. 443.
! Gibbon, vol. iv. p. 444, 445.

“ The Bishops of Italy and the adjacent islands acknowledged the Roman pontiff (Gregory the Great) as their special metropolitan. Even the existence, the union, or the translation of episcopal seats, was decided by his abfolute discretion; and his successful inroads into the provinces of Greece, of Spain, and of Gaul, might countenance the morc lofty pretensions of succeeding Popes m.

“ In 728, Italy revolted from the eastern or Greek Emperor Leo; but the Popes exhorting the Italians not to separate from the body of the Roman monarchy, the Exarch was permitted to reside within the walls of Ravenna, a captive rather than a master : and till the imperial coronation of Charlemagne, the government of Rome and Italy was exer.cised in the name of the successors of Con

ftantine. The liberty of Rome, which had been oppressed by the arms and arts of Augustus, was rescued after 750 years of servitude, from the persecution of Leo the Ifaurian. By the Cefars, the triumphs of the Consuls had been annihilated : in the decline and fall of the Empire, the God Terminus, the facred boundary, had insensibly seceded

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from the Ocean, the Rhine, the Danube, and the Euphrates ; and Rome was reduced to her antient territory from Viterbo to Terracina, and from Narni to the mouth of the Tyber ..”.

1....* When the sovereignty of the Greek Emperors was extinguished, the ruins of Rome presented the fad image of depopulation and decay: her slavery was an habit, her liberty an accident; the effect of superstition, and the object of her own amazement and terror. The last vestige of the substance, or even the forms, of the constitution, was obliterated from the practice and memory of the Romans; and they were devoid of knowledge, or virtųe, again to build the fabrick of a commonwealth. Their scanty remnant, the offspring of slaves and strangers, was defpicable in the eyes of the victorious Barbarians, As often as the Franks or Lombards expressed their most bitter contempt of a foe, they called him a Roman ; · and in this name, says the Bishop Liutprand, ' we include whatever is base, whatever is cowardly, whatever is perfidious, the extremes of avarice and lux, ury, and every vice that can prostitute the dignity of human nature.' By the necessity

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of their situation, the inhabitants of Rome were cast into the rough model of a republican government: they were compelled to elect some judges in peace and some leaders in war: the nobles assembled to deliberate, and their resolves could not be executed without the union and consent of the multitude. The style of the Roman fenate and people was revived, but the spirit was fled; and their new independence was disgraced by the tumultuous confliet of licentiousness and oppression. The want of laws could only be fupplied by the influence of religion, and their foreign and domestic counsels were moderated by the au. thority of the Bishop. His alms, his fermons, his correspondence with the kings and prelates of the West, his recent fervices, their gratitude, and oath, accustomed the Romans to consider him as the first magistrate or prince of the city. The Christian humility of the popes was not offended by the name of Dominus, or Lord; and their face and inscription are still apparent on the most antient coins. Their temporal dominion is now confirmed by the reverence of a thậusand years; and their noblesť title is the free choice of a people whom they had redeemed from slavery 0;”. ! Gibbon, vol. v. p. 112.

“ Liutprand,

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