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And I resign my gage. My dear, dear lord,
you begin. Boling. O! God defend my soul from such deep
sin. Shall I seem crest-fall’n in my father's sight? Or with pale beggar-fear impeach my height Before this outdar'd dastard ? Ere my tongue Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong, Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear The slavish motive of recanting fear, And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace, Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowbray's face.
[Exit GAUNT. K. Rich. We were not born to sue, but to com
50 ! God defend my soul from such DEEP sin.] So all the quarto editions : the folio, 1623, substitutes heaven for “God," and foul for “deep.” The change seems to have been merely arbitrary.
6 Or with pale beggar-fear-) So the quarto, 1597, and the first folio : the other quartos have“ beggar-face.”
7 Since we cannot ATONE you, we shall see — ] “Atone” is reconcile or at one you. See Vol. iii. p. 96, note 4. “We shall see” is the preferable reading of the 4to, 1597.
Justice design the victor's chivalry R.
A Room in the Duke of LANCASTER'S
Enter Gaunt, and Duchess of GLOSTER.
Duch. Finds brotherhood in thee no sharper spur?
8 Justice DESIGN the victor's chivalry.] To“ design” was used in Shakespeare's time in its etymological sense, from the Lat. designo, to mark out, or point out. Pope injudiciously altered the word to decide.
Alas! the part I had in Gloster's blood] In all the quarto editions, prior to the folio, 1623, it stands “ Woodstock’s blood.” Mr. Amyot has furnished me with the following note :-“He was born at Woodstock, and was always called Thomas of Woodstock by the historians, till Richard II. first created him Earl of Buckingham, and afterwards (according to Dugdale and Sandford) Duke of Gloster in the 9th year of his reign.”
Who when THEY SEE the hours ripe on earth,] So all the ancient copies, quarto and folio, which the moderns have needlessly altered to he sces. Gaunt uses “ heaven” as a plural noun.
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
a man; and though thou liv'st, and
Gaunt. God's is the quarrel ; for God's substitute',
Duch. Where then, alas! may I complain myself? Gaunt. To God, the widow's champion and defence.
? Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all PADED,] All the quarto editions have "faded,” and the folio raded. They were in fact the same word. Some modern editors have said that “all the old copies have caded, while the modern editors read faded.” They could not have looked at one of the old quarto editions, or they would have seen the inaccuracy of the assertion.
3 God's is the quarrel ; for God's substitute,] So the quarto editions. The folio, 1623, has hearen’s in both instances. Three lin lower, all the copies, lio and quarto, read, “ Let hearen revenge," &c. but farther on, “ To God, the widow's champion,” is the reading of the quartos, and “ To hearen” that of the folio. These changes were, of course, made in consequence of the statute, 3 Jac. I. c. 21, but the original words of Shakespeare were nevertheless preserved in all the 4to. impressions.
Duch. Why then, I will.–Farewell, old Gaunt*.
Gaunt. Sister, farewell : I must to Coventry.
4 Why then, I will.— Farewell, old Gaunt.] Sir T. Hanmer, Steevens, and Ritson, consider this line defective, inasmuch as it has only eight syllables. All the old copies, folio and quarto, are uniform in giving it as in our text, and probably Shakespeare meant so to leave it. The time is amply made up by the pause after “ Why then, I will,” before the Duchess continues “ Farewell, old Gaunt.” Shakespeare has many lines of eight syllables.
5 And what near there for welcome, but my groans ?] Malone made a singular error with respect to the word “hear” in this line : he asserted, that in the first edition of this play, in 1597, it stands cheer, and “hear” in all the subsequent impressions, adding, “this passage furnishes an evident proof of the value of first editions, and also shows at how very early a period the revisers of Shakespeare's pieces began to tamper with his text,” &c. The fact is, that the art, And why thou com’st thus knightly clad in arms : word is “ hear" in all the editions, quarto and folio, and that cheer has been substituted in the text against every authority. Those who have followed Malone's reading have adopted his blunder, by placing confidence in the accuracy of his collation, and by not taking the trouble, or by not having the opportunity of making a new collation. Malone does not appear to have possessed a copy of the first edition of “ Richard II.”
Therefore commend me; let him not come there,
Gosford Green, near Coventry.
Lists set out, and a Throne. Heralds, 8c., attending.
Enter the Lord Marshal, and AUMERLE. Mar. My lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford arm'd ? Aum. Yea, at all points, and longs to enter in.
Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpet, Aum. Why then, the champions are prepar’d, and
stay For nothing but his majesty's approach. Flourish. Enter King RICHARD, who takes his seat on
his Throne; GAUNT, BUSHY, BAGOT, GREEN, and others, who take their places. A Trumpet is sounded, and answered by another Trumpet within. Then enter NORFOLK in armour, preceded by a Herald.
K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion The cause of his arrival here in arms: Ask him his name ; and orderly proceed To swear him in the justice of his cause. Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who thou