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as familiarly of John of Gaunt, as if he had been sworn brother to him; and I'll be sworn he never saw him but once in the Tilt-yard, and then he burst his head', for crowding among the marshal's men. I saw it; and told John of Gaunt, he beat his own name'; for you might have thrust him', and all his apparel, into an eel-skin: the case of a treble hautboy was a mansion for him, a court; and now has he land and beeves. Well, I will be acquainted with him, if I return; and it shall go hard, but I will make him a philosopher's two stones to me. If the young dace be a bait for the old pike, I see no reason in the law of nature but I may snap at him. Let time shape, and there an end.

[Erit.

ACT IV. SCENE I.

A Forest in Yorkshire.

Enter the Archbishop of YORK, MOWBRAY, HASTINGS,

and Others!

Arch. What is this forest call’d ?
Hast. 'Tis Gaultree forest, an't shall please your

grace.
Arch. Here stand, my lords; and send discoverers

forth, To know the numbers of our enemies.

7

- and then he burst his head,] The commentators cite various passages to show that “burst” was of old used for break, but they omit the most apposite from Shakespeare himself, where, in the opening of “ The Taming of the Shrew," Vol. iii. p. 107, the hostess calls upon Sly to “pay for the glasses he had burst."

he beat his own name ;] i. e. gaunt ; alluding to Shallow's figure.
you might have thrust him,] So the quarto, 1600 : the folio, trussed.

- Hastings, and Others.] “ Within the forest of Gaultree,” adds the old stage-direction in the quarto, with unusual particularity. Shakespeare took Holinshed as his authority for the place.

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9

1

Hast. We have sent forth already.
Arch.

'Tis well done.
My friends and brethren in these great affairs,
I must acquaint you, that I have receiv’d
New-dated letters from Northumberland;
Their cold intent, tenour and substance, thus :
Here doth he wish his person, with such powers
As might hold sortance with his quality,
The which he could not levy; whereupon
He is retir’d, to ripe his growing fortunes,
To Scotland; and concludes in hearty prayers,
That your attempts may overlive the hazard,
And fearful meeting of their opposite?.
Mowb. Thus do the hopes we have in him touch

ground, And dash themselves to pieces.

Enter a Messenger. Hast.

Now, what news? Mess. West of this forest, scarcely off a mile, In goodly form comes on the enemy: And, by the ground they hide, I judge their number Upon, or near, the rate of thirty thousand.

Mowb. The just proportion that we gave them out. Let us sway on, and face them in the field.

Enter WESTMORELAND. Arch. What well-appointed leader fronts us here? Mowb. I think it is my lord of Westmoreland.

West. Health and fair greeting from our general, The prince, lord John and duke of Lancaster.

Arch. Say on, my lord of Westmoreland, in peace, What doth concern your coming ? West.

Then, my lord,

2

their OPPOSITE.) i. e. adversary. See Vol. ii. p. 63; Vol. iii. p. 381.392. 3 Then, my lord,] These words are not in the quarto : the folio inserted them, no doubt, to complete the preceding imperfect line.

Unto your grace do I in chief address
The substance of my speech. If that rebellion
Came like itself, in base and abject routs,
Led on by bloody youth, guarded with rage,
And countenanc'd by boys, and beggary;
I say, if damn'd commotion so appear'd',
In his true, native, and most proper shape,
You, reverend father, and these noble lords,
Had not been here, to dress the ugly form
Of base and bloody insurrection
With your fair honours. You, lord archbishop,
Whose see is by a civil peace maintain'd;
Whose beard the silver band of peace hath touch'd ;
Whose learning and good letters peace hath tutor’d;
Whose white investments figure innocence,
The dove and very blessed spirit of peace,
Wherefore do you so ill translate yourself,
Out of the speech of peace, that bears such grace,
Into the harsh and boisterous tongue of war?
Turning your books to graves, your ink to blood,
Your pens to lances, and your tongue divine
To a loud trumpet, and a point of war?
Arch. Wherefore do I this? --- so the question

stands :
Briefly to this end.—We are all diseas'd ;
And, with our surfeiting, and wanton hours,
Have brought ourselves into a burning fever,
And we must bleed for it: of which disease
Our late king, Richard, being infected, died.
But, my most noble lord of Westmoreland,
I take not on me here as a physician,
Nor do I, as an enemy to peace,

4

– SO APPEAR'D,] Old copies, so appear. Corrected by Pope. 5 Turning your books to GRAVES,] So the old copies ; and it may be right. Warburton and Hanmer read glaices, and Steevens more plausibly greates, armour for the legs.

6 And, with our surfeiting, and wanton hours) This and the twenty-four following lines are not in the quarto editions of this play.

Troop in the throngs of military men;
But, rather, show a while like fearful war,
To diet rank minds, sick of happiness,
And purge th' obstructions, which begin to stop
Our very veins of life. Hear me more plainly.
I have in equal balance justly weigh'd
What wrongs our arms may do, what wrongs we suffer,
And find our griefs heavier than our offences.
We see which way the stream of time doth run,
And are enforc'd from our most quiet there?
By the rough torrent of occasion ;
And have the summary of all our griefs,
When time shall serve, to show in articles,
Which, long ere this, we offer'd to the king,
And might by no suit gain our audience.
When we are wrong’d, and would unfold our griefs,
We are denied access unto his person,
Even by those men that most have done us wrong.
The dangers of the days but newly gone,
Whose memory is written on the earth
With yet appearing blood, and the examples
Of every minute's instance, present now,
Have put us in these ill-beseeming arms;
Not to break peace, or any branch of it,
But to establish here a peace indeed,
Concurring both in name and quality.

West. When ever yet was your appeal denied ?
Wherein have you been galled by the king ?
What
peer

hath been suborn'd to grate on you,
That you should seal this lawless bloody book
Of forg'd rebellion with a seal divine,
[And consecrate commotion's bitter edge®?]

7 And are enforc'd from our most quiet THERE] So the folio, the only old copy of this passage : the meaning seems to be, that the archbishop complains that he and his friends are driven from their chief quiet in the stream of time by a rough torrent. Warburton altered “there" to sphere, but without any obvious necessity.

8 [And consecrate commotion's bitter edge ?] This line is not in the folio.

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Arch. My brother general, the commonwealth, [To brother born an household cruelty,] I make my quarrel in particular'.

West. There is no need of any such redress;
Or, if there were, it not belongs to you.

Mowb. Why not to him, in part, and to us all,
That feel the bruises of the days before,
And suffer the condition of these times
To lay a heavy and unequal hand
Upon our honours ?
West.

0! my good lord Mowbray',
Construe the times to their necessities,
And you shall say indeed, it is the time,
And not the king, that doth you injuries.
Yet, for your part, it not appears to me,
Either from the king, or in the present time,
That
you

should have an inch of any ground
To build a grief on. Were you not restor'd
To all the duke of Norfolk's signiories,
Your noble and right-well-remember'd father's ?

Mowb. What thing, in honour, had my father lost,
That need to be reviv'd, and breath'd in me?
The king that lov'd him, as the state stood then,
Was, force perforce, compellid to banish him :
And then, when? Harry Bolingbroke, and he,
Being mounted, and both roused in their seats,

9 I make my quarrel in particular.] The second line of this speech is omitted in the folio, and is restored from the quarto. The whole is obscure, but Malone, following Monck Mason, thus explains the probable intention of the author :-“

:-“My brother-general, who is joined here with me in command, makes the commonwealth his quarrel, i. e. has taken up arms on account of public grievances ; a particular injury done to my own brother, is my ground of quarrel.” Malone supposed a line to have been lost, which possibly may have been the case ; and the second line of the archbishop's speech is said to be wanting in some copies of the quarto impressions, as well as in the folio. It is found in both the quartos belonging to the Duke of Devonshire, and in two others that I have had the opportunity of examining.

10! my good lord Mowbray,] This and the thirty-six lines following it are not in the quarto edition.

2 And then, WHEN N-] The folio reads “And then, that.” The error was corrected by Pope.

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