The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963
National Academies Press, 15.1.1978 - 680 sivua
Among the oldest and most enduring of American institutions are those that have been devoted to the encouragement of the arts and the sciences. During the nineteenth century, a great many scientific societies came and went, and a few in individual disciplines achieved permanence. But the century also witnessed the founding of three major organizations with broadly interdisciplinary interests: the Smithsonian Institution in 1846; the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists, which in 1848 became the American Association for the Promotion (later, Advancement) of Science; and the National Academy of Sciences in 1863.
The founding of the National Academy of Sciences represented a momentous event in the history of science in the United States. Its establishment in the midst of a great civil war was fortuitous, perhaps, and its early existence precarious; and in this it mirrored the state of science at that time. The antecedents of the new organization in American science were the national academies in Great Britain and on the Continent, whose membership included the principal men of science of the realm. The chartering of academies under the auspices of a sovereign lent the prestige and elements of support and permanence the scientists sought, and in return they made their scientific talents and counsel available to the state.
The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963 describes the National Academies from inception through the beginning of the space age. The book describes the Academies' work through different periods in history, including the Postbellum years, World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II.
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1 The Academys Antecedents
2 Scientists and Scientific Organizations in MidCentury America
3 The Incorporation and Organization of the Academy
4 The Government Calls upon the Academy
5 Postbellum Years and the Crisis within the Academy
6 The End of the Nineteenth Century
7 The Academy Marks Its Semicentennial
8 World War I and the Creation of the National Research Council
16 The Academy in the FiftiesBeginnings of the Space Age
17 Academy Centennial
National Academy of Sciences
APPENDIX B Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences at the Meeting Held for Organization in the Chapel of the New Yor...
APPENDIX C Constitution and ByLaws of the National Academy of Sciences Adopted January 1864
APPENDIX D Members and Foreign Associates of theNational Academy of Sciences18631963 and Year of Election
APPENDIX E Officers and Members of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences 18631963
APPENDIX F Executive Orders Defining the Duties and Functions of the National Research Council
9 The Research Councils Permanent Status and the Academys New Home
New Horizons in Science
11 The Academy during the Great Depression
12 The New Dealand the Science Advisory Board
13 The Academy in World War II
14 The Postwar Organization of Science
15 The Years between the Wars
APPENDI X G Chairmen of the National Research Council
APPENDIX H Executive Secretaries and Executive Officers of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council
Establishment July 31 1933 Appointment of Additional Members May 28 1934 and Continuation July 15 1935
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Academy members Academy of Sciences Academy’s activities Administration Agassiz agencies American Annual Report Annual Reportfor appointed April Atomic Bache Benjamin Peirce bill Biological Bronk Bureau Bush Chairman Charles chemistry Compton Congress December Department Director Division E. B. Wilson elected Engineering established EX Bd Executive February federal ﬁelds ﬁle ﬁrst ﬁve funds Gano Dunn Geological George George Ellery Hale Hale Henry’s Hunter Dupree ibid International James January jewett John Joseph Henry June laboratories later Louis Agassiz Medical meeting membership military Millikan Minutes NAS Archives NAS—NRC National Academy National Research Council National Science Navy NDRC November Oceanography October Ofﬁce ofﬁcers organization OSRD Paciﬁc Peirce Physics President President’s proposed request Robert Rogers Science Advisory Board scientiﬁc scientiﬁc research scientists Secretary Service Simon Newcomb Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Institution Archives Society speciﬁc Survey tion University Vannevar Bush Walcott Washington William William Barton Rogers Wolcott Gibbs