The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963

Etukansi
National Academies Press, 15.1.1978 - 680 sivua
Among the oldest and most enduring of American institutions are those that have been devoted to the encouragement of the arts and the sciences. During the nineteenth century, a great many scientific societies came and went, and a few in individual disciplines achieved permanence. But the century also witnessed the founding of three major organizations with broadly interdisciplinary interests: the Smithsonian Institution in 1846; the Association of American Geologists and Naturalists, which in 1848 became the American Association for the Promotion (later, Advancement) of Science; and the National Academy of Sciences in 1863.

The founding of the National Academy of Sciences represented a momentous event in the history of science in the United States. Its establishment in the midst of a great civil war was fortuitous, perhaps, and its early existence precarious; and in this it mirrored the state of science at that time. The antecedents of the new organization in American science were the national academies in Great Britain and on the Continent, whose membership included the principal men of science of the realm. The chartering of academies under the auspices of a sovereign lent the prestige and elements of support and permanence the scientists sought, and in return they made their scientific talents and counsel available to the state.

The National Academy of Sciences: The First Hundred Years, 1863-1963 describes the National Academies from inception through the beginning of the space age. The book describes the Academies' work through different periods in history, including the Postbellum years, World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II.
 

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Sisältö

1 The Academys Antecedents
1
2 Scientists and Scientific Organizations in MidCentury America
16
3 The Incorporation and Organization of the Academy
43
4 The Government Calls upon the Academy
79
5 Postbellum Years and the Crisis within the Academy
100
6 The End of the Nineteenth Century
134
7 The Academy Marks Its Semicentennial
165
8 World War I and the Creation of the National Research Council
200
16 The Academy in the FiftiesBeginnings of the Space Age
517
17 Academy Centennial
565
National Academy of Sciences
595
APPENDIX B Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences at the Meeting Held for Organization in the Chapel of the New Yor...
598
APPENDIX C Constitution and ByLaws of the National Academy of Sciences Adopted January 1864
606
APPENDIX D Members and Foreign Associates of theNational Academy of Sciences18631963 and Year of Election
614
APPENDIX E Officers and Members of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences 18631963
634
APPENDIX F Executive Orders Defining the Duties and Functions of the National Research Council
644

9 The Research Councils Permanent Status and the Academys New Home
242
New Horizons in Science
281
11 The Academy during the Great Depression
317
12 The New Dealand the Science Advisory Board
347
13 The Academy in World War II
382
14 The Postwar Organization of Science
433
15 The Years between the Wars
475
APPENDI X G Chairmen of the National Research Council
648
APPENDIX H Executive Secretaries and Executive Officers of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council
650
Establishment July 31 1933 Appointment of Additional Members May 28 1934 and Continuation July 15 1935
652
Name Index
657
Subject Index
671
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