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royal benevolence on this memorable day. A general brevet promotion took place in both services. Deserters from the fleet and army received a free pardon. Prisoners on parole, except the French, were permitted to return to their respective countries. All persons confined for debt, at the suit of the crown, were released, unless the parties had been guilty of fraud and violence, especially those who had filled official situations under government. The King also gave two thousand pounds for the liberation of poor debtors in England; one thousand pounds for the same purpose in Scotland, and the like sum to Ireland.

The services of Lord Collingwood during this year were of the utmost importance; though the incessant labour which that great commander underwent, completely ruined his health. In the month of September his Lordship detached part of his fleet on an expedition against the Ionian Islands, four of which were taken by Captain Sprainger of the Warrior, with some other ships from Malta.

The British admiral was now actively employed in watching the harbour of Toulon, where the French had a large fleet, ready to start with the first opportunity for the relief of their garrison at Barcelona; which was in the greatest distress, being closely blockaded by land

and sea.

In the night of the 22d of October, Lord Collingwood, then off St. Sebastian, received information that the French squadron had got out, and that the other ships and transports were on the move. Preparations were immediately made for the reception of the enemy; and, the next morning, signal was given that the French had hauled to the wind, and that the convoy were separating



from the men-of-war, which consisted only of three sail of the line, four frigates, and about twenty transports. Lord Collingwood then ordered Rear Admiral Martin to chase; and, in the pursuit, five of the convoy were destroyed. On the 25th, Admiral Martin fell in with the enemy off the entrance of the Rhone, where he drove ashore two of the line-of-battle ships, which the crews abandoned, after setting them on fire. The Boreé, of seventy-four guns, and a frigate, also ran on shore, and were lost.

The remainder of the convoy escaped into the bay of Rosas, and took shelter under the castle and batteries, which were very formidable. Notwithstanding this, an attack was resolved upon, and carried into effect, under the direction of Captain Hallowell. That officer, having anchored with his ships about five miles from the castle, detached in the night a number of boats, to bring out, or destroy, the French transports; which desperate service was executed in an admirable style, and, at dawn of day, every ship and vessel was either brought away or burnt.

Of these achievements, Lord Collingwood sent a minute statement, as he did of most of his transactions, to the Duke of Clarence; who acknowledged the receipt of the noble admiral's letter in the following, dated Bushy House, December 9, 1809 :


Your Lordship’s agreeable letter of November 3d, from off Cape St. Sebastian, has reached me; and I congratulate you sincerely on the event of Admiral Martin having destroyed the ships of the line, and Captain Hallowell having made an end of the convoy. I am only to lament that the enemy did not give your Lordship and the British fleet an opportunity of doing more; and trust, from the bottom of my heart, that the next

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letter which you will have occasion to write, will bring the news of the Toulon squadron being in your Lordship's power. It is odd that the enemy should have selected the 21st of October for sailing! and extraordinary also, that the French should build such fine ships, and handle them so ill. I am glad that your Lordship is satisfied with the conduct of our officers and men on this occasion; and am clearly of opinion, that the lieutenants deserve, and ought, to be promoted. I am for liberal rewards: the gallant Raitt, of course, comes within my ideas of promotion and gratuities. I have ever been, and ever shall be, of opinion, that zeal and bravery ought to be the sole causes of promotion. Your former favourite, the Empress Catherine, knew well this secret of state; and your Lordship's observation is quite correct, that her Imperial Majesty carried the same notions even into her private amusements : “ None but the brave," my dear Lord !

“I am glad that Sprainger has done his duty, in taking four out of the seven islands, and hope the remainder will soon fall. The enemy must feel very awkward without them, and cannot fail to be interrupted in attempting the Morea.

My best wishes attend your Lordship, publicly and privately; and believe me ever, my dear Lord,

“ Yours most sincerely,


The gallant William Raitt, here noticed with so much honour, was not long after promoted to the rank of postcaptain. He had received, before this, a flattering mark of his great commander's approbation, in a letter dated Ville de Paris, 1st August, 1809. I have seen with satisfaction," said Lord Collingwood, “the zeal and intrepidity which have distinguished your public services on this and other occasions, and the gallantry with which your enterprises have been executed by the officers



and company of the Scout. They have excited my admiration; and I shall have much pleasure in transmitting to the Lords of the Admiralty a detail, in which your merits are so conspicuous.” Captain Raitt died at Aberdeen, his native place, on the 4th of February, 1816, in the forty-third year of his age.

Lord Collingwood' did not long survive this service. He was now completely worn out by excessive fatigue, having scarcely been on shore, and never in England, since the victory of Trafalgar. After repeated applications for a recall, he struck his flag, and was on his return home, when the disorder, with which he had been long afflicted, put an end to his valuable life, on board the Ville de Paris, May the 7th, 1810. The sea was in a state of considerable swell ; and when Captain Thomas said he feared that the motion of the vessel disturbed his lordship, the admiral replied, “No, Thomas : I am now in a state in which nothing can disturb me more. dying; and I am sure it must be consolatory to you, and all who love me, to see how comfortably I am coming to my end.” His remains were brought to England, and deposited near his illustrious friend, Nelson, in St. Paul's Cathedral ; where a monument, voted by parliament, has been erected to his memory; and another has been put up at Newcastle by his family. A mourningring having been sent by Lady Collingwood to the Duke of Clarence, his Royal Highness was pleased to express his acknowledgment of the token in the following letter to her ladyship: “Madam,

Bushy House, Saturday Night. “I this morning received a mourning-ring in memory of the deceased Lord Collingwood, which, of course, I owe to your Ladyship’s politeness and attention. No one can regret the

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melancholy event of the death of his Lordship more sincerely than I do; and I feel great concern in having been prevented from attending the funeral. I was informed that the interment was to be quite private, or else I should have made a point of attending the remains of my departed friend to the grave. No one could have had a more sincere regard for the public character and abilities of Lord Collingwood than myself: indeed, with me it is enough to have been the friend of Nelson, to possess my estimation. The hero of the Nile, who fell at Trafalgar, was a man of a great mind, but self-taught: Lord Collingwood, the old companion in arms of the immortal Nelson, was equally great in judgment and abilities, and had also the advantage of an excellent education.

“ Pardon me, Madam, for having said so much on this melancholy occasion; but my feelings as a brother officer, and my admiration of the late Lord Collingwood, have dictated this expression of my sentiments. I will now conclude, and shall place on the same finger, the ring which your Ladyship has sent me, with a gold bust of Lord Nelson. Lord Collingwood's must ever be prized by me, as coming from his family : the bust of Lord Nelson I received from an unknown hand, on the day the event of his death reached this country. To me the two rings are invaluable; and the sight of them must ever give me sensations of grief and admiration.

" I remain ever, Madam,
Your Ladyship's obedient,
" and most humble Servant,


Cuthbert Collingwood was born of an ancient family at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, September 26, 1750. He went into the navy at the early age of eleven, under the auspices of a near relative, Captain, afterwards Admiral, Brathwaite. In 1775, he became a lieutenant; and, in

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