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Meanwhile, the Drn'sh invaders in Essex, having united their force, under the command of Hastings, advanced into the inland country, and made spoil of all around them: but soon had reason to repent the'ir temerity. The English army left in London, assisted by a body of citizens, attacked the" enemy's entrenchments at Banflete, overpowered the garrison, and having done great execution upon them, carried off the wife and two sons of Hastings. Alfred generously spared these captives, and even restored them to Hastings, on condition that he should depart the kingdom.

But though the king had thus honourably rid himself of this dangerous e:icmy, he had not entirely subdued or expelled the invaders. The piratical Danes, willingly followed in an excursion any prosperous leader who gave them hopes of booty; but were not so easily induced to relinquish the'ir enterprise, or submit to return, battled and without plunder, into their native country. Great numbers of them, after the departure of Hastings, seized and fortilied Shoburv, at the mou:h of the Thames; and having left a garrison there, they marched along the river till they came to Bodington, in the county of Gloucester; where, being reinforced by some Welsh, they threw up entrenchments, and •prepared for their defence. The king here surrounded them with the Tyhole force of his dominions; and, as he had now a certain prospect of victory, he resolved to trust nothing to chance, but rather to master hi* enemies by famine, than assault.

They were so reduced, that having eaton tlveir horses, and having many of them perished \\ith hunger, they made a desperate sally upon the English; and, though the greater number fell in the action, a considerable number escaped. These roved about in England, for some time, still pursued by the vigilance of Alfred; they'attacked Leicester with success, defended themselves in Hartford, and then fled to Quatford, where they were fmally broken and subdued.

The small remains of these Danes, either dispersed themselves among their countrymen, in Northumberland and Fast Anglia, or had recourse again to the sea, where they exercised piracy, under the command of Sigefort, a Northumbrian. This freebooter, well acquainted with Alfred's naval preparations, had framed vessels on a new construction; being higher and longer, as well as swifter, than those of the English; but the king soon discovered his superior skill, by building vessels still higher, longer, and swifter, than those of the Northumbrians; and falling upon them while they were exercising their ravages in the west, he took twenty of their ships: and having tried all the prisoners at Winchester, he hanged them as pirates, the common enemies of mankind.

The well-timed severity of this execution, together with the excellent posture of defence established every where, restored full tranquillity in England; and provided for the future security of the government. The East Anglian and Northumbrian Danes, on the lirst appearance of Alfred upon their frontiers, made anew the most humble submissions to him; and he thought it prudent to take them under his immediate government, without establishing over them a. :""roy of their own nation.

Previous to the time of Alfred- and tlurinp that admirable reign, ure have dwelt raflier minutely ou the Danish invasions; but as, at his death, the Danes inhabited nearly the one halt. of England, their future skirmishes and battles may be rather said to be incursions in » country which they partly possessed, than invasions on a strange territory; therefore it would not be consistent with our plan, that only professes to give a History of Invasions, to enlarge it by a history of every battle, when not preceded by invasion. The Danes continued to plunder andjiarass the country with their usual barbarity, from tindeath of Alfred till the end of tlie reign of Kthelred II. a. period of 113 years; at this time they had-contluered the greatest part of England; and Ethelred flying to Normandy with his family, Sweyn, King of Denmark, was proclaimed King oi England. Ethelred was conquered by the Danes chiefly through the treachery of one of his subjects, Edric, Duke of Mercia. This arch traitor held a secret correspondence with the enemy, while he pretended the purest patriotism. Although his treasons were several times pardoned bv Kthelred, and his son and successor, Edmund Ironside, he was still detected in fresli conspiracies against his native country, and its princes. But at length he was justly put to death, by Canute the Great, who even detested the parricide Hut had enabled him and his father, Sweyn, to mount the throne of England, by betraying the interests of that country.

Ethelred, before his departure for Normandy, addressed some of his nobility in a very pathetic manner. He-alluded thus to the treasons of Edric and others: "\Ve are not overcome by the swords or courage of the enemy, but by the treason and perfidy of our friends. Our navy is betrayed* into the hands of the Danes; our armies are betrayed by the revolt of most of our officers; our designs betrayed to the enemy by our councillor--, who, instead of extricating us from our troubles, are continually persuading us to infamous treaties! and vour valour and loyalty is rendered ineffectual by the treachery of your leaders."

On the death of Sweyn, who did not survive a twelvemonth after he mounted the throne of England, two powerful factions divided the nation': the one consisted of Danes, and those English who were well affected to them. The other was formed of the English nobles and commons who were disaffected to the Danish government, and wished to throw off so disagreeable a yoke. The .former immediately proclaimed Canute, the son of Sweyn, King of England. The latter recalled Etheldred. As Canute fled to Denmark, Ethelred remounted the throne. But the Dane returning the following year with a powerful armament, he invaded the southern coast, and In little more than a year, by the deaths of Ethelred and his son Edmund, and Canute's own bravery, he was acknowledged King of all England.

Two more Danish princes, besides Canute, swayed the English seep. tre, till the restoration of the Saxon line ; when all distillations between the two nations gradually disappeared. The Danes were interspersed with the English in most of the provinces; they spoke nearly the same language; they differed little in their manners and laws; •while domestic Uissentions in Denmark prevented any more power1.' C 20 ;)

in*asi«*s from thence, which might awaken past animosity; and as the Norman conquest, which ensued soon after, reduced both nations to equal subjection, there is no farther mention in history of any difference between them.

Norwegian And Norman Invasions.—On the death of Edward the Confeffor, Harold, the second son of Earl Godwin, without the least hereditary pretensions, ascended the throne of England. His family, indeed, in point of great authority, vast possessions, and powerful alliances, was the first Hi the kingdom; and Harold had the policy, in the life-time of Edward, to render himself so popular, that he set aside Elgar Atheling, the lineal heir, in favour of himself, without any disturbance or murmurs. The Dukeof Normandy, nearly related to the Confessor's mother, and who is reported to have been left his successor by the will of Edward, when he heard of Harold's intrigues and accession, was moved to the highest pitch of indignation. He summoned him immediately to resign the crown, which Harold refusing, it fixed William in the resolution of invading England.

It is a mistake that the No-rman language and manners were introduced into England by William. They were brought in by Edward the Confessor, who was educated in Normandy, and had contracted such an intimacy with the natives, and an affection for their manners, as, soon rendered their language, customs, and laws, fashionable throughout the kingdom. The study of the French tongue became general among the people ; and the courtiers affected to-imitate the Normans in their dress, equipage, and entertainments. Even the lawyers employed the French language in their deeds and papers, which was voluntarily introduced before William I. and the greatest church dignities were bestowed on the Norman clergy. This previous fashionable partiality for the laws, manners, and language of Normandy, must have induced the Britons to submit to William, after the death of Haro{d, with the greater facility, which was chiefly owing to the clergy; some of them perhaps being either Normans themselves, or had been educated or patronized by those of that nation, who came over with Edward the Confessor.

William assembled a fleet of 3QOO sail. The ships were made with flat bottoms, to draw but little water, and suitable to the purposes of carrying both men and horses. He had selected an army of 60,000 men. The camp bore a splendid, yet a martial appearance, from the' discipline of the men, the beauty and vigour of the horses, the lustre of the arms, and the accoutrements of buth; but, above all, from the high names of nobility who engaged under the banners of the Duke of iNormandy. To these bold chieftains, the issue of which now compose our greatest families, William held up the spoils of England as the prize of their valour; and, pointing to the opposite shore, called to them, prophetically, that there was the field on which they must erect trophies to their name, and nx their establishments.

While he was making these mighty preparations, that he might increase the number of Harold's enemies, he excited the inveterate ranof Tosti, brother of Harold, and encouraged him> with the King of Norway, to infest tlie coasts of England. His design was to make u diversion in the eaot, while he effected a landing in the south. - The King of Norway appeared at the mofftli of the llumber, with 3 fleet of 300 s;iil. -William had before this entrusted Tosti with 6i) ships and a body of troops, preparatory to the grand blow, in order to harass the English coast, and sound the affections of the people. He ravaged the Isle of Wight- and scoured the coast, but was at last driven back to his ships with great slaughter, several of which were burnt. After sailing to Scotland, to solicit the aid of Malcolm, the successor of Macbeth, he joined the Norwegian monarch oil' the Kuiober. The two fleets sailed up the river, where they landed their forces, and immediately marched forwards to lav siege to the city of York.

This invasion was so sudden and unexpected, that the Earls Edwin and \Iorcar, who were the governors of that country, had not time to few a sufficient force to dispute their landing; however, knowing that something must be done in this critical situation, ln order tocheck tlie enemy in their progress, till a stronger reinforcement could be sent from the southern parts of the kingdom, thev got together a few troops from the adjacent countries, and advanced to oppose the invader*; but these troops, consisting of raw undisciplined men,- were quickly beaten; and the enemy, proceeding forwards, wit down before the citv of York, which soon fell a prey to them, where they put the greatest. part of the inhabitants to the sword.

On the first news nf.the King of Norway's descent, Harold marched •with a chosen .body of veteran troops to oppose him. but could not come up time enough to prevent the fate of York. At length, however, the two armies met near Standford Brigg, since called Battle Bridge. which bridge was guarded by'-a party-of Norwegians, who defended it for some time with great mtrepidity; and, being driven from it, the action became general, and was obstinately maintained by both parties, till victory at length declared in favour of the English. The loss of the invaders was almost incredible; amongst others, their leaders llarfagar and Tosti, were left dead on the field of buttle, and a very considerable booty fell into the hands of the conquerors.

Harold, wisely pursuing this advantage, made himself master ot many-of the Norwegian ships; but at length coming to an agreement with Paul, Count of the Orkneys, and Olaits, the son of the Norway King? he suffered them to carry off their wounded in twenty-one ships, on their swearing nevermore to invade the dominion of England

The defeat of the Norwegians and the death of Tosti greatly disconcerted liie Duke of Normandy; but his resolution, which never forsook him, determined him to pursue his preparations with redoubled vigour, and to obtain the. crown of England, or perish in the attempt. The Emperor, Henry IV. by tiie advice of the imperial council, issued a proclamation, permitting any of the vassals and dependents of the empire to enter into the service'of William. The court of France, • .however, gave him no manner of encouragement to prosecute his enterprise ; advised, or ralher commanded him, as a vassal, not to hue it.

But this discountenance of the Gallic court, was over-balanced by the favour of Pope Alexander the Hd. who, upon William's promising to hold England as a feif of the Apostolic See, immediately excommunicated Harold, pronounced him a perjured traitor, and an usurper, and sent to the Duke of Normandy a ring, with one'of St. Peter's hairs in it, and a consecrated banner.

fie likewise published bulls to sanctify William's cause, and invited all Christians to-assist in placing him on the throne of England. These concurrent circumstances not only roused many foreigners to ioin theNorman standard, but numbers of the English themselves, looking upon Harold as an excommunicated person, deserted him, and joined the euemy of their country.

At length the Duke of Normandy set sail from St. Valery, in the year 1066, on the eve of the feast of St. Michael, the tutelary saiut of the Normans, and landed without opposition, the next day,'at Pevensy, in Sussex, having lost in his passage only two small vessels, that were overladen. The duke is said to have been himself the first who jumped ashore, and the writers of his life have, upon this occasion, adapted to him an incident we meet with in the life of Julius Caesar; for, they tell us, that his foot slipping he fell down, when a soldier standing by, immediately turned it into a good omen; saying, " Sir, vou have thus taken seizeu of that land of which you will shortly be ting." •

After William had thus effected a landing, he acted with the most refined policy, by returning, or as others say, with greater probability, by sending his fleet back to Normandy, that his men might be deprived of any hopes of personal safety, but by victory; then marching to Hastings in Sussex, he erected a fortification, and published a manifesto, containing his reasons for undertaking this enterprize; and setting forth, that he came to revenge the death of Prince Alfred, restore Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, and assist the English in punishing Harold, who had seized the crown, to which he had no right, in direct violation of the oath he bad sworn at theiNorman court. But these reasons were treated as frivolous by every Englishman of good sense; for, in the first place, Alfred had fallen by Godwin, who had been tried and lined for the same; but although that punishment fell far short of the crime, yet Harold could not be involved in the guilt, as it did not appear that he had auy hand nl the murder.

The second reason was no better than the first, though probably inserted in the manifesto, on the Pope's account, to serve as a cover for his partiality to the duke; for, it was well known that prelate had been banished by the general assembly of -lhe kingdom, in Edward's reign, and consequently the present kiirg could not be blamed for it; moreover, it was in itself a wise and justifiable measure, an'd such as was universally appalled of by the English themselves. Thirdly, as to the olfering the English, his. assistance, to bring, Harold to condign punishment, for having seized the crown without right, and in direct contravention to his oath, Ilarold had fully answered every thing that William could alledge on that subject.

What most surprised all thinking people was, that William, in his

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