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times in pieces of 4 or 5 lbs. weight. It is very seldom covered with any coat or crust, but resembles those stones which have been washed off from whole strata, and smoothed or rounded by accident afterwards. Its surface is naturally smooth and glossy; its colour a very elegant blue, beautifully variegated with white or clouded spots, and with gold coloured shining veins. For any purpose but toy-making, it is the most valuable the less it has of these variegations. It is to be chosen of a fine close texture, heavy, of a deep indigo blue colour, having as few gold coloured veins as possible, and such as calcines in a strong fire without emitting any smell. It is sometimes rubbed over with olive oil to increase its colour: this may be discovered by breaking the stone; if it be paler within than without, it is a proof that the stone was falsified; if it be of good quality, its colour will remain unchanged when it is red hot in the fire. The Lapis Armenus, which externally resembles this stone, may be readily distinguished by its being less hard, and soon losing its blue colour in a moderate fire.-Freight, 20 Cwt. to a ton.
LAPIS TUTIE, or Tutty, is an argillaceous ore of Zinc, found in Persia, formed on cylindrical moulds into tubulous pieces of different lengths, like the bark of a tree, and baked to a moderate hardness. On the outside it is of a brown colour, and full of small 'protuberances; smooth and yellowish within, sometimes with a whitish, and sometimes with a blueish cast. The finest is that which is of a good brown on the outside, and a yellow tinge within, thickest, brightest, most granulated, hardest to break, and that which has the least foulness among it.-Freight, 20 Cwt. to a ton.
MASTIC is a concrete resin, obtained from the Lentiscus by transverse incisions made in the bark, about the beginning of August. It is in small yellowish-white transparent drops, of a resinous, and rather astringent taste, with a light, agreeable smell, especially when rubbed or heated. In chewing, it first crumbles, soon after sticks together, and becomes soft and white like wax. It is to be chosen clear, of a pale yellow colour, well-scented, and brittle. Such as inclines to black, green, or is dirty, must be rejected. When free from impurities, it totally dissolves in rectified spirits. The wood of the tree is sometimes imported; it should be chosen heavy, compact, and firm, grey without, and white within, of an astringent taste.
OLIBANUM (Cundur and Gender firozeh, Hind. Cundura, San.) is a gummy resin, produced in Persia and Arabia, in drops or tears. The tree which produces it is called by Dr. Roxburgh, Boswellia Thurifera (Salai, Hind. Sallaci, San.) Olibanum smells moderately strong and resinous, but not very pleasant; the taste is pungent, and somewhat bitter; it sticks to the teeth in chewing, becomes white, and turns saliva milky.
The drops are of a pale yellow colour, which by age becomes reddish. Laid on red hot iron, Olibanum readily catches flame, and burns with a strong diffusive, not unpleasant smell. If it be run into a mass, mixed with dirt and rubbish, having but few tears, it is of little value. Freight, 18 Cwt. to the ton.
OPOPONAX is a concrete gummy-resinous juice, obtained from the root of the Pistaca Opoponax, a flower-bearing plant, which grows in Turkey, Arabia; and Persia. It is of a tolerably firm texture, usually in small grains, but sometimes in large masses, formed by a number of grains connected with a matter of the same kind. The masses are generally loaded with foreign substances, and are much inferior to the pure loose drops. The finest Opoponax is in grains from the size of a pin's head to that of a large pea. The internal colour of these grains is a pale yellow, frequently mixed with white, and externally they incline to a red or orange colour. They are moderately heavy, of a somewhat fat or unctuous appearance, smooth on the surface, of an acrid, bitter taste, and a strong disagreeable smell. Opoponax should be chosen in clear pieces, with the before-mentioned qualities. Such tears as are black, and too hard, should be rejected. The masses or cakes are usually of the black colour, and full of sticks and straws. Opoponax is a valuable gum, and is principally brought from Turkey. Freight, 16 Cwt. to a ton.
PEARL SHELLS, commonly called mother of pearl, are the shells of the pearl-oyster, from the fishery in the Persian Gulph; some of them are from 8 to 10 inches in diameter, nearly of a round form, and thick in proportion. These shells are sent to Bombay, and from thence to China, where they are manufactured into beads, fish, counters, spoons, &c. The larger the size, the more they are esteemed. They are brought to Europe both from India and China; and when stowed loose as dunnage, are generally admitted to pass free of freight. For the Europe market, these shells should be chosen of the largest size, of a beautiful pearlish lustre, thick and even, free from yellow and other spots. Reject such as are small, have barnacles or lumps on them, and that are cracked or broken.— Freight 20 Cwt. to a ton.
ROSE MALOES, an article of trade from India to China, is pearly, the consistence of tar; it is in jars, and particular care should be taken in examining every jar, for there is generally dirt in them. It should be quite clear, not of a yellow, or rosy colour.
ROSE WATER is a considerable article of trade from Persia to Surat and Bombay, and is packed in chests, each chest 24 bottles; but there is a great difference in the size of the bottles, which the purchaser must pay
attention to. The best is of a fine amber colour, strongly partaking of the flavour of the roses, and will keep several years without losing its fragrance. The rose water brought to England is commonly what remains after the attar or oil of roses has been collected.
RUINAS. This root grows in Persia, is somewhat like liquorice both in size and appearance, yields a beautiful red, and is said to give that fine colour which the Indian calicoes have. The roots, when pulled, are very long; they are cut in pieces about a foot long, packed in bags, and sent to various parts of India. When fresh, they are full of juice.
SAL AMMONIAC, or Muriate of Ammonia, (Nosader, Hind.) is brought from Egypt and the East Indies, sometimes in conical loaves, commonly in round cakes, convex on one side, and concave on the other. It should be chosen of a very sharp penetrating taste, white, clear, transparent, dry, the internal part perfectly pure, and of an almost transparent whiteness; the outside is for the most part foul, of a hue inclining to yellow, grey, or black: it should be in every respect as clear as it can be procured. When broken, it should appear as if full of needle points.-Freight 16 Cwt. to the ton.
SARCOCOLLA is a gummy-resinous juice, of a peculiar kind, procured in Persia and Arabia, from a shrub of the Penca genus, but not accurately ascertained, in small, crumbly, spongy, light yellow grains, with a few inclining to red mixed with them. Their taste is somewhat bitter and acrid, followed by a nauseous kind of sweetness; the tears are about the size of a pea; and the whitest, as being the freshest, are preferred. This gum softens in the mouth, bubbles and catches flame from a candle, and dissolves almost wholly in water, when pure and genuine.
SCHIRAZ WINE is much esteemed by the Persians; when old, it is rich, full, and generous, and may be compared with the best production of any country or climate; when new, it has a disagreeable roughness, which age wears off. There are two sorts, white and red, but the former is most esteemed. It is said that 4000 tuns of this wine are annually made in Persia. Its quality has latterly much deteriorated.
SCAMMONY, (Sakmunya, Hind. and Arab.) is the concrete, gummyresinous juice of a species of Convolvolus, growing in Turkey, Syria, and Persia, extracted by laying bare the upper part of the root of the plant, wounding it pretty deeply, and placing a shell, or some other receptacle, to receive the milky juice, which hardens into masses. Scammony is of two kinds, Aleppo and Smyrna. Aleppo Scammony, which is preferable to the other, is in irregular, light, friable masses, of a spongy texture, and different shades of colour, from grey or yellowish white, almost to black. Its surface
is naturally smooth and even between the holes; when fresh broken, it is somewhat bright and glossy, but when powdered, it is of a browner colour; its taste is acrid, nauseous, and rather bitter, accompanied with a faint disagreeable smell. Smyrna Scammony is in compact ponderous pieces, of a black colour, harder and of a stronger smell and taste than the other kind, and full of impurities. The former sort is sometimes to be procured in Persia and in India. It should be chosen so as easily to crumble between the fingers, glossy when fresh broken, of a grey colour, which becomes of a whitish yellow, when touched with a wet finger; and when dissolved in proof spirit, it should leave no dregs. With water it should form a greenish milky fluid. Reject that which is black, solid, or impure. Freight 16 Cwt.
to a ton.
WORM SEED are small, light, oval seeds, of the Santonicum, composed of a number of thin membraneous coats, of a greenish yellow colour, with a cast of brown. These seeds easily crumble, by rubbing between the fingers, into a fine chaffy kind of substance. Their smell is of the wormwood kind, moderately strong, and not very agreeable; taste bitter, and somewhat acrid. Worm Seed should be chosen fresh, inclining to a greenish colour, with a sharp, bitter, disagreeable taste, and having as small a mixture of stalks and leaves as possible. The Turkey or Aleppo sort is most esteemed in England. They are an article of trade from Persia and Arabia to Bombay and Surat.
COASTS OF PERSIA, SCINDY, AND GUZERAT.
THE Coast of Persia extends from the Gulph to Cape Monze, having the following towns-Jasques, Posmee, Chewabad, Gutter Bay, Guadel, Sommeany, besides many smaller.
JASQUES. This town is situated at the bottom of a bay, formed by Cape Jasques to the W., in latitude 25° 38′ N., longitude 58° 10' E., and a low point to the E., where vessels may lie secure from all but S. winds; near the town is a small river, on which there is a bar, over which vessels drawing less than 10 feet water may go, and lie land-locked
along side the shore. Jasques, at the early period of the Company's trade to India, was the resort of their ships trading to Persia.
POSMEE. This town is situated at the bottom of a small bay, formed by Cape Posmee, in latitude about 25° 10′ N., and longitude 59° 5' E. It is small, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen, who are very civil to strangers.
TRADE. Caravans from the interior come down here to barter their commodities, consisting chiefly of dates, dried hides, and cotton, for salt fish, &c. which they carry up the country. Small coasting vessels likewise call in here, and dispose of their goods, consisting of ghee, rice, &c. Their manner of trade is, when they arrive at a town, where there is a probability of selling any thing, to go on shore, build a hut, and retail their goods, taking in return, hides, cotton, &c. and then proceed to the next town.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Water is to be procured here by digging in the sand; but it is very indifferent. A few goats are to be got, but they are very lean and dear. Fish are in abundance.
CHEWABAD, or Churbar Bay, is one of the best on the coast, and is in latitude about 25° 15′ N.; the entrance is between the headland, called Colab, on the W. side, and Churbar low point to the E., having over it a white tomb and some trees. The town is inside the low point, where ships may anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms. Here is a small mud fort, but no cannon; and the town is composed of straggling mat houses. The country is generally dry, barren, and unfruitful.
TRADE.-A trade is carried on here in horses, the breed of which is very good, and camels, for which they receive in return, rice, ghee, and other articles of food.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Goats and sheep are to be had at a moderate price; but neither bullocks nor fowls can be got. some small gardens, which produce vegetables of various kinds. is better here than at any other place on the coast, and easily procured, being very near the shore.
GUTTER BAY.-Noa Point, the E. extreme of this bay, is in latitude 25° 3′ N., and longitude about 61° 5' E. At the bottom of the bay is situated the town, which is small, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen. In crossing the bay from Noa Point, a small hill is seen on the opposite shore, near which is an island, at the mouth of a small bay, called by the natives, Bucker Bunder, where they go to fish. This is said to be one of the places where the pirate vessels from Guzerat lie in the fair weather season, on purpose to plunder the dingies, and other small vessels, which trade on this coast. These pirate gallivats come from Bate, Nowabunder, Jaffrebat, and other ports on the Guzerat Coast. They rove along the coasts of Scindy