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and Persia, and about the entrance of the Persian Gulph, boarding and plundering every small vessel they can master.

GUADEL, OR GWADUR.-Cape Guadel, in latitude about 25° 4′ N., and longitude 63° 12′ E., is a peninsula of moderate height, joined to the main by a neck of land, about half a mile over. A wall fortified with towers formerly extended across the isthmus, from one bay to the other, to protect the town from assaults by land; the ruins of which, also some wells, and a town built with stone, are to be seen: but the few inhabitants now live in a town composed of mat houses, situated close under the N. side of the Cape. The principal part of them are weavers; they manufacture such cloths as serve their own markets, which are dark checks, and very narrow, and some plain carpets of different colours, but not rough. They say there are several large towns in the country, and one situated between Posmee and Guadel; but the principal town of which they speak most, is Lahore, from whence they are supplied with curious matchlocks, of inlaid work, and scimitars, which are for the most part watered after the manner of the Damascus blades. From Cape Jasques to this place, the people call themselves Brodies, and from hence to Crotchey, they take the name of Blochees. There is some difference in their language, and perhaps in their religion, though none is to be observed in their dress or manners.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-A few goats, sheep, and fowls may be purchased, but they are dear. The best water is to be got by digging in the sand; that which is procured from the wells in the town being rather brackish.

SOMMEANY is a small town, situated inside the entrance of Poorally River, in latitude about 25° 30′ N., and longitude 67° 25′ E. It has a mud fort, which is in ruins. The huts composing the town, are constructed of poles and mats; the town is scarcely discernible from the road; the best mark for finding it, is a remarkable gap in the high land at the back of it, which in clear weather cannot escape notice. When it bears N. N. E. E., the river's mouth is N. E. by E., distant about 2 miles, in 4 fathoms water.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Every article of refreshment is very scarce; even the water, which is indifferent, cannot be procured in sufficient quantity, nor without considerable trouble: it is got by digging holes 5 or 6 feet deep, and as much in diameter, near the town, which appears formerly to have been a swamp: if the water oozes through the sand, which does not always happen, it serves them that day, and perhaps the next, but soon becomes quite brackish, owing to the nitrous quality of the earth.

The COAST OF SCINDY extends from Cape Monze to the Gulph of Cutch, a distance of about 80 leagues; it receives its name from the River Scindy or Indus, which disembogues itself into the sea, by many branches extending along the coast. The principal place of trade between Cape Monze and the Indus is

CROTCHEY, OR KORAUCHEE, which is known by several small islands to the N., and by a white tomb, or pagoda, built on a promontory, which bounds the W. side of the harbour, and at a distance appears like an island; the entrance into the bay is between the promontory and the largest island. To anchor in the road outside, the tomb should be brought to bear N. W. by N., to avoid some foul ground. The town of Crotchey is about 6 miles from the anchorage, near a mile from the side of a small creek, which can admit only small boats, and is in latitude about 24° 46′ N. The streets are very narrow and dirty, abounding with filth of all kinds, which makes the place very unhealthy; the houses are of the simplest structure; the walls of mud and straw, mixed into a paste, and the roofs, which are flat, covered with the same materials. Of timber, the country is entirely destitute; what is required for building houses and boats, is brought from Malabar and Bombay. This town formerly belonged to the Blochees; but the Prince of Scindy, finding it more convenient than any part of his seacoast, for the caravans from the inland countries, made an exchange of some other place for it. It seems the caravans cannot come from the interior to Tatta, as formerly, on account of the branches of the Indus being so wide and deep as to render it impossible for camels to pass; but having no such difficulty in the road to Crotchey, the trade has much increased, and continues to flourish. The population of Crotchey is estimated at 10,000 souls; the men are chiefly merchants and mechanics, who carry on a considerable trade to Muscat, Surat, Bombay, and the Malabar Coast; there is also a very large inland traffic by camels to Candahar and Cabul.

TRADE.-From Surat, Bombay, Muscat, and the Coast of Malabar are imported the following articles :-Betel-nut, cardamums, cochineal, cloves, cloths, China ware, cassia lignea, copper, iron in bars, ironmongery, lead, looking-glasses, nutmegs, pepper, piece-goods, rice, sapan-wood, sugar, sandal-wood, saffron, tin, tutenague, timber, and vermilion. By the caravans from Cabul and Candahar are brought almonds, cummin-seeds, dates, ghee, grain, hides, oil, and piece-goods.

The exports consist of the before-enumerated articles and cotton, which are generally sent to Bombay.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Black cattle, sheep, and goats are

to be had, but not reasonably. The necessaries of life are, however, plentiful, and the country abounds with wild geese, ducks, teal, partridges, snipes, hares, and deer. Poultry is abundant. Little or no regard is paid to vegetables here; excepting a few spots in the neighbourhood of the town, which produce a small quantity of carrots, radishes, and a few other roots, there is nothing of the kind for 40 miles round. The water is very indifferent; and in consequence of the distance from the harbour, the expence of shipping it is considerable.

LARIBUNDER.-This is commonly called Scindy River, being the principal branch of the Indus, having 15 feet water on the bar, and 6 or 7 fathoms inside; it is situated in latitude about 24° 30′ N., having a pagoda on the W. side of its entrance. The town of Laribunder is about 5 leagues from the sea, and vessels of 200 tons used to proceed up to it; but of late years the navigation has become obstructed by shoals. The town contains about 100 houses, chiefly built of bamboos and mats. farther up the river stands

About 50 miles

TATTA, the capital of the province, in latitude 24° 44' N., and longitude 68° 17′ E., which was formerly very large; it stands about 2 miles from the river side, from whence it has canals cut, to convey vessels and merchandise to it. The river hereabouts is a mile broad, having 5 and 6 fathoms water in the channel, and is navigable by small vessels an immense distance up the country.

TRADE.-A considerable trade is carried on with the Gulphs of Persia and Arabia, with Bombay and Surat, by both of the principal branches of the river.

AURUNGABUNDER, (Bunder signifies harbour), called also Darah, is in latitude about 23° 50′ N., and has a wide entrance, abreast of which ships anchor, but shoal water is found on the banks near its mouth. It is navigable for boats of burthen, and a considerable trade is carried on with Tatta, from whence it is distant about 50 miles, by the course of the Indus. Vessels from Surat, Bombay, and other parts of India frequent this place.

TRADE. From Bombay, and other parts of the British dominions, are imported the following commodities:-copper, cochineal, cardamums, cassia, coarse cutlery, glass-ware, ironmongery, iron, nutmegs, piece-goods, pepper, raw silk, sugar, steel, tutenague, treasure, and a few other articles, principally the produce and manufacture of India and China.

The principal article of export is cotton, which, with drugs, grain, shawls, ghee, oil, sharks' fins, and cattle for the Company's marine, forms the returning cargoes to British India.

DUTIES, PRESENTS, &c.-The import duties are 2 per cent. following is a list of charges on a vessel sent from Bombay :

Boat-hire from the Bunder to Tatta with cargo, each boat
Anchorage on coming over the bar

Presents to the Shabundar's deputy in money and goods
Ditto ..................... weigherman in ditto
Ditto ..................... custom-house writers and servants




Rupees 15



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Sundry petty officers under Government, in money and goods 17

The above, with various presents of glass-ware, muslins, cloth, telescopes, &c. to the various people in office, amounted to upwards of 2,400 Bombay rupees.

COINS.-Accounts are kept in rupees, carivals, and pice; 12 pice making a carival, and 50 carivals a rupee. Cowries are current in Scindy, and are occasionally circulated here at 48 per pice. Bombay money and other foreign coins pass here. There is a difference of 3 dwts. 141⁄2 grs. troy between the weight of 100 gold Venetians at Judda and at Bombay; viz.

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WEIGHTS.-Gold and silver are weighed by the tola, equal to 179 English grains nearly; heavy goods by the maund, equal to 74 lbs. 5 oz. 7 dr. avoirdupois; the divisions as follow:

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Diamonds and pearls are sold by hubbas and ruttees; 8 hubbas equal

to 1 ruttee, about 2 grains troy.

MEASURES.-The measures for grain and cloth are as follow:

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The carival weighs 24 Cutcha seers. The carival of barley is 19 Pucca maunds; of paddy, 20 Pucca maunds; and of wheat, 22 Pucca maunds, or 21 Bombay parahs.

The GULPH OF CUTCH extends a considerable distance to the E., at the head of which is a low barren track, annually overflowed by the sea during the monsoon, and is said at certain seasons to communicate with the river Ran in the Gulph of Cambay, thereby making what is commonly called the peninsula of Guzerat, an island. The Gulph is formed by the coast of Cutch to the N., and that of Guzerat to the S.; it contains numerous shoals, and being but little frequented by Europeans, is but imperfectly known. The principal place of trade is

MUDDI, OR MUSKER MAUNDVEE: this is the great port of Cutch, and is situated in latitude 22° 50′ N., and longitude 69° 25′ E. The capital, called Bhooj, whence this province is called Cutch-Bhooj, is about 25 miles to the N. W. Muddi is large, and strongly fortified; the houses are indifferent, principally constructed of mats and bamboos. Eight miles to the N. is a pagoda, called Assara, from a town of that name in its vicinity. Off this pagoda, and a small way to the W. of it, there are rocks near the shore above water, which seem to be tbe termination of the broken and bad ground in that direction. All to the E., and as far to the S. as 22° 40′ N., is foul ground, and irregular soundings: and the natives in their accounts agree with all the charts extant, in describing the Gulph quite across to the other coast, to be full of shoals both of sand and rocks. A vessel bound to Muddi from any quarter not in the Gulph, should be careful to make the Cutch coast, to the W. of Assara pagoda; and if a leading wind, keep along shore about E., in 8 fathoms; and if obliged to work, her tacks must be short, always taking care to go about as soon as she shoals on the off-shore tack. Between Muddi and the opposite coast a passage boat goes daily. TRADE.-A considerable commerce is carried on between this place and the British Settlement of Bombay. The principal article of produce is cotton, which is inferior to most of what is grown in the neighbourhood of Surat and the Gulph of Cambay. Many of the principal Bombay merchants have agents residing here to transact their business. Some trade is likewise carried on with the Persian Gulph.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-No animal food is to be procured, but by stealth; and rice, &c. only in small quantities, which must be paid for as soon as received. There is tolerable water to be got, brought down by women to the landing-place, at the rate of 2 silver cowries per leager.

COINS. The only coin belonging to the place is of silver, called a cowrie. The exchange varies from 285 to 295 cowries per 100 Bombay or Surat rupees. All Indian coins pass current here. Their value fluctuates ac

cording to the quantity in the market.

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