« EdellinenJatka »
WEIGHTS.-The weights are seers and maunds, the latter of two sorts,
The Pucca maund is 2 Cutch maunds, and 20 Cutch maunds are equal to 1 Surat candy.
MEASURES.-The measures are the grah and the guz, 16 grahs making 1 guz, about 34 English inches. Broad cloth, velvet, silks, &c. are sold by this measure; though the shopkeepers in the bazar often sell by hand, from the finger's end to the elbow, &c.: this is rejected by the merchants.
The COAST OF GUZERAT, from the head of the Gulph of Cutch, to the islands near Jigat Point, is but little known.
BATE. This island, and that of Artura, are situated about 10 miles N. E. from Jigat Point, and with the main form the harbour of Bate, which is well sheltered from all winds. The entrance to it is in latitude 22° 31′ N., where there is, directly to the N. of Artura, about a mile distant, the bar, having on it near high water, 3 and 3 fathoms, rocky bottom, and outside of it, at half a mile distant, 14 and 16 fathoms. The island is about five miles long from N. E. to S. W., somewhat in the shape of the letter S, with the lower part of it cut off; the fort is situated on the W. side of the island, and is a place of considerable strength. A ship drawing 17 feet water, can get within half a mile of it; but the passage is narrow and dangerous. The latitude of the castle is 22° 28' N.; the longitude 69° 20′ E.
TRADE.-Bate produces coco-nuts, betel-nut, and grain, but in small quantities, and some trade is carried on, in dates, sugar, and rice, in dows, having the Rajah of Bate's pass.
JIGAT.-Jigat Point is in latitude 22° 20' N., and longitude 69° 16' E. On it is a pagoda; the place where it stands was formerly called Jigat More, but now by the Hindoos, Dorecur. At a distance the pagoda has very much the appearance of a ship under sail. In the vicinity of it are a number of small buildings, probably tombs. The wall of the pagoda extends to the sea-beach, and can be approached very near by a vessel; but there is no anchoring with safety, it being all rocky ground. Great numbers of pilgrims from the interior visit Jigat pagoda, and are supplied with necessaries from Goomtee and Bate.-About a gun-shot within the pagoda is GOOMTEE.-The town is strongly fortified, and is the place where
the principal persons reside, who used to fit out vessels for piratical purposes. A ship can approach within gun-shot of this fort without danger. Near Goomtee is a small fort, called Cutch Ghur, belonging to the Rajah of Bhooj, and garrisoned by his troops, for the purpose of claiming any property that may be captured by the pirates belonging to the Cutch merchants.
The Coast of Guzerat, from Jigat Point to Diu Head, is but little known to Europeans, being seldom frequented, on account of the pirates, who are very numerous here. The principal towns are Poorbunder, in latitude about 21° 40′ N., and longitude 69° 45′ E.; Novibunder, in latitude about 21° 25′ N., and longitude 70° 7′ E.; Mangarole, in latitude 21° 5' N., and longitude 70° 23′ E.; and Pattan, in latitude 20° 50′ N., and longitude 70° 40 E.
DIU belongs to the Portuguese. This island is about 2 miles from Diu Head, the S. point of the coast of Guzerat, which is in latitude 20° 42 N., and longitude 71° 7′ E. The channel between is only navigable by fishing boats at half-tide, the W. entrance having but 4 or 5 feet at low water on the bar. This entrance is defended by a square fort. Diu Island is about 6 miles long from E. to W., and 14 broad from N. to S.: on the E. end of it the castle and town are situated.
It is one of the best built There are only two gates, one of the sea, the other of the land, and both are shut at sunset. The houses within the walls are built of free-stone. The streets are extremely narrow, but kept very clean. The landing place is at a flight of stone steps opposite the custom-house, at the entrance of which are many shops and warehouses for goods. On the E. side of the castle there is water sufficient for a 74 gun ship within 500 yards of the walls, if she avoids a rock above water, which is joined to a line of rocks from the shore. The island is well situated for trade.
and most strongly fortified cities in India.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The market is well supplied with vegetables, which come from the main. Fish and fowls are very plentiful; the latter are dearer here than at Dumaun, but cheaper than at any of the English ports. Beef they are obliged to procure in a clandestine manner, and kill it within the castle, on account of the principal merchants being Hindoos, whose friendship is of the utmost importance to the place, as the revenues of the custom-house are the only support of the garrison. Most of the water on the island is brackish; that which is for use, is kept in large reservoirs, and will last the garrison and shipping from season to
season. It is all rain water, conveyed to the wharf in a channel, and delivered by a cock to the boats.
JAFFREBAT, OR JAFFRABAD, next to Diu, is the principal place for trade in Guzerat. It is in latitude 20° 5' N., longitude 71° 38′ E., and about 6 miles to the W. of Searbett Island. It has the best river on this coast, owing to its easy entrance, having no bar. It is shallow, but vessels will receive no damage by lying in the soft mud at low water, as they are well sheltered from all winds. This town belongs to the Siddee of Radjapore. The Governor is said to behave civilly to the English, who occasionally visit this place.
SEARBETT ISLAND.-The centre of this island is in latitude 20° 55' N., and longitude 71° 40′ E. Its form is that of an irregular triangle. It affords shelter to vessels against both monsoons. The village is on the N. side of the island, consisting of thirty or forty houses, built of stone, and thatched with straw. The inhabitants are about 200 in number. The greater part of the island is laid out in fields of Badjeree grain, the rearing of which is the chief employment of the people. They have several wells of excellent water. This island, which is subject to the Siddee of Radjapore, is the receptacle of all the pirates on the coast; and here they are supplied with grain and water, being always ready to put to sea whenever they find it seasonable.
GOAPNAUT POINT is in latitude 21° 12′ N., and so called by the Gentoos, in consequence of a famous place of worship which is built here, dedicated to their god, Goapnaut. This building is said to be of mud, but it has the appearance of a fortification, with a very high flagstaff to it, and the priests who attend here, keep a flag constantly flying. It has a few thick bushy trees about it, forming a neat regular grove. This point may be seen 5 or 6 leagues in clear weather, and has a dangerous shoal projecting near four miles from it to the E.
GOGO is 7 miles to the N. W. of the small island of Peram, and is in latitude 21° 41' N., and longitude 72° 23′ E. It is a place of some trade, and has fortifications sufficiently strong to resist any attack from the neighbouring pirates. The houses are mostly built of stone, and there being many old erections, a person wanting to build, purchases three or four of them, on purpose to have the stones for his house. Most of them are two stories high, but very close and badly planned for a hot climate; they are generally tiled, and form a very pleasant prospect from the road where the small vessels anchor, which is in about 3 fathoms, directly abreast of the town, the pagoda on Peram bearing S. S. E. Gogo is chiefly inhabited by Lascars, whose number is computed to be about 2,000, fit for sea, when
all present, which seldom or never is the case. Small vessels, from 50 to 250 tons burthen, are built here; and ships may have any damage repaired with ease and expedition, and receive a supply of necessary stores.
TRADE. The greater part of the cotton grown in this neighbourhood, and Bownaghur, is shipped from hence to Bombay; and the vessels bring, in return, various articles of European, East Indian, and China produce.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The market is but poorly supplied; vegetables are scarce, though there are a number of Banians who subsist on nothing else. Fish is not to be had at any rate, except a few mud worms, called by the natives, newtee. Mutton is seldom killed, because no one can afford to purchase it, but on their great feast days. Beef is never killed for the same reasons, and also to oblige the Bramin and Hindoo merchants who reside here. They are badly off for fresh water, all about the town being brackish, as that and a great portion inland is overflowed every high spring; they are therefore obliged to bring the water for drinking, the distance of four or five miles. Firewood is likewise very scarce. Fowls are good, and tolerably cheap; these, with eggs, butter, and milk, are all an European can get to subsist upon.
COAST OF INDIA FROM CAMBAY TO BOMBAY.
CAMBAY is the seaport to Ahmedabad, the capital of the province, and is in latitude 22° 24' N.; it is of considerable size, and was formerly a place of great trade. The tides are very strong and rapid here; at highwater spring-tides there are 5 or 6 fathoms water, and ships could anchor near the city; but at low water it is quite dry, except some channels, in which there remain 3 or 4 feet, so that vessels in the river must lie quite aground, though they do not suffer much in that situation, from the bottom being soft. The streets are large, and have all gates at the end, which are shut in the night-time; in that part next the sea, are to be seen the remains of some fine houses, built by the Portuguese when they resided here. The
inhabitants are numerous, composed of all nations, who carry on a trade with many parts of India. Large quantities of piece-goods manufactured at Ahmedabad, and cotton, are annually shipped from hence to Bombay. Cambay is the only place where cornelian stones are procured.
TRADE. Besides the before-named articles, the chief exports to British India are ghee, grain, oils, putchock, seeds, tobacco, soap, shawls, drugs, horses, &c. The chief imports from thence are betel-nut, woollens, metals, coco-nuts, piece-goods, pepper, silk, sugar, ivory, spices, drugs, and
DUTIES, PORT CHARGES, &c.—The following customs are paid by the English on goods sold here:
Company's duty..................2 per cent.
Commission to the chief ......2 ditto.
Brokerage..... ...............2 per cent.
COINS.-Gold mohurs, rupees, and pice, are the current coin; 48 pice make 1 rupee. For small change, a species of almond, called Baddam, brought from Persia, is used in the same manner as cowries at Bengal; the general rate is about 60 per pice.
Foreign coins are taken according to weight; their price varying in proportion to the supply and demand.
WEIGHTS.—The Cambay weights are the same as those of Surat, subject to a difference in the allowance on goods bought and sold, thus
At Surat, metal is............
.40 seers to the maund. ..........................40 seers 11 pice to ditto;
besides a rebate of per cent. on the whole weight.
MEASURES.-The long measures are the cubit, about 18 inches, and the guz, of 28, or in the bazar, of 28 inches.
JUMBASEER.-This road lies in latitude 21° 49′ N., and may be known by a pagoda on the N. side of the river called Diu. The marks for anchoring are the pagoda N. E. by E., Jumbaseer point E. by N., in 7 fathoms water. The tide rises from 33 to 36 feet perpendicular. The town is situated up the river, from whence a great trade is carried on in cotton, piece-goods, grain, and oil, with Bombay and other places.
BAROACH is about 8 leagues up the River Nerbudda on its N. side: half-way between the town and the sea, the river divides itself into two branches, and forms a long and narrow island, on each side of which they run into the Gulph of Cambay, in the direction of E. S. E. and W. S. W.
SURAT is on the S. side of the River Taptee, about 20 miles from the sea. Vaux's Tomb, on Swalley Point, the N. side of the entrance of