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GUNPOWDER.-Owners' Instructions." You are to pay at every port you anchor at belonging to the Company, one barrel of gunpowder, and take a receipt for the same; by the neglect thereof, several ships have paid five guineas after their arrival in England.”

Immediately on a ship's arrival in Bombay harbour, the gunpowder is landed, and sent to the Company's magazine, where it is dried, and repacked, if necessary. The charges attending the landing, drying, reshipping, &c. are considerable, seldom amounting to less than 150 rupees

each ship.

Regulations relative to Gunpowder.-All powder on private account will be received at the magazine, and at no other place.

Application for receipt or delivery must be made at the office of the commissary of stores, at least twelve hours beforehand.

None can be admitted except in complete and unexceptionable packages, perfectly free from iron, and not covered. Where any are tendered which the commissary or his people may think objectionable, he has orders to substitute proper barrels, which will be charged to the owners.

As the magazine is infested with white ants, it is recommended to such as may have powder to lodge, to provide themselves with teak-wood barrels, or boxes. The Company cannot be at any charge on account of the damage thus occasioned; and whenever it occurs, the commissary will substitute teak-wood barrels, which will be charged to the owners; and similarly in all cases where, from decay, or other causes, the packages may become objectionable.

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SEAMEN'S WAGES, &c.-In the event of being obliged to ship lascars, in lieu of seamen pressed into His Majesty's service, their pay is as follows, which is paid at the Presidency six months in advance, viz.

1 serang, 6 30 rupees per month

1 tindal, ditto


20 ditto

Rupees 180

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Batta money to be repaid in England without interest .......... 350

The practice of paying so much wages in advance may be considered the cause of so many fires occurring amongst the Bombay shipping, as there is reason to believe they are often intentional.

Lascars are likewise employed in the monsoon to assist in working the ship out; their pay is as follows:-serang 250 reas per day; tindal 175 reas per day; and each lascar 125 reas. A country boat is also occasionally employed in lieu of the ships' boats, for carrying off provisions, &c. at 2 rupees per day.

BOAT AND COOLEY HIRE.-The ship's long boat is generally employed in landing the investments of the commander and officers, and in carrying off stores, water, &c. The charges for cooley hire are these:

1 sling and men for carrying a butt of beer, or pipe of wine.Rupee 1 0 0 1 --~~~~⌁a hogshead or a chest of wine 0 2 0 Hoisting from the boat upon the wharf at the Bunder, per butt... 0 1 0

For carrying dead weight, 4 annas per candy; 1 anna per candy for hoisting; and 2 annas per candy for weighing. For cases and other packages, according to weight and dimensions.

RATES OF COMMISSION.-On the sale or purchase of goods of all denominations, (except the following,) 5 per cent. On the sale or purchase of ships, houses, and lands, 2 ditto. On the sale or purchase of diamonds, pearls, and every description of jewellery, 24 ditto. On the sale or purchase of treasure, or bullion, 1 ditto. On goods consigned for sale, and afterwards withdrawn, half commission. On procuring freight, whether to Europe or elsewhere, 5 per cent. On shipping for Europe or elsewhere, bale or gruff goods of every description, 24 ditto. On shipping for Europe or elsewhere, diamonds, pearls, jewellery, or bullion, 1 ditto. On ship's disbursements, when no commission has been previously charged on freight or cargo, 2 ditto. On effecting insurances, in the insurance office, ditto; by private underwriters, 1 ditto. On settling insurance losses with the office, ditto; with private underwriters, 1 ditto. On del credere, or guaranteeing the responsibility of persons to whom goods are sold, on the amount sale, ditto. On the sale or purchase of cattle of every description, 5 ditto. On collecting house rent, 2 ditto. On effecting remittances by bills of exchange, 1 ditto. On taking up interest bills from the Company, exclusive of 1 per cent. on remitting, ditto. On the sale or purchase of public or private bills and Company's paper, ditto. On exchanging one description of Company's paper for another, on investing money in the public loans, and on transferring Government securities from one constituent to another, ditto. On



surrendering or depositing in the Treasury, Company's securities, On public or private securities, jewels, or other valuables lodged, and afterwards withdrawn before the amount is realized, half commission. On procuring money on Respondentia, or on loan, 2 per cent. On recovery of bonds or bills for persons returned to Europe, over due, 2 ditto. On debts, where a process at law or arbitration is necessary, 2 ditto; and if recovered through such means, 5 ditto. On managing the affairs of an estate for an executor or administrator, on the amount recovered, 5 ditto. On bills of exchange returned noted or protested, &c., 1 ditto. On guaranteeing bills or bonds by indorsement or otherwise, 2 ditto. On attending the delivery of contract goods, 1 ditto. On goods consigned, and afterwards withdrawn, on invoice cost, 2 ditto. On granting letters of credit, 2 ditto. On becoming security to Government or public bodies, 2 ditto. On goods consigned, which are disposed of by outcry, or sent to a shop, on net proceeds, 2 ditto. On the receipt and payment of all monies not arising from the proceeds of goods on which commission has already been charged, (or { per cent. on receiving, and per cent. on paying, at the option of the agent), independently of any charge that may become requisite through the necessity of employing agents elsewhere, 1 ditto. Where the debtor side of the account exceeds the creditor side by advances made, the agent to have the option of charging his commission upon the total of either; and the balance of interest carried forward to the account of the current year, to be considered as money paid or received, and chargeable accordingly, 1 ditto.

When the balance of an account due by the constituent is brought forward from an account of the preceding year, and not paid in the course of the succeeding one, commission may be charged thereon, or upon the residue that may be unpaid: the agent in the latter case to have the option of charging his commission upon the residue, or upon the sums received towards the discharge of the original balance due at the commencement of the year, 1 per cent.

SALE COMMISSION.-In the event of the whole of an investment not being disposed of by private sale, the remainder is sent to auction, or to a commission warehouse for sale, of which there are several in the Settlement, where every attention is paid to the lotting and arranging the property, and the value guranteed on the following terms, vix.

ON PRIVATE SALES.-A commission of 5 per cent. on what is sold; 1 per cent. for goods sold by the proprietor after having been deposited for sale in the warehouse, but no charge will be made for goods returned unsold.

ON PUBLIC SALES.-A commission of 5 per cent. on all goods and

furniture, advertisements and cooley hire not included; the amount sales payable at one month from the day of the sale, or before, if required, on deducting the usual interest of three-quarters per cent. per month.

ON PRIVATE OR PUBLIC SALES.-On horses, carriages, or any other article, when sold from 500 to 1000 rupees, 2 per cent. ; from 1000 to 5000 one per cent.

Houses, land, or ships, one half per cent. payable on receipt, agreeable to the terms of sale.

Articles exposed for public sale, and bought in on account of the proprietor, one per cent., unless left to be sold to the highest bidder at the next public sale; in which case no charge will be made for their having been bought in at the first sale.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The Island of Bombay scarcely produces any articles of consumption. It is supplied with food for its numerous inhabitants from various parts of India, and every article is much dearer than at either of the other Presidencies. Considerable quantities of rice and other grain are annually imported. The prices are continually fluctuating, from the uncertain state of the market, which is under the superintendence of the Police.

Arrack from Goa, Columbo and Batavia, at one to two rupees per gallon, according to the quality; out Bengal rum, equal to some of the West India rum, is occasionally to be procured from the Company's stores, at an advance of 15 per cent. on the prime cost at Calcutta.

Water is supplied by pipes from the Bunder, and the casks filled with a hose, for which a charge made, is by the marine paymaster, of one rupee per ton. It is generally carried off in the ship's long-boat; but large country boats are to be preferred for that purpose.

COINS.-Accounts are kept at Bombay in rupees of 4 quarters and

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£ s. D. Q. D.P.

make ............1 urdee................. .0 0 0 0 60

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6 reas, or 3 urdees......... 8 reas, or 4 urdees......... 31 fuddeas, or pice....................... 121 fuddeas, or 4 annas 35 fuddeas, or 8 annas 50 fuddeas, or 16 annas

5 rupees........




3 pauncheas, or 15 rupees

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..1 rupee

..1 paunchea................0 12 6 ............1 gold mohur ............1 17 6

The annas and reas are imaginary money.


Remarks on the Coins of Bombay.

SILVER. The old Bombay rupee is the same as was coined at Surat under the Mogul Government. It weighed 178.314 grains, and contained 1.24 per cent. of alloy. By an ancient agreement with the Nabob of Surat, the rupee of both Governments was to circulate through both at an equal value; while they mutually pledged themselves to keep up the coin to its exact standard of weight and fineness. The Nabob, however, did not keep to this agreement; for his rupees were found soon afterwards to contain, instead of 1.24 per cent. of alloy, no less than 10,12, and even 15 per cent. The consequence of this was, that all the Bombay rupees were carried to Surat to be recoined. This mint was entirely stopped in its silver coinage for more than twenty years, and the circulation of silver was occupied by the Surat rupee.

In this situation of things the merchants could not afford to coin their bullion here, and therefore Bombay was long without a silver coinage of its own; when Government in 1800 ordered the Surat rupee to be struck in this mint, and since that time the rupee has been kept at an equal value in both mints. In both the silver rupee weighs 179 grains, and contains 7.97 per cent. of alloy.

GOLD.-In the year 1774 the gold mohur was made of the same weight as the silver rupee. It was ordered to be of the fineness of a Venetian, and to pass for 15 silver rupees. In this coinage, therefore, 14.9 grains of silver represented one grain of gold; for such is the proportion between the quantity of gold in this gold mohur, and the silver in 15 old Bombay rupees. When the Surat silver currency had occupied the circulation, this proportion between gold and silver was quite destroyed; so that gold coined according to Regulation of 1774, was now exchanged for no more than thirteen times. its weight in silver, and often for much less.

In order to remedy this, and to bring back the coins of gold and silver to nearly their ancient proportions, and their relative value in the market, it was ordered in 1800, that the gold mohur should be of the same weight as the silver rupee, that it should contain the same quantity of alloy, and that it should pass for 15 rupees.

The present weight, fineness, and sterling value of the gold and silver rupees of Bombay are as follow, according to the new money system:

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From the following recent official report from the Bombay Assay Office,

the value of the coins current at Bombay, or imported from other parts, may be ascertained with little difficulty, and with perfect accuracy.

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