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peak is in latitude 14° 56′ N., longitude 14° 22′ W. On the W. side of the island is a small town, off which vessels may anchor in 10 fathoms, and where a few provisions may be procured.
BRAVA is about 6 leagues to the W. of Fogo. Its S. side is in latitude 14° 51' N., longitude 25° 42′ W. It has a few black inhabitants, harmless and hospitable. Its products are salt, corn, live stock, and fish.
ST. NICHOLAS is about 10 miles long, and 3 broad. It is high and mountainous. Its E. end is in latitude 16° 25′ N., longitude about 24° 10′ W. There are two good bays: one, called Preguica Bay, on the S. W. side, is about 7 miles from the E. end. At this place is good landing, and plenty of water in fine weather, from a pond supplied by the mountains; but no other refreshments. The other bay, on the N. W., is 4 leagues from the S. W. end, and called St. George's Bay. Here every article of refreshment, except good water, is procured, and at no other place in the island. There is a town about 4 miles from the bay.
ST. LUCIA is about 5 leagues long, and 1 broad. It is uninhabited, but contains wild bullocks and goats. At the S. E. part there is a good road between two small isles.
ST. VINCENT is about 4 leagues to the N. W. of St. Lucia, and has a good bay on its S. W. side. This island is uninhabited; but has wild asses, and is well stored with wood and water.
ST. ANTONIO, the furthest to the N. W., is about 9 leagues long, and 4 broad. It has two remarkable mountains, one called the Sugarloaf. On the S. E. side is the town of Santa Cruz, in a bay, of which the ground is very indifferent. The island produces wine, cotton, indigo, orchilla-weed, &c., and plenty of wood, provisions, and refreshments. The N. W. point of the island is in latitude 17° 10' N., longitude 25° 3′ W.
BRAZIL.-The ports frequented by East India outward-bound ships, which stop on the coast of Brazil for refreshment, are those of St. Salvador and Rio de Janeiro.
ST. SALVADOR, or BAHIA.-The entrance into the Bay of All Saints is between a large island, called Taporica, to the W., and a peninsula
on which the City of St. Salvador is built, to the E. The anchorage is abreast of the City, in 8 to 12 fathoms, a mile or a mile and a half distant. On the extremity of the peninsula is a light-house. The bay is capacious, and a great number of ships may ride in it secure from all winds.
The City is on the right-hand side of the bay, in latitude 12° 46′ S:, longitude 38° 40′ W., and was formerly the capital of Brazil, though now subordinate to Rio de Janeiro. The upper town is built on the summit of a steep hill; the lower is situated at the bottom of the hill, and parallel to the beach. They are connected by streets running slantwise up the eminence. The people of business reside in the lower town. In the middle of the town is the great square. The streets are confined, badly paved, and dirty.
St. Salvador is well defended. Fort Mar stands on a small rocky bank of the inner bay, about three-quarters of a mile from the shore, and is used as a magazine: all vessels, except of war, must land their powder on arriving in the bay. The Dockyard is defended by Fort St. Philip, and the inhabited part of the beach by several batteries. Extensive fortifications protect the land-side. The City is computed to contain about 30,000 whites, 30,000 mulattoes, and 40,000 negroes.
At the lower town, near the beach, stand the custom-house and wharfs, royal dockyard, arsenal, marine storehouse, magazines, and residence of the Intendant. The dockyard admits the building of but one ship of the line at a time. In the private yards at Tagapippe, ships of all dimensions are built with the greatest dispatch. The timber is good; labour and materials are cheaper than at Rio de Janeiro. The English have the privilege, by treaty, of obtaining timber, and constructing or repairing ships of war, in any harbour of the Portuguese dominions.
The accommodations at St. Salvador are miserable. There is no inn; a house must be taken and furnished for a temporary residence on shore.
TRADE.-The coasting trade is very considerable. The exports are cotton (the chief article), received from the neighbourhood, and sorted, weighed, and baled; sugar, tobacco, drugs, &c. The foreign trade has much increased since the separation from the mother country; but commerce is by no means in a settled state.
PORT REGULATIONS AND CHARGES.-Officers visit every merchant vessel on its arrival, to prevent illicit trade. The charges formerly were very heavy; they are now reduced, but they cannot be accurately stated.
The charges for caulkers from the shore were as follow:-masterworkman 1200 reas per day; first assistant, working high up, 800; when low down, 1400; second assistant, 500 and 1000.
A charge of 400 reas is made for coolies; and on the departure of a ship, the under-linguist at the wharf expects a present.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS are now obtained freely. On fastdays no supplies are granted. Beef is bad and dear. Poultry is more reasonable. Fruits are procurable in the market held in the lower town; vegetables are abundant, and the bay produces a great variety of fish.
RIO DE JANEIRO, called also St. Sebastian, is the capital of Brazil. The entrance of the harbour, one of the finest in the world, is about 22 leagues from Cape Frio, which is in latitude 23° 1′ S., longitude 41° 50′ W., and may be known by its sugar-loaf hill at the W. point of the bay. The entrance is not very wide; but the breeze which blows daily, from 10 to 12 o'clock till sunset, enables ships to go in before the wind; it gradually widens, and abreast of the town there is room for the largest fleet. The entrance is defended by the strong fort of Santa Cruz, and the fortified isle of St. Lucia; between these is the channel. It is proper to moor as soon as possible.
The City of St. Sebastian is on the W. side of the river, about 4 miles from the entrance, on a projecting point of land. Its length is about 11⁄2 mile; its breadth about three-quarters of a mile. On the promontory is a strong fortification, completely commanding the town and anchorage; opposite this point is the Isla de Cobras, on the highest part of which stands the citadel. This island is 300 yards long; it slants to about eight feet at the inner end; round and close to it, ships of the greatest draught may lay securely. It has a commodious dock-yard, with magazines and storehouses, and a wharf for heaving down and repairing ships.
The common landing-place is in the centre of a noble stone quay; near which is an obelisk, whence a stream of good water issues for the supply of shipping. The houses are handsome; the streets are generally straight and well-paved; the shops are numerous, and well stocked with European and Asiatic commodities.
TRADE. The principal articles of import into the Brazils from Great Britain, in 1821, were foreign and colonial merchandize, viz. flour, cod-fish, wines, and spirits, official value £21,718; British and Irish produce amounting, in declared value, to £1,857,006: these articles consisted of cottons, woollens, linens, provisions, copper and brass, glass and earthenware, hardware, cutlery, hats, iron, leather, haberdashery, cordage, apparel, fire-arms, and gunpowder, mills and machinery, plate, plated ware, jewellery, salt, soap and candles, stationery, tin, pewter, lead and shot, &c. The chief exports to Great Britain in the same year were annotto, balsam, bark, cocoa, coffee, horse-hair, hides, India rattans, isinglass, precious stones,
drugs, sugar, tallow, tapioca, Brazil, fustic and rose-wood, cotton-wool, &c., to the amount, in official value, of £1,181,857. The demand for Indian merchandize has been chiefly confined to piece-goods, which now scarcely support a competition with British fabrics.
PORT CHARGES amounted in 1818, on a ship of 600 tons, to 208 milreas; consisting of quarantine fees, entry and clearance at the Custom-house, fees at Santa Cruz, boat-hire to ditto, and Consul's charges.
DUTIES on imports and exports were settled by treaty with the Portuguese Government, at 14 per cent. ad valorem, on imports in British ships; 15 per cent. in Portuguese.
PORT REGULATIONS.-Before a ship attempts to enter the harbour, a boat should be sent to the Fort of Santa Cruz, to give notice of the ship's arrival, &c. The colours should be hoisted, unless the pratique-boat be already on board. Every particular respecting the ship, her condition, force, and destination, must be declared under the signature of the Captain. The landing of the ship's crew can only take place at the stairs opposite the palace; and a soldier generally attends every person who lands, whilst he remains on shore. Guard-boats surround the ship, to prevent unauthorized landing. All persons are obliged to repair on board after sunset. Unless a previous settlement is made, you are forced to hire the custom-house boats, which is expensive.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The bullocks are small and poor; the sheep and hogs bad and dear; some excellent goats are procurable, but at high prices; the poultry very fine and large; fruit fine and abundant. The spirits are very indifferent; the common wines cheap. Great care should be exercised to keep the seamen from intoxication. Water is filled from pipes let down to the quay. It is better to hire a country boat, which holds 30 butts; but if you water with your own long-boat, no charge is made; and on application at the palace, one of the town cocks is sometimes granted for dispatch. Washing is dear, and it is difficult to get back the clothes.
COINS.-Accounts are kept in milreas and reas, 1000 reas making a milrea. Their notation is thus-166,208, which is, 166 milreas, 208 reas. The gold monies current, and their weight, are as follow:
The following are the current silver coins, with their weights:
The Spanish dollar, when received by the Portuguese from a foreigner, is seldom taken for more that 720 to 750 reas; but when paid by them, is estimated at 800 reas.
The Portuguese silver coins are in general 7 to 9 dwts. worse than British standard.
The copper coins are the piece of 20 reas, or 1 vintem, and the half and quarter vintem in proportion.
WEIGHTS are about 1 per cent. heavier than avoirdupois; 98 lbs. 80 dec. being equal to 100 lbs. avoirdupois, and thus divided :
2 Drams............equal to ............1 Octave.
The ounce is divided into octaves, scruples, and grains. Diamonds are weighed by carats, of 4 grains; the Portuguese ounce is 139 such carats, each carat equal to 37 grains, English troy.
MEASURES.—The long measures are the covada and vara; the latter is 5 spans, and the covada, three; the span is near 9 inches, so that the covada is about 27 inches English.
The measure for corn, salt, and other dry commodities, is thus divided: 2 Outavas ............equal to ............1 Quarto.
The alquiere measures 817 cubic inches, and 50 alquieres make 19 English bushels.
The liquid measure is thus divided:
4 Quartillos.........equal to ............1 Canada.
The almude is reckoned equal to 4 English gallons,