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during the period of the fishery, it branches out into a populous town, several streets of which extend upwards of a mile in length. The scene altogether resembles a crowded fair on the grandest scale. The Bay of Condatchy is the principal rendezvous for the boats employed in the fishery. The banks where the fishery is carried on, extend several miles along the coast from Manar southward, off Aripo and Condatchy. The principal bank is opposite to the latter place, about 20 miles from the shore, and is 10 miles in length and two in breadth.
The vessels employed in the fishery come from different ports of the continent, particularly Tuticorin, Karical, and Negapatam on the Coromandel Coast, and Quilon on the Malabar Coast. The fishing season commences in February, and ends about the beginning of April.
CALPENTEEN.-The Fort of Calpenteen is situated upon the N. end of a neck of land, which extends about 60 miles along the coast, and during the N. E. monsoon becomes an island. The fort is about 300 feet square, and has four bastions, one at each angle. A large native village and
many detached cottages are interspersed amongst the trees. Here are an excellent wharf and landing place. The land extends from latitude 7° 56'
to 8° 18' N.
TRADE.—A small export trade is carried on by the natives in salt fish, and dried fish roes to Columbo; they bring rice in return; and much wood is sent from this part to the Coast of Coromandel. At this place are raised excellent mangoes and pomegranates, and wild honey may be purchased of a very superior quality. It is in a liquid state, of the consistence of oil, and preserved in pots or bottles, with a few grains of rice in the husk floating on the top.
NEGOMBO is situated near a small river, in latitude about 7° 15' N., and is about 6 leagues from Columbo. The anchorage is abreast the fort in 5 or 6 fathoms. The fort is an irregular pentagon, having four bastions, on each of which is erected a round turret. The village is beautiful, the houses are clean and neatly built, separated from each other by rows of trees connected together by lofty hedges. A considerable number of Dutch families have fixed their residence at this place.
In the neighbourhood of Negombo the cinnamon plantations commence, and spread over a wide space of the country, reaching, with only a few interruptions, far beyond Columbo.
Fish is caught here in great abundance and variety, and large quantities are exported in a dried state.
COLUMBO, OR COLOMBO, is in latitude 6° 57' N. and longitude 80° E. The anchorage for large ships is about two miles from the town, the
flagstaff bearing S., but small vessels run nearer in. There being no shelter, this road is much exposed in the S. W. monsoon; it is therefore unsafe for ships to remain during that period.
A projecting rock, on which two batteries are erected, affords shelter to a small semicircular bay on the N. side of the fort. Here the landing place is rendered pleasant and convenient by a wooden quay, extending about 100 feet into the sea, and answering well for the loading and unloading boats. The depth of water is not sufficient to allow sloops or large donies to lie alongside of the quay; those not exceeding 100 tons burden, ride at anchor at the distance of only a cable's length from it, and smaller vessels moor close along the shore. Large ships seldom come within this road; and when they do, they keep at a greater distance. A bar of sand, on some parts of which the water is not 10 feet deep, extends from the projecting rock across the bay. As the channel, in which it can be crossed, is liable to shift, and not easily discovered, ships commonly anchor about a mile beyond it, and only in the fine weather of the safe season venture to go within the bar. The outer road affords secure anchorage for no more than six months in the year, from the beginning of October to the end of March, when the wind blows from the N. E. off the land. During the other six months, the S. W. wind blows from the sea upon the shore, and in that season a ship seldom looks into the road. Strictly speaking, there is no harbour at Columbo; for the little bay, which affords shelter to small craft, does not deserve that name.
Near to the wharf stand the Master Attendant's or Harbour Master's office, and the sea custom-house. From thence an arched passage leads to another gateway opening into a square green, railed in for the garrison parade in the north corner of the fort. On the left hand is the Town Major's office; on the right is seen the principal street running from north to south, the length of the town, and terminated by a lofty gateway and belfry. On one side of the parade-ground stands the church, of a heavy appearance; on the other a house built for the supreme court of judicature, ornamented with a light cupola, and situated in the centre of a row of public offices.
Three gates open from the fort towards the sea. Three others communicate with the land: the delft, or main gate, which leads to the pettah; the S. gate, which opens on the road leading to Point de Galle; and a winding sallyport, which communicates by causeways and bridges with a rugged peninsula, commonly called Slave Island. Here is a mud village, a bazar, and an excellent parade.
The pettah, or outer town, is situated a few hundred yards to the E. of the fort. The town is neat, clean, regular, and larger than that within the fort. Five streets, each half a mile in length, run parallel to one another,
and the same number intersect them at right angles. The pettah is of a square form, and was formerly defended on the land side by a wall. N. side is bounded by the sea, the S. by the lake, and the W. by the eastern esplanade. On this side, within the limits of the pettah, stands the burial ground of the settlement.
Beyond the pettah many straggling streets extend in various directions several miles into the country. The fort is chiefly occupied by the English inhabitants; the pettah by Dutch and Portuguese; and the suburbs, which are by far the most populous, by native Cingalese.
For some years after its capture, Ceylon was under the controul of the East India Company; but from the beginning of 1802, it became entirely a royal Government, and was placed under the immediate direction of his Majesty's Ministers. The Council is composed of the Governor, the Chief Justice, the Commander of the Forces, who is also Lieutenant Governor, and the Secretary to Government. A supreme court of judicature is established, consisting of a Chief Justice and a Puisne Judge; annexed to it are his Majesty's Advocate, Fiscal, Registrar, Sheriff, and other officers. The Chief Justice takes precedence of all His Majesty's subjects on the island, excepting the Governor; the Commander of the Forces ranks next, and after him the Puisne Justice.
TRADE. The commercial capacity of Ceylon is very considerable; and in the course of time, when the wants of the inhabitants shall have increased through their advancement in the arts of civilization, the demands upon the mother country will be considerable. At present, the natives are chiefly in want of grain, cloth, and a few articles of simple luxury, which are most conveniently supplied from the neighbouring coast of India. The productions of the soil in Ceylon might be almost infinite. Its staple export is cinnamon; the next article is arrack, which, with coco-nut oil and other products of the same tree, might be furnished to a very considerable extent from the numerous coco-nut gardens in the island. The number of those trees between Calpenteen and Dondra Head has been reckoned at 10,000,000. The other articles are areca-nuts, coffee, pepper, cotton, tobacco, timber and ornamental woods, precious stones, ivory, and various drugs and dye-stuffs. Most of these articles are of superior quality. The cardamums are less valued than those of Malabar. The hemp is neglected, though of excellent quality.
DUTIES.-The import and export duties throughout the island were consolidated in 1810 as follows:
On Imports.-Cloth, 7 per cent. ad valorem; grain of all sorts, 1 ditto; British, China, and India goods, 5 ditto; all other goods, 6 ditto; cattle,
live stock, and all articles of wearing apparel, ready made, for private use, duty free.
On Exports.-Arrack, 8 rix-dollars per leager; areca-nut, uncut, 10 ditto per amonam; ditto, cut, 10 ditto per ditto of 8 parahs; tobacco, 1st sort, 30 ditto per candy; tobacco, 2d sort, 27 ditto per candy; Calaminder wood, 20 per cent. ad valorem; ream wood, 20 ditto; satin wood, 20 ditto; ebony wood, 20 ditto, palmyras, reapers, and rafters, 25 ditto; planks, 10 ditto; staves, and every sort of timber, 10 ditto; salt fish, 10 ditto; jaggery, 10 ditto; gingelee seed and oil, 10 ditto; Illepay seed and oil, 10 ditto; Margosa seed and oil, 10 ditto; fruits and roots of all sorts, with the exception of Cahya root, 10 ditto; coco-nuts, and coco-nut oil from Calpenteen, Putlam, Jaffnapatam, Manar, Werteltivoo, and Muletivoo, 10 ditto; ditto from elsewhere, 5 ditto; copperas from the aboveenumerated places, 10 ditto; ditto from elsewhere, 5 ditto; grain of all kinds, 1 ditto; all goods not enumerated above, 5 ditto; all articles of wearing apparel, being ready made for private use, duty free; provisions for immediate consumption, ditto.
N. B.-Produce exported coastways, pays only the export duty; all goods (except grain) re-exported, having paid import duty, are subject to no other, if exported within four months by the original importer.
Regulations for the Collection of Duties throughout the Island, established in 1815.-The duties on imports and exports to be collected according to certain tables of rates, and articles not enumerated therein, to be charged according to the invoice amount, increased 25 per cent. In cases where there is no invoice, or where the officer distrusts it, or the owner is dissatisfied, the goods to be appraised by persons appointed by both parties. Damaged goods to pay according to actual value; except liquors, which may be put up to sale. Cloths to be valued by Government appraisement, 25 per cent. below the retail price; or by joint appraisement, as before. A manifest of cargo to be lodged at the custom-house, before landing goods. Each boat-load to be accompanied by a note signifying quantity, quality, marks, &c.; penalty of default, 100 rix-dollars. Where a difference appears, the goods are liable to double duties. Deposits, or securities for duties, may be given for European cargoes, to be redeemed within three months. No drawback is allowed on re-exportation of goods under the value of 500 rixdollars. No duty goods to be landed or shipped before 6 a. m., or after 6 p. m. Goods imported for re-exportation may be warehoused, free of duty, for four months, provided the intention be expressed in writing three days after landing. If the intention be changed, 25 per cent. on the duties will be chargeable on those goods. Port clearances to be obtained,
under penalty of fine and imprisonment. Goods transshipped without permission, or put on board a different vessel than stated at the custom-house, to be confiscated, or charged with treble duties. Exportation of Island coinage prohibited, under pain of confiscation. Export of tobacco of Travancore assortment, without licence, prohibited, under pain of fine and confiscation. The importation of saltpetre, sulphur, gunpowder, lead, ammunition, and arms, without special licence, prohibited; penalty, confiscation. Exports to be entered at the port of clearance, or confiscated. Persons in charge of vessels, privy to any act involving confiscation of goods, to pay a fine equal to their value. Officers may enter, search, and remain on board vessels during their stay in port; persons offering them a bribe, liable to fine and imprisonment. Any servant of the custom-house receiving a fee to be dismissed; and persons informing, to have a fourth of his monthly salary as reward. Informers of breach of regulations entitled to a third of confiscated property.
Regulations in the Master-Attendant's Department at Columbo.-Vessels to come to anchor within 6 fathoms water; beyond that depth they will be charged double boat-hire.
All square-rigged vessels, sloops, and schooners, to employ Government boats only; no country boat to be allowed to ply to any of them, without leave from the Master-Attendant, who, when it may be deemed expedient by Government, for the sake of dispatch, is to hire such boats.
Any country boat plying to a square-rigged vessel, sloop, or schooner, without leave of the Master-Attendant, in writing, liable to confiscation, and the boat-hire forfeited to Government.
Vessels, donies, and boats of every description, having customable goods on board, immediately after coming to an anchor, to send a manifest of their cargoes to the custom-house.
No boats to be allowed to go alongside to receive any part of a cargo, till such manifest shall have been delivered in, and certificate thereof, signed by the Custom Master, produced to the Master-Attendant or his officers.
The boatmen belonging to the Master-Attendant's department, not to be employed on board any vessels, by the commanders or officers of such vessels.
The full hire of every boat to be paid for every day it is employed either in receiving or discharging the cargo.
Boats going off after sunset, to be charged half more than usual hire. Persons applying for boats, and not using them, to pay half the hire of the boats.