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CHARGES FOR WATERING.-Each boat-load of water to consist of two tons, or four butts, sent off full. The water to be of the best quality. The price of each boat-load of water to be 55 fanams 40 cash. : ., u
The great distance that vessels now lay from the place of watering, by : their removal opposite to the new Custom-house, will render it necessary for their moving opposite the watering-place to receive this article, which will not be sent on board in any other situation in or near the roads, unless they are in absolute distress for it; in which case to pay an additional half trip of 7 fanams 30 cash, for vessels commanded by Europeans; and 4 fanams 75 cash, for vessels commanded by natives, for each trip.
For every water-cask not sent back by the returning boat, the Owner or Master to pay the Master-Attendant a fine, at the rate of four fanams each day it may be detained on board any vessel; and for every water or liquor butt not landed before the delivery of the port-clearance, the Owner or Master to pay the Master-Attendant eight pagodas; and for every puncheon or gang cask, four pagodas.
In order to obviate complaints respecting the unnecessary detention of boats alongside of vessels, and of their being imperfectly manned, &c., a printed paper will be lodged at the Sea-Customer's office, to be delivered to every Commander upon his taking out the certificate granted, on swearing to his manifest, as prescribed by the regulations for levying customs: the abovementioned printed paper to be sent on board previously to the landing or receiving of the cargo, for the purpose of being filled up and signed by the officer commanding on board. When the vessel shall be ready for departure, the said paper is to be delivered to the Sea-Customer, who is directed not to grant a port-clearance until the above be complied with; the paper to be forwarded immediately by the Sea-Customer to the Secretary to the Board of Trade. No boat to be detained alongside any vessel more than an hour, or to be entitled to double hire, and all responsibility to be on the commander or commanding officer of such vessel...
RATES OF COOLEY HIRE.-A bandy drawn by four bullocks, 8 fanams; ditto by two ditto, 4 ditto; a cooley load, 1 ditto.
HIRE OF PALANQUIN Bearers. A set of bearers on field:
service, each per month
Head bearer, ditto.................................
.........miuuu...mPagodas 2 0 0
A set of bearers at the Presidency, each ditto.................. 1 33 60
A set of bearers at the Presidency, batta on travelling
days only, each per day
N. B. Two pagodas a month being exclusively a field pay, is understood to be in lieu of batta and all other demands; and bearers at the Presidency. are entitled to demand no higher pay than one pagoda and three-quarters per month.
WAGES USUALLY ALLOWED TO SERVANTS.-Cook, 5 pagodas, per month; pantryman, 8 ditto; 2 watermen, 4 ditto; necessary-men, each 2 ditto; 2 peons, 5 ditto each; palanquin rent 4. 40 ditto; ditto bearers as above. Kittisol boy, 3 ditto; conicoplys, each 5 ditto; second dubash or servant, 10 ditto for the time.
Two peons to watch any goods that may be left on the beach, each two pagodas per month.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Meat, poultry, fish, and fruit are in abundance here, but not of so good quality as at Calcutta. The following are the prices fixed in the bazar, but they vary according to circumstances.
Beef, stall-fed, 4 fanams, 40 cash, per lb.-Ditto, 1st sort, 2f. 40c. ditto. —Ditto, 2d ditto, 1f. 20 c. ditto.-Veal sold by the joint, according to size and quality.-Mutton and kid, ditto.-Pork, from 1f. 20c. to 2f. 40c. per lb.-Cock turkies, 1f. 33c. to 2 pagodas each.-Hen ditto, 1 to 1 ditto-Geese, 1 to 14 ditto.-Capons, 15 to 20 fanams ditto.-Red fowls, 6 to 8 ditto.-Country ditto for sea stock, 3 to 5 ditto.-Ducks, 8 to 9 ditto.-Wild geese, large, 10 to 12 ditto.-Pigeons, 4 to 6 ditto per pair.-Hares, 4 to 5 ditto each.— Partridges, snipes, teal, wild ducks, sand larks, &c. in plenty, and at reasonable prices.-Bread, 1st sort, 1 fanam per loaf.-Flour, ditto, 5 ditto per
Of fruits the following kinds are to be procured in the bazar :-Custard apples, guavas, limes, mangoes, oranges, pine-apples, pomegranates, plantains of various sorts, and pumplenoses.
The fish to be purchased in the bazar, are of the following kinds, and most of them are excellent:-Pomfrets, black and white; soles, prawns, cockup, whitings, oysters, mullet, seer fish, crabs, and a variety of other fish, which are little known to Europeans, or used by them.
The water here is very excellent; the watering place is about one mile and a half from the Fort, and ships are supplied by country boats at the rates before specified. Wood is rather scarce, and consequently dear. jed Coins. According to the old monetary system, accounts were kept at this Presidency in star pagodas, fanams, and cash. The pagoda weighed 52.56 grains troy, and was commonly valued at 8s. It was divided into 45 fanams, each fanam containing 80 cash. This was the proportion observed by Government, the Bank, and Agency Houses; but in the shops and bazar
exchange, the number of fanams to the pagoda fluctuated according to circumstances, from 42 to 46 fanams.
The gold coins were the single and double pagodas; the silver coins were the single, double, and 5 fanam pieces; the one-eighth, quarter, half, 1 and 2 rupees; and quarter and half pagodas; the copper coins consisted of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 cash pieces..
According to the new currency, fixed by proclamation, dated Fort St. George, 7th January, 1818, the silver rupee constitutes the standard coin of this Presidency. The public accounts are accordingly converted from the star pagoda (the coinage of which is discontinued) into the Madras rupee, at the exchange of 350 rupees per 100 star pagodas. All Government transactions will in future be concluded in rupees.
The new coinage of silver the same document announced would consist of the following coins, of the fineness and weight here specified:
The new coinage of gold rupees, each equal to 15 silver rupees, consists rupees, half rupees, and quarter rupees; the rupee containing 165 grains of pure gold, and 15 grains of alloy; weighing consequently the same as the silver rupee.
The new copper coinage consists of pies or pice, 12 being equivalent to I anna.
See also the Assay Report, in BOMBAY.
The Arcot rupee weighs 176.4 grains, and contains 166.477 grains of pure silver; its sterling value is therefore 1s. 114d.
Many other coins circulate on the Coromandel Coast.
The old 3 Swamy pagoda, which is about 20 carats fine, bears generally a batta of 10 per cent. against the new coins of Negapatam and Madras.
The old pagodas of Negapatam and Tutecorin are about the same weight and value as the star pagodas, (i. e. 52.56 grains, and worth 7s. 51d.); but in the later coinage of these pagodas, they are depreciated, being only 1811 carats fine; and 104 are equal to 100 star pagodas.
The Porto Novo pagoda is only 17 carats fine, and passes current at 120 per 100 star pagodas.
The Pondicherry pagoda was originally considered equal in value to the star pagoda; but its standard has been lowered to 17 carats, and even less.
A coinage took place, in 1811, of double rupees, single rupees, halves, quarters, and pieces of 1, 2, 3, and 5 fanams each, from Spanish dollars, which are estimated at 8 dwts. worse than the British standard. A silver coinage of half and quarter pagodas, of the same fineness, likewise took place. Into the details of this money it is not requisite to enter, as the new currency has placed the coins upon a new footing.
In 1820, a five rupee piece, or one-third gold rupee, was coined at Madras, of the same standard as the coin specified in proclamation of January, 1818, viz. 55 grains pure gold, 5 grains alloy; they are issued and received at the rate of 5 silver rupees.
The following is the relative value of the Madras or Arcot rupees with other rupees current in India.
The following is an official statement of the rates at which gold and silver coins of the Governments of Calcutta and Bombay will be received into the several Treasuries subject to the Presidency of Fort St. George: dated 18th March, 1814.
The fineness of gold and silver is expressed by dividing it into 10 touch,
or matt, which are subdivided into 10 parts, answering to the Chinese division of 10 touch.
WEIGHTS.-Pearls are valued, as at Bombay, by two kinds of weight, real and nominal. The former they are weighed by, and are sold by the latter. The real weight is the mangelin, which is divided into 16 parts, and is equal to 6 English grains. The nominal weight is the chow, which is divided into 64 parts, and is deduced from the mangelin thus :--
RULE.-Square the number of mangelins, and divide three-fourths of this product by the number of pearls. The quotient is the number of chow. The great weights are the pagoda, pollam, seer, vis, maund, and candy, thus divided:
10 Pagodas...... equal to ......1 Pollam = avoirdupois 0 11
Gold and silver are sometimes sold by the pagoda weight, poising each pagoda 2 dwts. 4.56 grs. troy.
The following is a comparative view of the several denominations of great weights used in various parts of India, with those of the Presidency of Madras: