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pounds. Thus, to find the value of a wrought diamond of two carats, find the square of double the weight, that is 4x4-16, then 16x2-32. So that the true value of a wrought diamond of two carats is £32.

The largest diamond ever known in the world, is one belonging to the Queen of Portugal, which was found in Brazil; it is still uncut; it weighs 1,680 carats, and if valued according to the above-mentioned rule, this great gem must be worth £5,644,800 sterling.

PIECE-GOODS are manufactured of different dimensions and qualities, at various places subordinate to Madras, and are exported from thence to Europe, the Cape of Good Hope, the Persian and Arabian Gulphs, the Malay Coast, Manilla, and various other places to the eastward.


The following are the kinds usually imported into England, with the

number of pieces to a ton.

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N. B. Where the letter B is set against pieces of 400 to the ton, it shews those goods are to be reduced, or brought to a standard of 16 yards long and 1 broad. For example: :

1,000 pieces of 12 yards long and 1 broad, at 400 to the ton, make 844 pieces, or 2 tons 44 pieces.

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PULICAT is about seven leagues to the N. of Madras, in latitude 13° 25′ N., and longitude 80° 22′ E. This was a Dutch settlement. The fort is called Gueldria. There is a shoal off Pulicat, which extends N. E. by N., and S. W. by S. Its N. end lies S. E. by S. from the river. To enter Pulicat Roads from the S., do not come under 13 fathoms till the flagstaff bears W., when you may stand in W., or W. by N. to bring it



W. S. In this track there are at least 5 fathoms, till you get within two miles of the flagstaff in the above direction, when you have seven or eight fathoms ooze.

TRADE. The trade bere in arrack, sugar, Japan copper, spices, and other articles from Batavia, used to be very brisk; the returns were made in piece-goods of various sorts, manufactured here and in the adjacent places.

ARMAGON, OR DURASPATAM, is in latitude about 13° 58′ N., and about 12 leagues N. N. W. from Pulicat. The Shoal of Armagon is about 2 leagues N. N. E. of Point Pondy, which is about half way between Armagon and Pulicat.

GONDEGAM, OR GREAT GANJAM, is in latitude 15° 20′ N. The river is considered to bound the Coast of Coromandel to the N., beyond which the Coast of Golconda begins; but the appellation of Coromandel is often applied to the whole extent of coast from Cape Comorin to Balasore, as that of Malabar is to the whole extent of coast on the W. side of the Peninsula.

MOOTAPILLY is about eight leagues N. N. E. of Gondegam. The town is about half a mile inland, not discernible from the offing; but with the assistance of a glass, a pagoda is perceptible. There are some detached palmyra trees to the N. of the landing-place, and about a mile to the S., a thick grove of trees, with a clump on its S. part, higher than the rest. With the N. extremity of a piece of high land in one with a thick grove of trees, you are abreast the proper anchorage in latitude 15° 42′ N. Large ships lie about a mile from the shore, with Mootapilly pagoda bearing N. W. by N.

From Mootapilly to Point Divy is about 14 leagues; in this space the coast is low and woody, having several towns on it, the principal of which are Nizampatam and Pettapollee: the latter may be known by a grove of palmyra trees near it, and is in latitude about 15° 50 N.

NORTHERN CIRCARS.-That portion of the British dominions on the Coromandel Coast, commonly called the Northern Circars, from its relative situation to Fort St. George, is a narrow slip of maritime country, extending from 15° 30' to 20° N. latitude, and from 79° to 85° E. longitude. The sea bounds it to the E. in a direct N. E. course along a coast 470 miles in length, from Mootapilly, near its S. extremity, to the town of Maloud in Orixa, on the borders of the Chilka Lake, its N. extremity.

The grand divisions of the whole territory are naturally and properly five, being so many portions of its length, principally marked by rivers running across from the hills on the W. to the sea; but besides these, a

sixth district has been formed from the maritime border of the four Southerly Circars, to serve as an appendage to, and secure the salt made, or Customs collected at the ports of Nizampatam, on a S. outlet of the Kistna, and of Masulipatam on one of its N. branches, as well as at their respective dependencies along the coast.

I. GUNTOOR, or MOORTEZANAGUR, the most southerly province, is of a circular form; the River Kistna forms the N. boundary of the Circar, and separates it from the province of Mustaphanagur. The boundaries to the W. and S. are the districts of Palnaud and Ongole; and on the E., Nizampatam and its dependencies intervene every where between it and the sea, excepting a narrow communication with the small port of Mootapilly.


III. ELLORE.-These are adjacent to each other, as well as to the Circar just described, in a N. E. direction, and occupy the whole space lying between the Kistna, and the districts of Masulipatam towards the sea; and the River Godavery describes the limits of Ellore northerly.

IV. RAJAHMUNDRY, towards the S., is separated from Ellore in its greatest breadth by the Godavery. This river, after receiving many lesser ones, from its source among the Balagaut mountains near Bombay, and running an E. course about 700 miles, divides itself into two great branches, 35 miles from the sea, within which is formed the Island of Nagur, a triangular space comprehending only 500 square miles, but of greater value, in proportion to its extent, than perhaps any other spot in the East. The small river of Settiaveram running into the sea, describes its N. boundary with Chicacole.

V. MASULIPATAM.-This district forms the least of the grand divisions of the Circars. Nizampatam, formerly a separate jurisdiction on the S. of the Kistna, extending along a coast of 60 miles from Point Divy, near the great mouth of that river to Mootapilly S., and about five in breadth on a medium to the territory of Guntoor, constitutes the S. portion of this division; and from the same headland, including the Island of Divy to Narsipore, on the S. arm of the Godavery, and from thence to Ingeram on its N. branch, just beyond the point formed by, and deriving its name from, this river, lie several pergunnahs detached from Condapilly, and some smaller seaports scattered on the shores of Ellore and Rajahmundry, which together compose the N. subdivision, and extend along a coast of 105 miles, within 45 miles of the River Settiaveram, and boundary of Chicacole. Both these portions united, are immediately dependent on Masulipatam, which is the capital of these districts.

VI. CHICACOLE, the most northerly, and last in order of the grand

divisions, is also subdivided into two districts; of which one, deriving its name from that province, is dependent on Vizagapatam; the other, called Ichapoor, is placed under Ganjam. The former lies between the rivers of Settiaveram on the S., and of Poondy on the N. From the cross hills approaching the sea near these extremities, it forms a kind of semicircular territory; of which the diameter along the coast extends 180 miles, and its greatest dimensions in land about one-third of the same distance. The latter subdivision of this province is of a triangular figure, stretching its longest side about 80 miles on the shore from Poondy to Maloud, the S. frontier of Cuttack.

The Circars, being well watered by the numerous rivers, abound in grain, and may be considered the granary of the Carnatic during the N. monsoon, in like manner as Tanjore is reckoned during the S. W. monsoon. They produce also bay-salt, tobacco, (the latter from the vicinity of Masulipatam, known every where for superior excellence), and abundance of teak timber of the best sort, and largest sizes. The coco and palmyra form the principal materials for building the unwieldy vessels for the coasting trade, called donies, of various burthens, from 60 to 100 tons each. The diamond mines of Guntoor and Condapilly in this province are not considered of any great importance.


TRADE. In regard to manufactures, the staple produce of the country worked from cotton, is of two different sorts and fineness; plain long-cloth, so valuable at foreign markets, is chiefly wrought in the island of Nagur and its vicinity. It forms the groundwork of the best printed calicoes in Europe, and of those inimitably painted ones, called palempores, in the districts of Masulipatam. The coarser plain cloths made to the N. and S. of the Godavery, or coloured with the Chaya root, which grows in most perfection in the sands overflowed annually by the Kistna, are equally articles in demand abroad, or for interior consumption; but the muslins of Chicacole, the beautiful woollen carpets of Ellore, and silks of Ichapoor, wrought from the raw materials imported from Bengal and China, are rather objects of curiosity, and meriting encouragement, than considerable in quantity or benefit.

These several objects of natural or artificial produce, when united, form the grand resources of the commerce, which may be classed under three different heads, vix.

I. The trade to Europe.

This is confined entirely to the finer cotton manufactures exported by European nations who have establishments on this coast, or purchased by other foreign adventurers.

II. The trade to the neighbouring Indian ports, or coasting trade,

which consists either of grain, amounting annually to half a million of bags, or, for the most part, of the coarser cloths proper for the eastern markets. Grain is both imported and exported. The imports from Bengal are chiefly into Vizagapatam and Masulipatam. The exports are from Ganjam and its vicinity, where grain is as cheap as in Bengal. Cuttack also sends a large quantity.

III. The third branch, or interior commerce, in salt and piece-goods, of native productions, or copper and raw silk, the latter chiefly for Bengal. MASULIPATAM.-Point Divy, in latitude 15° 59′ N., and longitude 81° 16′ E., forms the W. side of the Bay of Masulipatam; the shore is very flat all round the bay. Ships in the fair season generally anchor abreast the town, in four or five fathoms, the flagstaff bearing W., distant four or five miles.

The fort and town of Masulipatam are situated a considerable distance from each other. The fort stands a mile and a half from the sea-shore, on the edge of a sound, formed partly by an inlet of the sea, partly by drains from the circumjacent ground, and still more by a continued stream which the river Kistna sends off about 15 miles to the S. W., and which falls into the upper part of the sound, very near the fort. The sound has sometimes three fathoms, and at others only three feet water; and opposite to the fort, is five hundred yards in breadth. The ground along the sea-shore, for two miles to the N. and S. of the inlet of the sound, is a collection of sand-hills, which extend about half a mile inland, when they cease on the borders of a morass, which surrounds the fort on every side for a considerable distance.

The town of Masulipatam is situated a mile and a half to the N. W. of the fort, on a plot of ground rising above the morass, across which the communication between this ground and the fort is by a straight causeway, 2000 yards in length. The town is very extensive, and its ground on the farther side still to the N. W. is bounded by another morass, which stretches along it from S. W. to N. E., but is stopped by the sand-hills of the sea-shore, along which is the only access to the town on dry ground.

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Masulipatam is very populous: it is the capital of the district, and the principal fort and bulwark of all the Northern Circars. It was formerly the principal place on the Coast of Coromandel.

TOBACCO, (Tambacu, Hind. Tamracuta, San.) of very superior quality, is cultivated in the vicinity of Masulipatam. The snuff is occasionally brought to England as presents.

YANAON is situated at the confluence of the River Coringa with one of the principal branches of the Godavery River. The mouth of the latter is obstructed by sandbanks, and therefore cannot be entered without the assistance of an experienced pilot. The river is deep within the bar, and is navi

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