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gable to a considerable distance, though little frequented by vessels; and is very broad and rapid at the town of Yanaon. This town, with the territory belonging to it, and a small island situated to the S., forms a space about four miles square, and contains a population of about 6000 persons.
POINT GORDEWARE, OR GODAVERY, in latitude 16° 48′ N., and longitude about 82° 17′ E., is a low, narrow sandbank, several miles in extent; within which, about six miles W. by N., is an opening of one of the branches of Godavery River, commonly called Coringa River, on which stand the town and English factory of
CORINGA.-Coringa Bay is between the above point and Jaggernautporam, whose river's mouth lies about ten miles N. W. by N. from the point; the usual anchorage for country vessels is Jaggernautporam N. N. W., and the bar of Coringa S. W. by S.; on the bar there are thirteen or fourteen feet water. When over it, the leading mark up the river is a small clump of trees about 120 yards from the starboard shore, kept a-head till you open the river on the starboard side. The town of Coringa is situated on the S. bank of the river. Large ships anchor in five fathoms, Jaggernautporam bearing N. W. by W., and Coringa flagstaff S. S. W. Up the river is the town of Ingeram, where the Company has a Chief, and where large quantities of piece-goods are manufactured.
Coringa Bay and River are capable of being of infinite service to the King's, Company's, and country ships, being the only place on the W. coast of the Bay of Bengal where a vessel above two hundred tons can be refitted, or stop her leaks during the S. W. monsoon. It is always during that monsoon so smooth in this bay, that a vessel may venture to take a large heel for that purpose, and if occasion required, could heave down. There are always a great number of caulkers and carpenters employed here all the year round, repairing and building country vessels. In case of necessity, several hundred of these artificers could be procured along the coast; there are also timber and several stores to be got. Wood and water are obtained with convenience and facility, and fresh provisions of all kinds, were it an established port, could be procured in great quantity. There are also a great number of decked country boats, called donies, which would be of infinite service to a squadron putting in here to refit. To all these advantages, add the vicinity of Coringa Bay to Pegu River, for the supply of large teak timber of all sorts, and other naval stores, not being more than ten days' sail from it in either monsoon; also the port of Rhio in the S. part of the Straits of Malacca, from whence poon masts and spars are brought, with several other useful articles. The navigation of Coringa Bay has been improved by the erection of a flagstaff lighthouse on Hope Island, to guide ships to the anchorage in that bay.
JAGGERNAUTPORAM is in latitude 16° 56 N., about seven miles N. of Coringa. This town is also called Cocanara. It is in a deep bay, and is known by a white fort having a flagstaff. The anchorage is in 5 fathoms, soft mud, the flagstaff N. W., about two miles from the shore. About a mile to the E. of the town is a river with a bar, navigable by boats at low water. You may land in the ship's boat, keeping the fort open with the mouth of the river, which you enter, and which goes a long way above the town. Ships and vessels are well built here, and cheap.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Wood, water, and stock are obtained easily, and are very reasonable.
VIZAGAPATAM is in latitude 17° 43′ N. and longitude 83° 26 E. A river coming from the N., and turning short E. to the sea, forms an arm of land, a mile and a half in length, and 600 yards in breadth. Nearly in the middle of this ground stands the fort. The town is about 300 yards to the N. of the fort, and there is a small village to the S. The harbour is capable of admitting vessels of 300 tons.
Vizagapatam is distinguished by the headland called the Dolphin's Nose, which rises on the S. W. point of the road, but is better known by a high mountain plainly seen seven or eight leagues inland; whereas the Dolphin's Nose is obscured by the high land at the back of it. The road has been recently surveyed by order of the Madras Government, and the following extract published for general information:
The safest and most convenient birth for large ships to anchor, is in nine fathoms; however, the roadstead may be considered perfectly safe to begin north, in six, seven, and nine fathoms, where the serjeant's house, and the S. extremity of the huts north of the flagstaff, are in one; and south, where the house and Dolphin's Nose bear West; the bottom being all over this tract perfectly clear of rocks up to the beach, and to the foot of the hill.
On the bar at the entrance of the river there are eight or ten feet water, and sometimes more in the N. E. monsoon; but the sands are liable to shift. The surf is very considerable on the ebb tide; and as European boats are obliged to be used, for want of country boats, they should keep close to the Dolphin's Nose, otherwise they run a risk of being upset, especially if the tide is ebbing.
TRADE.-Large quantities of piece-goods are manufactured in this district, and the natives are very expert in works of ivory, similar to those manufactured at Canton, but inferior in workmanship.
BIMLIPATAM is about five leagues from Vizagapatam, in latitude 17° 53' N. The Dutch had formerly a factory here for supplying themselves with piece-goods from the neighbouring villages. The anchorage for ship
ping in the S. W. monsoon is abreast the river and village; and a little farther to the N. in the other monsoon.
Between Bimlipatam and Ganjam are the rivers of CHICACOLE and CALINGAPATAM, places of but little trade, and seldom frequented.
GANJAM is situated in latitude 19° 22′ N. and longitude 85° 10′ E. The fort, which is small, but compact, stands on the S. side of a river of considerable size. This place is much frequented, particularly by coasting vessels carrying on a considerable trade, many of which can enter the river. Ships anchor abreast the fort, or river's entrance, in eight or nine fathoms, about two miles off-shore.
MANNICKPATAM, in latitude 19° 40′ N., is about 11 leagues to the N. of Ganjam, and is situated on a branch of the Chilka Lake. It is known by a small pagoda, encompassed with houses and other buildings, having near them some large trees. Grain is scarce here.
off by the height
JAGGERNAUT PAGODAS are the most celebrated in India; the largest is in latitude 19° 48′ N., and longitude 85° 52′ E. Here is a large town, about two leagues from the sea-side, which is seen far of its buildings. At a distance the pagodas appear like a large ship under sail; but on approaching, there are three pagodas very near each other, the S. W. one exceeding high and round, with a spike and a large ball at top. The second, which almost joins the first, appears less round at the top; it has also a spike and ball, as has likewise the third, which is the least, and round, like the first. These three pagodas, which seem joined together, form a high and broad building. They are enclosed in a square wall made of enormous black stones; each side of the wall is 100 fathoms in extent, having four gates facing the four points of the compass. Besides these, there are many small ones, and numerous buildings for the reception of pilgrims, of which 100,000 are said annually to visit this venerated place, and are entertained here.
BLACK PAGODA is about five leagues E. N. E. from Jaggernaut, and at a distance also resembles a ship under sail; about a league to the W. of it is another small pagoda, standing, like this, on even reddish ground, without trees. This circumstance is sufficient to distinguish the Black Pagoda from that of Jaggernaut. About five leagues E. N. E. from the Black Pagoda is the principal branch of the River Gonga, cailed also Cuttack, from a long town of that name situated at some distance inland.
POINT PALMIRAS, called by the natives Mypurrah, is in latitude 20° 44′ N. and longitude 87° 6' E. The Point is low, and covered with palm-trees, having on each side of it a small river; that on the S. side is navigable by small vessels. Ships seldom see the point in passing, unless in very
clear weather, as there are several shoals near it, running a considerable distance into the sea, which render it unsafe approaching within four leagues. A lighthouse is now erected on the Point, and may be seen at about twenty miles distance.
About five miles N. W. of the Point is KANNAKA, or CUTTACK River, which is wide at its entrance, and navigable for vessels drawing twelve or thirteen feet water; but it is necessary to employ a pilot. It is much frequented by the coasting vessels belonging to the natives, who carry rice and various articles of trade from hence to Madras and other parts of the coast, during the favourable monsoon. Latterly, vessels belonging to European residents at Calcutta have been employed in conveying stores from Fort William to the Kannaka, returning with salt, corn, and rice. Some native vessels from the Maldives trade to the Kannaka. Vessels entering the river import at HooNsWAH; the Deputy Master-Attendant is stationed at DoмRAH; the Master-Attendant resides at POOREE. An inland trade is carried on with the Nagpore country.
Six leagues N. N. W. of the Kannaka is CHURINGA River, situated in a bay affording good anchorage in the S. W. monsoon; but, being out of the track of ships bound to Bengal, is seldom visited.
REDWOOD, properly RED SAUNDERS, is produced chiefly on the Coromandel coast, whence it has of late years been imported in considerable quantity to England, where it is employed in dying. It is the wood of the Pterocarpus Santalinus, (Ract Chandan, Hind.; Racta Chandana, San.), and comes in round billets of a blackish red colour on the outside, a deep brighter red within, with a wavy grain; no smell or taste, unless recent. Caliatour wood is likewise a red wood growing on this coast; but it must not be confounded with Red Saunders.
BALASORE.-The entrance of the river is in latitude about 21° 28' N. Balasore was formerly a considerable town, but at present is only about a mile long, and half a mile broad in the widest part. It is built along the river Beree Bellaun, where the tide commonly rises eight feet, and serves to carry vessels up to the dry docks, of which there are many here; but the spring tides rise much higher. The stream is navigable only for vessels of 100 tons burthen; and these cannot get over the bar at the mouth of the river, except at high-water, spring tides.
TRADE.-A considerable trade is carried on here by small country vessels, in rice, dohl, and other grain, tobacco, wax, oil, and various piece-goods manufactured in the neighbourhood.
Boats from the Maldive Islands arrive in fleets of twenty or thirty, in the months of June and July, bringing with them the produce of their
islands, consisting of coir, coco-nuts, cowries, salt fish, tortoise-shell, &c., and return in December, laden with broad-cloth, coarse cottons, cutlery, hardware, looking-glasses, rice, silk goods, sugar, tobacco, and other commodities, the produce of Europe, India, and China.
At Balasore, pilots are always ready to carry the shipping up the Hughley River. It sometimes happens that ships arriving in Balasore Roads have to anchor, and send a boat on shore for a pilot; but a boat should not attempt to pass over the bar but at the last quarter flood, as in the first quarter the sea breaks very high on it. In the fine season the pilot vessels are generally met with as soon as Point Palmiras is doubled. Each nation has its own; nor is it proper to use them promiscuously, but give the preference to those of your own nation. So many serious accidents have happened to commanders who have trusted to strange pilots, that the greatest caution is required in the choice of them.
PIPLEY is about six leagues E. by N. from the entrance of Balasore River. It is situated on the banks of a river, and is known by a pagoda to the W., and a thicket of trees very near it. Pipley was once the mart of this country; but the waters washing away a great part of the town, at the same time that a dangerous bar was formed at the mouth of the river, the merchants removed to Balasore.
BENGAL.-The province of Bengal commences at Pipley River; it is intersected with two rivers, the Ganges and Burrampooter. The Ganges is very unequal in width, varying from three-quarters of a mile to three miles. About 500 miles from the sea, the channel is 30 feet deep, when at its lowest; and it continues this depth to the sea, where the sudden expansion of the stream deprives it of the force necessary to sweep away the banks of sand and mud thrown across it by the strong S. winds; so that the principal branch of the Ganges cannot be entered by large vessels. About 300 miles from the sea, reckoning the windings of the river, commences the head of the Delta of the Ganges, or low country; the two W. branches, named the Cossimbuzar and Jellinghy rivers, unite, and form what is afterwards named the Hughley, or Hoogley River, which is the port of Calcutta, and the only branch of the Ganges that is navigable by large ships: this branch has a much deeper outlet to the sea than the principal branch.
That part of the Delta bordering on the sea, is composed of a labyrinth of rivers and creeks, all of which are salt, except those that immediately communicate with the principal arm of the Ganges. This tract is known by the name of the Sunderbunds, and is completely enveloped in woods, and infested with tigers. Here salt, in quantities equal to the whole consumption of Bengal and its dependencies, is made, and transported with