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of a middling sized cane, about an inch, the largest three or four inches, and the small ones not more than half an inch. The distance of the knots is no less various than the height; in some not above two inches, in others nine or ten; those canes which have the knots farthest apart, are esteemed the best.
The saccharine juice is contained in a spongy pith which the inside of the cane is filled with. The pith of the smooth part of the cane is soft, and of a whitish colour; that of the joints harder, more compact, and darker coloured. The first is by much the more juicy; but the juice of the latter is sweetest, and seems to be most perfectly elaborated.
The maturity, or degree of perfection, of the cane is not to be judged of from its age or size alone, but chiefly from the quality of the juice. If this has a rich, glutinous, sweet taste, and if at the same time the cane be weighty, and of a good yellow colour; if the skin is smooth, dry, and easily breaks, the pith of a grey colour, or inclining a little to brown, the plant, in these circumstances, may be said to be in its utmost perfection, and will yield a very fine sugar, in large quantities, and with very little trouble.
The additional duty imposed on East India sugars, to protect the West India trade, has drawn much attention to this article of eastern
A voluminous and comprehensive Report upon East India Sugar was published by the Court of Directors in March, 1823, containing a mass of information respecting this trade. From official tables inserted in that publication, the following comparative statement of the different sorts of sugar imported into Great Britain, and of what was entered for home consumption, for 5 years, ending 1821, is deduced.
That the Company's share of this traffic, which is chiefly in the hands of private traders, is not profitable, is apparent from the statement of their sugar importations, which averaged in the 5 years above mentioned, a loss of £12,107 upon a quantity of 20,132 Cwt.
The quantity of sugar exported by sea from Calcutta by private traders, during the above years, was as follows:
SUGAR-CANDY.-A very superior sort is manufactured at Bengal, in small masses of from 3 to 6 lbs. each. Large quantities of this article are consumed in India; but the principal part of the supply is imported from China in tubs, made of thin deal, each containing half a pecul, or 66 lbs. avoirdupois. The best kind of sugar-candy is manufactured at Cochin China; it is in fine, clear, and transparent crystals.
20 Cwt. of sugar-candy are allowed to a ton.
TALC, a species of fossil, of a soft smooth surface, of a whitish or silverlike lustre, which may be split into numerous fine plates, or leaves, which singly prove somewhat flexible and elastic, and perfectly pellucid. It is found in many parts of India and China, and used instead of glass. In Bengal a seer of talc will sometimes yield a dozen panes, 12 inches by 9, or 10 by 10, according to the form of the lump, and so far clear as to allow ordinary objects to be seen at 20 or 30 yards' distance. It should be chosen
pure pearl colour; but it has in general either a yellowish or faint blue cast; and when split into leaves, it should present a smooth surface, though frequently it has small scaly blisters, which depreciate its value. It is seldom imported into Europe.
TAMARINDS are the fruit of the Tamarindus Indica, (Amli, Hind. Amlica, San.), a tree common in the East and West Indies. The fruit is a pod, somewhat resembling a bean cod, including several hard seeds, together with a dark coloured viscid pulp; this pulp is connected with the seeds by numerous tough strings or fibres, and these are freed from the outer shell. The oriental sort is drier, darker coloured, and has more pulp than the other; the former is sometimes preserved without addition, but the latter has always an admixture of sugar. Red, brown, and black are brought from the East Indies; of these the black is preferred. Chuse such as are new, black, pulpy, of a sharpish grateful taste, and vinous smell. Reject such as are musty, and have the seeds soft and swoln. 20 Cwt. are allowed to a ton.
TERRA JAPONICA, or CUTCH, (Cath, San.) is an extract from the wood of the Mimosa Catechu (Guvaca, San.), which grows wild in Malabar. It is felled at any season, the white wood removed, and the heart cut into small pieces, which are boiled in an earthen pot, for 3 hours; when the decoction has become ropy, it is decanted. The same quantity of water is again added, (vix. half the measure of the wood), and it is boiled until it is ropy, when it is decanted, and a third water given. The three decoctions are then mixed, and the next morning boiled until the extract becomes thick like tar; it remains in the pots for two days, and becomes so hard as not to run. The inspissated juice is then formed into balls or cakes, dried 7 days in the sun, and two months in the shade. It is imported from Bengal and Bombay: the latter is of an uniform texture, and of a red brown tint; the Bengal kind is more friable, and less consistent. It is generally in square cakes; its colour resembles chocolate externally, but when broken, it appears in streaks of chocolate and brown. It is frequently mixed with sand and other impurities; has little or no smell, but a sweet astringent taste, melts in the mouth, and is gritty. It should be chosen of a clear uniform chocolate colour, the brightest and least burnt that can be, and as free from impurities as possible; if it be perfectly pure, it will totally dissolve in water; if otherwise, the impurities will remain behind. It is sometimes met with of a pale reddish brown, of a dark blackish brown, or black like bitumen. Some kinds are ponderous, others light; some compact, others porous; some more, others less astringent; and these differences happen according to the manner of obtaining them; but the heaviest and most compact are reckoned the best. It is an article of considerable trade from India to China. 17 Cwt. are allowed to a ton.
BENGAL TO THE MALAY PENINSULA.
THE head of the Bay of Bengal, from the Hughly River to the principal branch of the Ganges, which is low, level, and woody, is called the Sunderbunds, and is intersected in various directions by creeks and rivers. The country on each side being covered with wood, affords a harbour for
robbers, who invariably infest this navigation. From the danger which consequently attends passing through these rivers and channels, which connect the Calcutta River with the Burrampooter, the general commerce of the country is frequently much impeded, notwithstanding the exertions of Government.
CHITTAGONG.-The entrance of Chittagong River is in latitude 22° 13′ N. Islamabad, the principal town, is about 21 leagues up the river, in latitude 22° 21′ N., and longitude 91° 45′ E. The town extends along the shore a considerable distance. The first part is called the Fringey Bazar, being inhabited by a number of Portuguese and other foreigners; here are dockyards, where vessels of considerable burthen are built in an excellent manner. Canvas of very superior quality is manufactured here; and considerable quantities of hemp are raised. Chittagong being under the Bengal Government, the commerce carried on is trifling, except in small coasting vessels.
RULES RESPECTING IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.-In the valuation of imports, the Collectors at Chittagong and Balasore are guided by the same rules as are enacted for Calcutta, in as far as these may be applicable. In the valuation of exports, the market price of the goods at the ports from which they are exported, is taken as the standard.
The regulations with respect to the drawbacks which are laid down for Calcutta, are also applicable to Chittagong and Balasore.
Goods imported by sea into any of the foreign settlements on the Hughly, are liable, on exportation to the interior, to pay to the Collector at Hughly the same duties as are charged on goods imported into Calcutta on a foreign bottom. In like manner, goods brought to the foreign settlements from the interior, are liable to the same duties as are charged on the exportation of such goods from Calcutta on a foreign bottom.
PILOTAGE RATES.-By a Regulation of 1822, a Harbour Master is appointed at Chittagong, to provide assistance to shipping driven into the port, and the following rates are established:
19 to 20
14 to 15 ..................... 70
BUOY DUTY. Every vessel not requiring a pilot, pays a buoy duty of 3 annas per ton, for the first 200 tons, and 2 annas per ton above that burthen. Donies and square-rigged vessels leaving the river for internal trade, pay 8 annas per 100 maunds burthen. A doney exceeding 600 maunds, pays 3 rupees only.
MOORING RATES.-Vessels of 100 tons and upwards, pay 25 rupees for mooring, and 25 for unmooring. Donies and coasting vessels are exempted.
PORT REGULATIONS, 1822.-Commanders of vessels entering the river, to furnish the Harbour Master with the names of the vessels, their nations, ports, and other necessary particulars. Vessels to be moored off the Custom House only, except special permission is granted by the Collector. The Harbour Master's certificate to be obtained before a port clearance is given, without which no vessel can sail. Attempts to evade duties and charges, punishable with double port charges, or confiscation of cargo, as the case may be.
ARACAN.-The kingdom of Aracan was conquered about 40 years ago by the Burmese, and is governed by a Burmese Viceroy, generally residing at Rangoon. The natives are called Mugs.
The Coast of Aracan stretches S. S. E. from the Naff, a broad and deep river, which is the boundary that divides the state from the territories of the East India Company, as far as the Island of Cheduba. The principal place of trade is Aracan, situated a considerable distance up a large and navigable river, which is scarcely paralleled in the East, of which Mosque Point, in latitude about 20° 15′ N., forms the N. side of the entrance. The river near the fort is narrow; large boats can come up to it; the banks are cultivated.
The disputed title to the Island of Shapuree in the Naff River, which the Burmese claim as a dependency of Aracan, is the ground of the existing war between the British Government and that of Ava. The former having sent a guard of British troops to the Island, as a police station, they were attacked, and driven off by the Burmese; and subsequently the Commander of a Company's schooner was enticed on shore, seized, and sent prisoner to Aracan.
TRADE.-Aracan produces large quantities of rice, of which 15 seers may generally be procured for two puns of cowries, equal to 12 maunds for a duss massa rupee. A few elephants' teeth, some wax, wood oil, and several kinds of coarse piece-goods are the principal exports of the country.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Plenty of elephants, buffaloes, hogs, goats, and deer are to be met with, likewise geese, ducks, and fowls; and of vegetables, nearly the same kinds as are produced in Bengal. The