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They have a particular measure for salt, called a parah, which ought to contain 25 punies or bamboos, 80 of which make a coyang, about of a
Betel-nut is measured by the parah swept off with a board, one of which, being counted, serves for a cargo. A loxa of betel-nut is 10,000
nuts, and, when good, should weigh 168 lbs.
The corge of cloth is 20 pieces.
ANNALABOO, in latitude 4° 8' N., is remarkable for a grove of coco-nut trees on a small promontory. The anchorage for large vessels is eight or ten miles from the mouth of the river, in 5 fathoms generally, Annalaboo Point bearing about W., the S. extremes S. E. by E.; but for smaller ones not above one, in 4 fathoms, the point S. W., breakers on the bar N. by E., and S. extremes S. E. by E. The river is navigable for boats and proas, and they go up a considerable way into a plentiful country, abounding in cattle, rice, &c. In the N. E. monsoon the trade is carried on in small boats; but in the other monsoon these are laid up, and larger ones used in their stead. The gold dust procured here is very fine, and it is said that upwards of 2000 ounces are annually collected.
The COINS and WEIGHTS are the same as at Acheen, this place being subject to it.
SOOSOO is situated at the bottom of a bay, of which Cape Felix, or Oujong Rajah, forms the W. extremity; the town is in latitude 3° 43′ N., and longitude 95° 59′ E. The anchorage is about 3 miles from the town, Cape Felix bearing W. by N., and the town N. E. by E., in 18 to 20 fathoms. Soosoo Point may be known by the bazar on a high beach. There are many shoals in the roads. The river is very small, and sometimes blocked up with sand, and is always dangerous for boats to enter. The best landing place for a ship's boat is close round the inside of the breakers to the N. of the Point.
TRADE.-Copper is procured from the hills, and sold in pointed cakes. Rice is abundant. Soosoo is much frequented by small ships for pepper, &c. but the natives are treacherous.
MUCKAY, OR MUCKLE, in latitude 3° 23′ N., is a small place, where coasting vessels stop occasionally.
SINKELL.-This river is the largest on the W. coast of Sumatra. At the distance of thirty miles from the sea, it is very broad, and deep enough for vessels of considerable burthen; but the bar is shallow and dangerous, having only 12 feet water at spring tides; it is navigated by proas and other small vessels. The town of Sinkell is forty miles up the river.
The roads are in latitude 2° 10′ N., and longitude 97° 38′ E., at about two miles from the mouth of the river, bearing E. by N.
If a ship is likely to stay here any time, it would be advisable to run in between a small island called Se Leaga, covered with trees, and the main, where you are safe from all winds that blow. This is the place where the Sinkellers used to transact all business; but it is now represented as entirely deserted.
TRADE.-The European and Indian articles in demand here are cutlery, China-ware, gunpowder, gold thread, iron in flat bars, muskets, lead, looking glasses, opium, steel, swivel guns, salt, and piece-goods from Bengal and Madras, of similar kinds to those enumerated at Acheen.
The principal exports are benjamin, camphire, gold-dust, and bees' wax. You are generally paid for your goods in the two former articles, of the kinds denominated belly and foot; but for the head you frequently pay dollars, and it is seldom you can procure gold-dust without dollars, unless they are much in want of goods. In the examination of articles purchased, particular attention is necessary, as the natives frequently adulterate their commodities.
DUTIES.-No customs are levied, but presents are expected.
COINS.-Spanish dollars are the principal currency; but accounts are kept in tales, sooccoos and satallies, viz.
Benjamin is bought here by the tompong or cake, which ought to weigh 20 catties, each catty 56 ounces avoirdupois, and for camphire 56 ounces troy weight.
WEIGHT.-The Chinese pecul is in common use in buying and selling most commodities.
TAPOOS is about 30 miles S. E. of Sinkell; it is proper to stand out from Sinkell in 25 or 26 fathoms, to avoid the shoals in shore. It is not easily seen at a distance. As you get well in, you will see a bay, in the bottom of which are tall arroo trees. The anchorage in the bay is in 6 or 7 fathoms; Tapoos Point S. W. W.; Pulo Carrang S. E.; breakers between them, S. E. by E.; Tapoos River N. by E. E., distant about two miles, and from the N. point of the bay about half a mile. Boats go into the river; but when the surf is high, it is best to land at the bottom of the bay, and walk to the river side. The town is to the S. of the river. There is seldom any surf in the bottom of the bay; and wood and water may be got by employing your own people.
BAROOS. This town is about two leagues from the coast, on the banks of a river; and two leagues further inland are eight small villages, inhabited by Battas, who purchase the camphire and benjamin from the people of the mountains, extending from the S. of Sinkell to the back of Baroos. The anchorage is about three-quarters of a mile to the S. of Pulo Carrang, in latitude 1° 57′ N., and longitude 98° 23′ E. The place is famous for having given name to the native camphire produced here, to distinguish it from that which is imported from China.
TRADE.—The articles are similar to those at Sinkell. The proportion of buying camphire should be 662 lbs. Dutch, of head, 33 lbs. of belly, and 25 lbs. foot; making in the whole 125 Dutch pounds, which are equal to one pecul.
PROVISIONS AND Refreshments.-Bullocks, poultry, and fish are to be had good and reasonable, likewise very excellent water; when your boat goes on shore the first time, she must lie a short distance from the shore, until they send a person to conduct her into the river, otherwise you may lose her.
TAPPANOOLY.-The celebrated bay of Tappanooly stretches into the heart of the country, and its shores are every where inhabited by the Batta people, who barter their produce for the articles they stand in need of from abroad, but do not themselves make voyages by sea. Navigators assert that the natural advantages of this bay are scarcely surpassed by any other; that all the navies of the world might ride here in perfect security in all weathers; and that such is the complication of anchoring places within each other, that a large ship could be so hid in them as not to be found without a tedious search.
The settlement of Tappanooly is situated on a small island, with a little hill at one end, in the bottom of the bay on the N. W. shore, called Ponchang Cacheel, in latitude 1° 48′ N., and longitude 98° 30′ E., where there is a fort almost defenceless, two or three houses for the resident, and a small bazar. The anchorage is with the flag-staff bearing S. by W. in seven fathoms. In standing in for it, you may pass to the N. or S. of the island, and anchor in seven fathoms, the body of it bearing about S. W. The village of Tappanooly is at the N. part of the bay, about four miles from Ponchang Cacheel. It is a common practice to moor ships by a hawser to a tree on shore. Timber for masts and yards are to be procured in the various creeks with great facility.
TRADE. The natives of the sea-coast exchange their benjamin, camphire, and cassia, (the quantity of gold-dust is inconsiderable), for iron,
steel, brass-wire, and salt. These are bartered again with the more inland inhabitants for the products and manufactures of the country.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Most of the articles mentioned in the neighbouring places are to be had here; but the demand being but small, no great quantity of supplies could be obtained without a short previous notice. Water is conveniently procured from the main land, and is very good.
COINS.-Accounts are generally kept in dollars of 24 fanams, or 400 keppings. Spanish dollars are the principal coin used in foreign trade; but among the natives, the value of goods is estimated by tompongs, or cakes of benjamin, and sometimes by buffaloes; also by brass-wire, beads, and salt.
Weights and MEASURES.-English weights, as well as the Chinese pecul, are used here. A measure of salt, called a salup, weighs about 2 lbs. avoirdupois.
NATAL. This settlement is in latitude 0° 32′ N., and longitude 98° 57′ E. The anchorage is in five fathoms, about two miles off shore, with the flag-staff bearing E. by N. This is one of the worst roads on the W. Coast of Sumatra, having numerous shoals in it, and often a very large sea running, and dirty weather; and when the wind blows hard from the W., you cannot without great difficulty clear the shore. Notwithstanding which, it is a place of considerable trade, and inhabited by settlers from Acheen, Rhio, and many other places, who make it populous and rich.
TRADE. From India are imported beer, brass-wire, cutlery, cloths, China-ware, gunpowder, glass-ware, gold-thread, household furniture, iron in bars, muskets, looking-glasses, lead, opium, patent shot, swivel guns, steel, salt, wearing apparel, and wines.
Gold-dust of a fine quality is procured here in considerable quantities. Some of the mines are said to lie within 10 miles of the factory; it is generally of the fineness of 22 to 23 carats. The annual produce is stated to be from 800 to 1000 ounces; this, with camphire and wax, form the principal exports.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Beef, vegetables, fruit, and fish are procurable at moderate prices; likewise wood and water.
COINS.-Spanish dollars and rupees are current; besides these, there are single, double, and treble fanams, the latter called tali, coined at Madras; 24 fanams, or tali, being equal to a Spanish dollar.
In this part of the Island, where the traffic in gold is considerable, it is generally employed as currency instead of coin. Every man carries small
scales about him, and purchases are made with it so low as a grain or two of paddy weight.
WEIGHTS. Various seeds are used as gold weights, but more especially two, one the well-known scarlet pea with a black spot, 24 of which, called rackays, make a mace, or ammas, and 16 mace a tale. The other is a scarlet, or rather coral bean, much larger than the former, and without a black spot. It is the candarine weight of the Chinese, of which 100 make a tale. The tale differs in the northern and southern parts of the Island; here it is only 24 dwts. 8 grs. troy; but at Padang, Bencoolen, and elsewhere, it is 26 dwts. 14 grs. troy.
MEASURES.-The measure for grain and liquids is the coyan, equal to 322,320 cub. in., each coyan divided into 80 tubs, each tub into 10 sukats, and each sukat into 12 pakhas.
TICOO ISLANDS.-These islands are small and woody, about 1} mile distant from each other, and the innermost 1 mile from the main. The outermost is in latitude 0° 23′ S.
PRIAMAN is about seven leagues N. W. of Padang; the flag-staff is in latitude 0° 40′ S., off which are several small islands; the northernmost is the smallest, and has a well of fresh water, where the Dutch vessels used to supply themselves. The river is small; a pinnace cannot go in till high water; you land on the right hand side.
PADANG.-This settlement was the principal one belonging to the Dutch on the W. Coast of Sumatra; it is situated up a river in latitude 0° 58′ S., and longitude 99° 58′ E. The fort is within 40 yards of the river, about a mile from the sea. It is shoal water for nearly two miles without the river's mouth, though there are two or three fathoms at high water, and about 10 feet on the bar. You go in round Padang Head; and when in the river, in a small bay, under the foot of the head, there is water enough for sloops and small vessels. You keep close to Padang Head in going in; the entrance is narrow. After passing the saluting battery, which is on the right hand side, you cross the river, and keep near the shore till you come to the stairs, or landing-place.
TRADE.-Great quantities of piece-goods are annually imported here; the other articles of European and Indian produce are similar to those enumerated at Natal.
Gold is the principal product procured; this article, and camphire,