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which, when killed and salted, make excellent food, and form a considerable article of trade.
BATOOBARRA is on the banks of a river, nearly opposite the Two Brothers, in latitude about 3° 25′ N., and navigable by small vessels at high water; but the unfriendly disposition of the natives prevents Europeans frequenting it: they therefore carry their produce in their own proas to Prince of Wales's Island, or Singapore.
PULO VARELLA.-This island is in latitude 3° 47′ N., and longitude 99° 36′ E., about 20 miles from the Coast of Sumatra. On the S. E. part is anchorage, where plenty of fire-wood may be got. This island being frequented by turtle, ships becalmed near it sometimes send their boats on shore to obtain a few of them; the crews ought to guard against the perfidy of the Batoobarra people, who frequent the island to look out for plunder, or to dry their nets, and who have more than once made slaves of the crews of boats that have landed to procure wood and water.
The N. point of Sumatra, extending from Diamond Point, its N. E. extreme, to Point Pedro, its N. W. extreme, is denominated the Pedir Coast; in which space are numerous towns and villages, the principal of which are Telisomaway and Pedir. The whole of this coast affords safe anchorage during all the year.
TELISOMAWAY is situated at the bottom of a bay to the S. E. of a point of the same name, and is known by a square clump of trees on its extremity, which makes it resemble an island, when first seen. The fort is situate near the mouth of a river, close to which are the town and bazar. The anchorage is about half a mile from the shore, the town bearing S. W. by W. and the Point N. 15° W. The lawful King of Acheen has taken up his residence at this place.
Besides Telisomaway and Pedir there are many trading places on this coast, as Batoo, Bengala, Chilaw, Gingeea, Ire Laboo, Sawhon, Durian, Gadee, Mardoo, Sambelangun, Jonga, Passangan, and Papeir, the produce of which places is usually carried to Acheen, or Pedir.
PEDIR, whence the coast takes its name, and in which the trade of all the other places W. of Telisomaway centres, is situated up a small river, which boats may enter at low water, neap tides, but not until a quarter flood on the springs; for then there is a considerable surf on the bar. The marks of anchorage are Pedir Point, which is in latitude about 5° 29' N., bearing N. W. and the entrance of the river, which is not very conspicuous, S. S. W., distance about two miles.
TRADE. A considerable trade is carried on with Penang and Singapore, both by means of proas and coasting vessels from Coromandel, Bengal, and
other parts of India. Many Chulias, chiefly from Najore, make an annual voyage with cloths, salt, &c. A small vessel also comes from Surat, or Bombay, with about 200 bales of cotton. Those from Penang and the Eastward bring opium, iron, fire-arms, gunpowder, and other necessaries. The chief articles of produce are betel-nut and rice, (10,000 tons of which are said to have been exported in one year from this coast), with a small quantity of pepper. A few catties of gold-dust are collected from the beds of the rivers, and brimstone and camphire are sometimes to be bought. They manufacture silk and cotton cloth, which is very durable. Mats of all kinds are made, and filagree and embroidery followed. The staple product is betel or areca nut, of which Pedir produces for exportation about 40,000 peculs annually. In the year 1821-22 upwards of 16,000 maunds were imported into Calcutta from the Coast of Pedir.
The following is a list of India goods suitable to the market on the Pedir Coast, with the quantity of each particular article which should form an assortment.
Blue Cloth......9 call...........100 corge.
Negapatam salt................ 50 garce.
DUTIES. The only duty collected is 4 per cent. on exports; but certain voluntary contributions are expected. The Rajahs of Pedir profess a nominal obedience to the King of Acheen, but a force is necessary to obtain the revenue. It is dangerous to transact business on shore, except with the principal merchants. It is a common custom to buy and sell on board ship. The present Rajah attends to business.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Buffaloes and poultry are in abundance, particularly ducks and fowls, which are reasonable; likewise tropical fruits, similar to those at Acheen; and the sea supplies various sorts of fish.
COINS.-Spanish dollars are the principal currency; the other coins are nearly similar to those at Acheen.
WEIGHTS.-The Pedir catty weighs 37 Spanish dollars; and the bahar is equal to 424 lbs. avoirdupois.
THIS island is separated from that of Sumatra by the Strait of Sunda. The length of this channel on the Sumatra side, from Flat Point to Hog Point, is about 20 leagues, and on the Java side, from Java Head to Bantam Point, about 25 leagues. There are several islands in the Strait, the principal of which are Hippins, or Prince's Island, and Cracatoa.
PRINCE'S ISLAND, called by the Malays Pulo Selan, is in the mouth of the Strait, about 2 leagues from Java, and 6 from Sumatra ; its N. end is in latitude 6° 27′ S., and longitude 105° 15' E.; on its S. E. part is a peak, by which it is known. The common anchorage is on the E. side of the island. There is a bay on the S. W. side, into which two small rivulets of fresh water empty themselves. There is a town called Samadang, consisting of about 400 houses, divided into two parts by a small river. This island was formerly much frequented by the India ships of many nations, especially the English, who have of late forsaken it, and touch either at North Island, or Anjerie Point.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Here may be got some excellent turtle, large fowls, small deer, not larger than a rabbit, larger deer, about the size of a sheep; many kinds of fish tolerably cheap. Coco-nuts, plantains, pine-apples, water melons, jacks, and pumpkins, besides yams and many other vegetables are plentiful, and at reasonable rates. The water is procured from a rivulet in a small sandy bay, at the easternmost part of it, where a path is cut through the woods to the place where you fill, about 100 yards up, but very convenient for rolling the casks; but if you fill below, though at low water, it will be brackish.
CRACATOA.-This island is remarkable for its peak, and is in latitude about 69 S., and longitude 105° 25′ E. On its N. side is a very convenient watering-place; about a quarter of a mile from which there is also a Malay town, where supplies, nearly the same as at Prince's Island, are to be procured. Abundance of turtle frequent the shores of this island.
ANJERIE, or Anjer village, is in latitude 6° 3′ S., longitude 105° 54′
E., about two leagues to the E. of the fourth point of Java, and is not easily perceived coming from the W., being situated in a bay, where the houses are scattered amongst the coco-nut trees; it is nearly obscured by them, and by a chain of high hills inland, the easternmost of which is a sharp peaked hill, called Anjerie Peak, directly over the houses. The common anchorage is in from 9 to 14 fathoms abreast of the village.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Buffaloes, hogs, poultry, and fruits are to be procured at reasonable rates; turtle is occasionally to be had; pineapples, oranges, mangosteens, and other fruits are in abundance. The spring from which the water is filled, is only separated by a narrow slip of land from the sea; it is but indifferent. Ships therefore prefer watering at North Island, where the water is excellent.
NORTH ISLAND is close upon the Sumatra shore, without the Strait; it is about two miles in circumference, in latitude 5° 41′ S., and longitude 105° 49′ E. It used to be much frequented for wood and water; but the treachery of the Malays has occasioned the preference to be given to Anjerie Point. Should a ship stop here, wood should be cut from the island. The water is procured from the main, about 500 yards from the beach. Care should be taken that the people do not go far from the waterside, or they will be cut off. The Malays bring off turtle, fowls, coco-nuts, pumpkins, yams, &c. in their proas to the ship, and sell them at reasonable prices.
BANTAM. This city is seated at the bottom of a large bay formed by St. Nicholas or Bantam Point, which is in latitude 5° 52′ S., and longitude 106° 2′ E., and Point Pontang; there are many small islands in the bay, mostly uninhabited. The marks for anchorage are Bantam Hill S.S.W., in 6 fathoms water.
The city is about one mile from the sea-side, between the branches of a river, about 180 feet over at its mouth, so very shallow, that at low water a common ship's boat does not lie afloat in it; at high water and in spring tides it is from 5 to 7 feet deep. Though this is called Bantam River, it is properly only a branch of it; the river itself is divided above the town into three channels, of which this is the middle one; the other two run into the sea, about a league off on each side. The houses in the town are scattered without regularity, and round each is a plantation of coco-nut trees; the whole surrounded by a paling of split bamboo, by which each family is separated from its neighbour.
The King of Bantam, although a vassal to the Dutch Company, is a sovereign Prince, uncontrouled in his authority over his own subjects; but is restricted from entering into any alliances or engagements with any
European or Indian power, as likewise from selling the productions of his territories to any other than to the Company.
TRADE. The commerce carried on between Bantam and other parts of India and China is very trifling, the trade centering in Batavia, to which the pepper, and other produce of the territories of the King of Bantam, are sent, and from whence the foreign articles necessary for the consumption, are imported.
COINS.-Those current are Spanish dollars, ducatoons, rupees, schillings, dubbeltjees, doits, and cash; the King having no coin of his own. The cash vary in their value. in their value. Accounts are kept decimally, thus :
The peccoe should contain 1000 cash, but they are frequently deficient. The price varies from 25 to 35 per Spanish dollar.
WEIGHTS. The weight for gold, musk, &c. is the tale, equal to 1055 English grains; nearly double the Chinese tale.
Of the great weights 100 catties make a pecul; and 3 peculs 1 bahar, which weighs 396 lbs. avoirdupois: but the bahar of pepper is 200 k or goelacks, and weighs 375 lbs. Dutch troy, or 407 lbs. avoirdupois. A coyang of rice is 200 gantams. The gantam is 8 bamboos, or 32 catties. The coyang weighs 8000 lbs. Dutch troy, or 8681 lbs. avoirdupois.
The pecul at Cheribon weighs 125 lbs. Dutch troy, or 135 lbs. 10 oz. avoirdupois; and the tiayang of rice is 2000 catties, or 2640 lbs. avoirdupois.
MEASURES. The long measure is the hasta, which is 18 English
For further information consult the ensuing article.
BATAVIA, the principal settlement of the Dutch in the East Indies, and to which all others are subordinate, is situated at the bottom of a large bay formed by the points Ontong, Java, and Crawang, and is in latitude 6° 9′ S., and longitude 106° 52′ E. It is considered one of the best harbours in India, having a number of small islands about two or three leagues from the city, which shelter the bay from N. W. to N. E., the principal of which are Onrust, Edam, Cooper's Island, and Purmerend. Large ships generally ride at single anchor in the roads, at about 1 mile from the shore, in six fathoms, the dome of the principal church bearing about S.; but smaller vessels approach within a mile of the shore. Fronting the small