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river, or canal, which leads to the city, there is a bar, on which there are about three feet at low water. The channel for boats to enter, is to the E. of the bar; and as there is at times a surf upon it at low water, when blowing strong in the N. W. monsoon, strangers ought not then to send their boats to the river, as many have been overset upon the bar, and the crews devoured by alligators, which are here of a large size, and very
The City of Batavia is an oblong square, the longest way facing the E. and W. about one mile, and the shortest facing the N. and S., about 2 of a mile broad. Through the middle of the city, from N. to S., runs the river Jaccatra, over which are three bridges, one at the upper end of the town; another at the lower part, near the Castle; and the third about the middle, being thence called the middle point bridge. The breadth of the river within the city is about 180 feet; it runs into the sea, past the Castle and the Admiralty wharf. On both sides of the mouth are long piers of wood and brick-work, about 3800 feet in length, taken from the moat of the city. The vessels belonging to the merchants are laid up and repaired between these piers, on the W. side; but along the E. side, the passage is kept open for the lighters, which go in and out of the city with the cargoes of the ships. At the outward point of the E. pier there is a shed, which serves for a stable for the horses which draw the small vessels and boats up and down the river.
The Island of ONRUST is about three leagues N. W. from Batavia, and is nearly round. It rises six or eight feet above the surface of the sea, and is of small extent, being about 4800 feet in circumference. In the centre of the island, and within the fort, stand the warehouses and other buildings, likewise a small church. The warehouses are generally full of goods of various kinds. On the N. side of the island are two saw-mills; and on the S. side there is a long pier-head, on which are three large wooden cranes, erected for the purpose of fixing or unstepping masts. Three ships can lie here behind each other, alongside the pier, in deep water, to be repaired, or to receive or discharge their cargoes. There is another pier, a little more to the W., called the Japan pier, where one more ship can lie to load or unload. There are 20 feet of water or more against the piers, and it rises about 5 feet once in 24 hours. All ships that require it, are hove down at the wharfs along the piers, and receive every reparation with convenience, safety, and dispatch.
EDAM is about three leagues N. N. E. from Batavia; it is very woody, and has abundance of large and ancient trees.
COOPER'S Island is about 1600 yards from Onrust, and about one-third
less in size. There are two pier-heads, where vessels may load and discharge at its south side.
The Island of PURMEREND is to the E. of Onrust, and about half as large again. It is planted with shady trees, and in the centre is a large building, which serves for a hospital, or lazaretto.
TRADE. The commerce of Batavia, previous to our conquest of the island in 1811, was conducted upon the exclusive system. The vast improvements, commercial and financial, introduced during our retention of the island, are ably stated, with the description and resources of Java, in Sir T. S. Raffles's History of the Island.
The coasting trade is carried on by Arabs, Bugis, and Chinese, who are enterprising and in general fair traders. The Bugis import camphire (Baroos), tortoiseshell, birds' nests, bees' wax, sarongs (cloth of strong texture), and gold dust; which they barter for opium, iron, steel, European chintz and broad cloth, and Indian piece-goods, besides rice, tobacco, salt, and other Javan products. The Chinese navigate brigs as well as junks. They carry on, besides a coasting traffic with the neighbouring islands as far as the Moluccas and Timor, a considerable direct commerce between Java and China in junks. They bring, from Canton and Amoy, teas, raw and manufactured silk, China ware, sweetmeats, nankeen, paper, and various minor articles; they convey also industrious settlers, who acquire considerable wealth in the island. The return cargoes, in Javan produce, and the supplies required from the islands, amount to a very considerable sum. A trade with China is also carried on by the European residents at Java. Previous to the restoration of this possession to the Dutch, a very extensive traffic was carried on by English country vessels from the three Presidencies, bringing opium, piece-goods, &c. and returning with gold-dust, bees' wax, tin, Japan copper, camphire, sago, and teak timber, which is plentiful here, and considered superior to that of Pegu or Malabar.
The exports to Europe are sugar and coffee, of superior quality, produced here, and likewise pepper; besides tin, (which promises to be a large item, as mines have just been discovered and opened in the Island of Billiton), sago, Japan copper, spices, ivory, sticklac, long pepper, cubebs, tortoiseshell, gold, diamonds, Sapan wood, ebony, rattans, indigo, &c. Among the im ports from Europe most in esteem with the Javanese during our occupation of the island, were iron and piece-goods; the imports of the latter description of British manufactures increased rapidly, and entirely superseded the fine Indian cottons. A trade exists between Japan and Java, and is the only channel of intercourse between Europe and that country. It is exclusively confined to the Government of Java.
By a regulation of the Netherlands Government in 1818, trade with its Indian possessions, except the Moluccas, is declared free and open to all friendly nations. This concession is, however, clogged with restraints. All vessels bound to Java from Europe, America, or European possessions in Asia and Africa, are not permitted to enter and unload in any other port than Batavia, unless by special permission they are allowed to proceed to Samarang and Sourabaya. Ships lading at either of these three ports, must receive their entire cargoes at the port of clearance. The article of opium is importable into Java only.
DUTIES. The customs on imports and exports have been so frequently altered to meet existing circumstances, that it is difficult to furnish a correct statement of them. By a Proclamation of 1818, the following duties were fixed for Java and Madura :-Opium, Bengal, 350 guld. per chest; other opium 200 guld. All other goods imported in Netherlands vessels, 6 per cent. In foreign vessels, cleared out in the Netherlands, 9 per cent. In foreign vessels coming from foreign ports, 12 per cent. The invoice value to be increased 30 per cent., or if too low in comparison with other invoices, to be improved by the owner, or the duties charged according to the market prices. But by a decree of 1819, the productions of the Netherlands (provisions excepted) imported into Batavia in Netherlands bottoms, are declared free of import duty. The export duties are the same as on imports, calculated on the market prices of the goods, except the following, which are subject to specific duties, viz.
Netherland Ships. To Netherlands. Elsewhere.
Coffee, per pecul of 125 lbs. Dutch
Pepper, per ditto...
Sugar, per ditto ⌁⌁⌁.........⌁
Arrack, per leager, 1st quality........................ 10 ..................⌁10
The following are free of import duties:-Coin of gold and silver, manufactured gold, and silver bars, &c., jewels and precious stones, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and baggage. Free of export duties:-Coined gold and silver, jewels and precious stones, salt, baggage.
By proclamation of 1822, the following provisions are made :
Art. 1.-All goods being the production of places in the Eastern Archipelago, and under the Netherlands dominion, or under the dominion of Indian Princes and nations, with whom the Netherlands Government is on amicable terms, immediately imported from these places without having touched at a foreign port, in Java or Madura, in Dutch ships, or native vessels on an equality with those ships, shall be free of import duties.
Art. 2.-All goods mentioned in the foregoing article, imported in Java and Madura in foreign vessels, or in Dutch ships, or native vessels on an equality with them, not immediately, and not without touching a foreign port; and likewise all other goods not falling under the terms of Article 1st, on their importation on the Islands of Java and Madura, remain subject to the full payment of the existing import duties.
Art. 3.-In general goods exported from Java shall pay for exportation duties, two per cent. of their value, estimated at the market prices, whether loaded in Dutch or foreign vessels, or whether going to Dutch or to foreign ports, provided that with respect to some goods, no special orders have been given, or shall be given, or enacted by these presents.
Art. 4.-Until the completion of the general tariff, for the collection of the import and export duties in Netherlands India, the following exportation duties shall be collected on the under-mentioned goods, viz.
In Dutch Ships. In Foreign Ships.
On camphire, (Japan), per catty.................. 34 guld............ 7 guld.
... 237 .........⌁nn 474
Art. 5.-All goods exported from Java and Madura, in Dutch or native vessels, or on equality thereto, shall, on application of the owner, be provided with a certificate, in proof that the duties have been paid, on which certificate these goods are allowed to be imported in all the Netherlands possessions in India, and brought back from thence to Java, without paying any duty, as long as they shall be accompanied with their original certificate.
Art. 6.-An entrêpot shall only exist at Batavia, with exclusion from henceforth of sugar, which no more shall be received therein.
The fees of the entrêpot are hereby fixed at a quarter of the duties for importation.
Art. 8.-At all Dutch possessions in India, equal duties on importation shall be levied as in Java and Madura; wherefore, henceforward on all goods about which as yet no fixed regulations are made, import duties shall be paid
When they shall be imported in Dutch ships, or native vessels considered equal therewith, six per cent.; and when imported in foreign ships, or ships navigating under Dutch colours, and belonging to owners residing in India, but coming from ports belonging to foreign Potentátes, and situated in Europe or in America, twelve per cent. Calculated after the stipulations expressed in the Regulations of August, 1813.
Art. 10.-The duty levied at present at the different settlements out of Java and Madura on exportation of goods, shall continue till other arrangements respecting them shall be made, with exception alone of such goods as are the productions of the soil, or of the industry of the inhabitants in those settlements, on which goods, when exported to foreign ports, the double exportation duty shall be paid, which, according to the existing regulations, are not levied on them when exported to a Dutch port, or to ports belonging to native Princes in amity with the Dutch Government, Siam included.
Art. 15.-By the above, it is not understood that any alterations have been made, either in the regulations now in vigour at the places or harbours in Netherlands India, which may or may not be touched at, or in the existing regulations on the trade and navigation in Netherlands India in general; all which must be considered to remain in full force, till other orders shall be given.
Art. 16.-No seizures of any goods shall take place, except in cases of evident fraud, and wilful intention to avoid payment of duties, and all contraventions, neglect of formalities required by law; and such like trespasses, when accompanied by any aggravated circumstances, shall henceforward be punished by a fine of one to three per cent. on the value of the goods, according to circumstances; and those fines will in singular cases be reduced below one per cent. on the value of the property; or at five and twenty florins to Europeans, and at ten florins to natives.
N. B.-Opium is excepted from the aforegoing provisions.
Shippers in foreign vessels destined to the Netherlands, in addition to regular duties, must deposit the surplus paid by foreign ships destined elsewhere, which will be refunded on their arrival at the Netherlands.