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The importation of cloves, nutmegs, and mace, and likewise of warlike stores, is prohibited.
By a Batavian edict, dated February, 1824, all woollen and cotton goods, the manufacture of foreign countries westward of the Cape of Good Hope, imported direct from such places in foreign or Netherlands bottoms, are subject to a duty of 25 per cent. on the value; and if imported from any foreign settlement eastward of the Cape, 35 per cent. The values to be regulated by a price current drawn up every three months.
The duty on goods brought by Chinese junks is so much per junk, varying from 2000 to 6000 guldens. These vessels are confined to Batavia. Vessels in distress, or that anchor in the roads, pay customs only on the goods sold at the port. Goods transshipped are subject to the full and highest duties. Goods may remain a year in store, subject to rent.
REGULATIONS. These are very multifarious and minute. A particular account of cargo must be delivered at the Custom-house within 24 hours after arrival, which must be verified on oath, testifying that no attempt to defraud the Government is intended. This account must be accompanied with all the original ship's papers. The cargo cannot be landed without a regular permit by the proper officer, nor take place before sun-rise or after sun-set. The officers may be present at loading or discharging of cargoes, and may examine ships, but are forbidden to harass traders, and are required to give information and assistance. Previous to sailing, the intention of departure must be expressed, and a duplicate manifest given at the Custom-house, with all permits received. After the necessary certificates are obtained from the collector, and have been laid before the water-fiscal, the commander, chief officer, and supracargo, must join in an oath that the manifest is correct, and that no fraud has been practised, or is intended. A passport is then given by the magistrate, or resident.
The penalties on breach of the regulations are forfeiture of goods, and fines. Those who wilfully oppose or annoy Custom-house officers in discharge of their duty, are punished with scourging, banishment, or fines.
Commanders or supracargoes are required to wait upon the harbourmaster as soon as possible. This officer may go on board vessels, to muster crews, and compare the muster-rolls. No vessel may clear without a clearance from the harbour-master.
The following are the questions to be filled up in the harbour-master's hailing letter on arrival :-Flag of ship?-name?-broker?-how manned? -how armed?—where from ?-when sailed ?-at what places touched?— where bound?—what cargo?-names, country, profession, age, and last residence of passengers ?-state of health ?-important tidings?
No ballast can be thrown overboard in the roads.
All vessels sailing under the Dutch flag, (but belonging to the Colony), when cleared out from foreign European or American ports, pay the same import duty as foreign ships from foreign ports.
ANCHORAGE RATES.-Vessels not owned in India, viz. Netherlands ships, 15 stivers per last of measurement; foreign ships, I gulden. These dues are not required more than once in six months, even though the vessel enters other harbours. The shipping dues are said to be levied on vessels anchoring in the roads merely for water and refreshment.
PORT CLEARANCES.-Vessels not belonging to Netherlands India, viz. clearance, 5 guldens; stamp, 2 guldens 21 stivers.
WATER RATES, &c.—The harbour-master supplies fire-wood and water; the tariff of charges hangs in his office open to the public.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Bullocks, hogs, and sheep are to be procured here, with poultry, vegetables, and fruits in abundance. Buffaloes are very poor, and weigh 80 to 100 lbs. each; hogs, of the China breed, and very excellent, 70 to 80 lbs. each; sheep, the flesh of which is hard, tough, and in every respect bad; goats, which are, if possible, worse than the sheep; fowls are in general of a large size, very good, and in plenty; ducks and geese are very cheap, but turkeys are extravagantly dear; fish is amazingly plentiful, and yams are very good. Of fruits they have the following:-Custard apples, durion, grapes (scarce), guavas, limes, lemons, mangosteens, mangoes, oranges, pomegranates, pumplenoses, plantains, papaw apples, pine-apples, pumpkins, tamarinds, and water melons.
COINS. A new monetary system has recently been established in Java by the King of the Netherlands. A brief account of the former system may, however, still be useful.
Accounts were kept in rix dollars, an imaginary money, containing 48 stivers, and valued at 5s. sterling. But the currency consisted of the following coins:-rupees of 4 schillings, 12 dubbeltjees, 15 cash, 30 stivers, or 120 doits. The rupee valued at 3s. 1d.; and the stiver at 14d. Half doit, doit, and 2 doit coins of copper were in circulation.
In the new system, the monetary unit is the new gulden or florin of the Netherlands; but instead of decimal divisions, it is here divided as follows:
4 doits...............equal to............1 Indian stiver.
A paper currency has been also established, consisting of billets of 1000, 600, 300, 100, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 1 guldens; which are convertible into specie on demand. For this purpose, Exchange Offices are erected at Batavia, Samarang, and Sourabaya; the two latter issue no paper of greater value than 100 guldens.
The principal coins of the island are patacks and cash. The patack is equal to 6 mace, or 24 cash. There are also pieces called pities, composed of 4 parts lead and 1 part tin, 50 of which make 1 stiver.
The rates at which foreign coins pass here are subject to variation; they are mostly valued, both silver and gold, according to weight and fineThe following coins are current, and their value is established by the Government at the rates of exchange here specified :—
The pound sterling at.............. 10 guldens || 100 Arcot or Madras and
The Portuguese milrea
The star pagoda
100 Sicca rupees.....................110
WEIGHTS.-Gold and silver are weighed by the Dutch mark troy, divided into 9 reals, each weighing 422 grains English, taking the mark at 3798 grains, which, according to Dr. Kelly, has been recently determined to be its true value at the London Mint, from attested standards transmitted from abroad.
The Dutch troy pound of 2 marks is used generally in foreign trade, but the Chinese weights are those in common use, viz.
16 tales......equal to......1 catty = 1 lb. Dutch troy.
The small bahar is equal to 406 lbs. 14 oz., and the large bahar to
610 lbs. 5 oz. English avoirdupois.
however, necessary to guard against deception.
MEASURES.-Rice and other grain are sold by the coyang, which should weigh 3300 lbs. Dutch troy, or 3581 lbs. avoirdupois; or in small quantities by the timbang of 5 peculs, or 10 sacks. There is also the kulack of 7 catties; and the last of 46 measures, each containing 5 gantons.
The liquid measure generally used is the kanne, containing 91 English cubic inches thus 33 kannes are equal to 13 English gallons. A leager of wine is reckoned 360 rands, each rand 10 mursies; and a leager of arrack
A vorm of firewood is 225 feet long, and 4 feet high. The ell of stone is 10 inches long, 5 broad, and 2 thick.
Of Long Measure, the ell is 27 English inches; and the foot, 12 thumbs, or inches, Dutch or Rhineland measure, equal to 12 inches English.
Along the north coast of Java are many towns and villages; the principal of which are Cheribon, Samarang, Japara, Joana, Grissee, Sourabaya, Passourwang, and Panaroukan.
CHERIBON.―This town, in longitude 108° 26' E., is about 35 leagues to the E. of Batavia, and lies at the bottom of a large bay. Ships anchor to the N. E. of the fort, in 3 to 5 fathoms water, at about 2 leagues from the shore. Here is a river, having two branches, which fall into the sea a short distance from each other; the country vessels, drawing from 4 to 6 feet water, are obliged, in coming in, or going out, branch, to wait for high tides, the bar having only 2 water. On the right bank of the river, near the sea-side, which is small. The town is large; the principal houses are surrounded with gardens, and have a picturesque appearance.
of the principal
feet on it at low stands the fort,
TRADE.-There are a number of Chinese resident here, and a considerable trade is carried on in the produce of this part of the coast, which consists of coffee, cotton, indigo, sugar, timber, and pepper.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS of all kinds are in abundance, and at reasonable prices.
SAMARANG.-This town, which is the principal on the island next to Batavia, is at the bottom of a bay, in latitude 6° 57′ S., and longitude about 110° 25′ E., situated on the E. side of a river of the same name, which has a bar, having on it, at low water, not more than two feet. It is strongly fortified, and has a small neat church. The Government house is facing the river; the warehouses and workshops stand in a row under one roof to the S. W. of the town by the river's side; they are about 300 feet long. The Chinese and Javanese towns are on the W. side of the river, and that of the Bougis to the E. A bridge is thrown across the river from the fort, leading to the usual residence of the Governor, which is a large and handsome building.
The shoalness of the coast makes the road of Samarang inconvenient, both on account of the great distance at which large ships are obliged to lie from the shore, and of the landing in the river, which cannot be entered before half-flood. The anchorage is with the flagstaff bearing S. S. E. and the high land of Japara N. E. by E. in five fathoms, about three miles from
PROVISIONS are remarkably cheap here.
JAPARA is about 25 miles N. E. of Samarang, on the banks of a small river, having a bar, on which are not more than three feet at low The fort is on the N. side, upon a small eminence. On the S. side of the river is the Javanese village, where there is a bridge thrown across to the N. side, on which is the house of the Resident, planted with shady trees, and railed round.
JOANA is about three miles up a river, which is the largest and most navigable along the N. E. coast of Java, being at the mouth, and a great way up 20 feet deep, and about 200 feet broad. The town consists of two rows of houses, built along the river on its W. side. On the opposite side, upon an island formed by the river, stands the Chinese campon. The fort is a redoubt, in which are the rice warehouses, the barracks for the soldiery, and some other buildings. The house of the Resident is without the fort, on the E. side.
end of the Island of Madura.
GRISSEE is in latitude about 7° 10′ S., nearly opposite to the S. W. Here is a small fort, and warehouses within opposite the fort, about 600 feet in length.
it. A wooden mole runs out The town is small, and divided between the Javanese and Chinese. The principal street runs along the coast; it consists of four or five large houses, built of stone, inhabited by the Resident and other Europeans. The street is wide, and shaded by several rows of tall thick trees opposite the houses. At the end of, and behind the street are the campons of the natives and Chinese; also the grand square, in which are the residences of the native Chiefs. There is no water fit for drinking here, but what is fetched from two springs about 1 mile from the town, or from Sourabaya.
SOURABAYA is about three leagues from Grissee, the coast between forming a large angle. The town is on the banks of a river, about two miles from the sea, in latitude 7° 15′ S., and longitude 112° 48 E. Ships visiting this place require pilots; but they do not come off unless a signal be made. The anchorage is about a mile to the N. of the river, with the flagstaff of the fort bearing S. 2 E., and Grissee W. 30 N. As pirates often lurk among the fishing proas, great caution is necessary in sending a boat to the shore. The fort is on the right bank of the river. On the opposite bank are the principal Malay and Chinese campons, to which there is a communication by two large wooden bridges. There are two moles erected at the mouth of the river, with batteries to defend them. The banks are full of villages, inhabited by Malays and Chinese. The large house at Zidayo is the Sultan's, and its roof is visible among the trees as soon as the latter are seen.