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which is the time for gathering them. If they are suffered to remain three or four weeks longer, they swell, and become what are called mother cloves, which are proper for propagation or for candying, but not fit for drying as a spice. The cloves grow on separate stalks, but in bunches of three or more together. Valentyn describes four sorts; that which he calls the male clove is the sort used for drying; the female produces cloves of a pale colour, which are the best for extracting of oil; the king's clove is a very scarce species, bearing larger and double cloves; the fourth sort is called rice cloves, which are very small, but likewise very rare. The clove produced upon the wild clove-tree has no kind of spiciness. At the time of gathering the clove, the ground is carefully swept under the trees, that none may be lost. They are generally pulled off by long hooks, or beaten down with bamboos; large cloths are spread to receive them, and they are afterwards either dried by the fire or in the sun: the last mode is the best. The usual time of the clove crop is in October, and it lasts till December. The crop of cloves depends much upon the temperature of the weather in June and September; an after-crop is sometimes made, but the time is uncertain, and it does not often happen.
Cloves should be chosen large-sized, perfect in all parts, and heavy, of a fine fragrant smell, and hot aromatic taste, so as almost to burn the throat; the colour should be a dark brown, almost approaching to black, and when handled, should leave an oily moisture upon the fingers. When fresh gathered, cloves will yield, on simple pressure, a fragrant thick reddish oil. They have sometimes a considerable portion of their essential oil drawn from them, and are then mixed with those which are fresh. By this mixture the purchaser may be deceived; but, on examination, those cloves which have lost their virtue, always continue weaker than the rest, and of a paler colour; and whenever they look shrivelled, having lost the knob at the top, and are light and broken, with but little smell or taste, they should be rejected, as it affords reason to suspect the oil has been extracted from them As cloves readily absorb moisture, it is not uncommon, when a quantity is ordered, for them to be kept near a vessel of water, by which means a considerable addition to their weight is made. The ton is 12 Cwt. for freight.
OIL OF CLOVES is procured from the cloves by distillation. When new, it is of a pale reddish brown colour, (which becomes darker by age), extremely hot and fiery, and sinks in water. The kind generally imported from India, contains nearly half its weight of an insipid expressed oil, which is discovered by dropping a little into spirits of wine; on shaking it, the genuine oil mixes with the spirit, and the insipid separates. It is sometimes adulterated with a cheaper essential oil; to discover this, dip a rag into it,
and hold it before the fire; the flavour of the genuine oil will fly off, leaving that of the added behind.
This island, which is of considerable size, is about 55 miles W. of Amboyna. The principal town, called Cajeli by the Dutch, is situated at the bottom of Bouro Bay, on the E. side of the island, in latitude 3° 24' S., and longitude 127° 4' E. On the coast E. of the village is a large deep river, called Aer Bessar, which falls into the sea. The best anchorage is with the fort bearing S. by E. E., distance three-quarters of a mile. island is considered the granary of Amboyna; large quantities of rice, sagoflour, and other provisions are constantly sent there. It also produces several kinds of excellent timber, and many beautiful sorts of wood, similar to those at Amboyna, which are in request in China for inlaid work. The famous cajeputa oil is chiefly prepared here, and sent to Fort Victoria.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Beef is difficult to be procured, it being reserved for Amboyna; the only live stock they have, are goats and fowls, both of which are scarce. Deer and wild hogs can be got, but not in sufficient quantities for two or three ships. The best method of procuring stock is by bartering knives and common Coast cloths; for so little do the natives know the value of money, that they prize a common Lascar knife as much as half a dollar in silver. Fish does not appear to be very plentiful, or in any great variety; there are, however, a few turtles occasionally; and several sorts of beautiful shells are to be found on the sea-shore. Yams, bananas, limes, and various other fruits and vegetables are brought off by the natives, and exchanged for common clasp knives, and coarse red and white China handkerchiefs. The best watering place is just above high water mark, about 100 yards to the E. of the fort, where the water is very good; it is necessary to swim your casks on shore, and back again when full, as the shore is so flat, that a long boat cannot come within 100 yards
of low water mark.
CERAM.-This island, which is high and mountainous, extends nearly E. and W., about 54 leagues; the S. W. point is in latitude 3° 31' S., and longitude 127° 56′ E. There are several harbours :-Lahoo, near the S. W. point; Sawa, on the N. coast, in latitude 2° 51′ S., and longitude 129° 6' E.; and Wakoo, on the N. E. part, in latitude 3° 25' S., and longitude 130° 40′ E. The inhabitants are in general hospitable to Europeans, who touch here for refreshments, or to trade. The natives of the neighbouring islands bring beech de mer, birds'-nests, long nutmegs, birds of Paradise, and sago; sometimes spices are smuggled from Banda and Amboyna, and may be procured at reasonable rates; in return for which, they take coarse blue, white, and red piece-goods, India silks, opium, iron,
coarse cutlery, looking-glasses, lead, and tin, which the natives greatly value, and convert into ear-rings, &c.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-There are no cattle to be procured; but wild hogs, deer, and poultry are in abundance. Some presents are necessary to the Rajahs and principal men at the different places, for permission to trade, or to obtain refreshments.
MYSOL. This island is about 15 leagues N. E. of Ceram; it extends E. and W., about 14 leagues. On the S. side, in latitude 2° 12′ S., and longitude 127° E., is the harbour of Efbe, formed by an island of the same name, and the coast of Mysol. The village of Efbe is small, and the houses are all built upon posts in the water. Presents are necessary to the Rajah, in the event of a vessel touching here for refreshments. Fresh water may be had on the island, or from a small river opposite it, on Mysol.
The N. W. point of New Guinea is about 25 leagues from Mysol. To the N. are several islands, the principal of which are SALWATTY, BATANTA, and WAYGIOU. There are several harbours and bays which have been occasionally visited by European vessels; but not affording articles of trade, are but imperfectly known.
TRADE. The inhabitants of New Guinea, and the neighbouring islands, who are called Papuans, carry on a trade in their own boats with the Spice Islands, conveying their own produce, which consists of ambergris, beech de mer, birds of Paradise, Missoy bark, pearls, pearl shells, slaves, tortoise-shell, and many kinds of curious birds, which the Papuans have a particular way of drying; for which they receive in return, beads, Chinaware, brass-wire, coarse piece-goods, cutlery, gold and silver lace, iron in bars, and looking-glasses.
BIRDS OF PARADISE.-These birds are valuable, and extremely well suited for an ornament of dress, both by their lightness and beauty; they are employed for the same purposes as the feathers of the ostrich. There are seven species.
I. THE LARGE BIRD, commonly two feet four inches in length; the head small, the bill hard and long, of a pale colour. The head and back of the neck is lemon-coloured, but about its little eyes black; about the neck, the bird is of a bright gloss emerald green, and soft like velvet, as is the breast, which is black or wolf-coloured. The wings are large and chestnut ; the back part of the body is covered with long straight narrow feathers, of a pale brown colour, similar to the plumes of the ostrich. These feathers are spread when the bird is on the wing, which is the cause that he can keep very long in the air. On both sides of the belly are two tufts of stiff
and shorter feathers, of a golden yellow, and shining. From the rump proceed two long stiff shafts, which are feathered on their extremities.They come always in flocks of thirty or forty, and are led by a bird which the inhabitants call the king, distinct from the little king-bird. This leader is black with red spots, and constantly flies higher than the rest of the flock, which never forsake him, but settle as soon as he settles—a circumstance which becomes their ruin when the king lights on the ground, from whence they are not able to rise, on account of the singular structure and disposition of their plumage.
The natives catch them with bird-lime and in nooses, or shoot them with blunt arrows; they then cut their legs off, draw the entrails, and fumigate them, and sell them at Banda for about a rix-dollar each; whereas at Aroo one of these birds may be bought for a spike-nail, or a piece of old iron.
II. THE SMALL BIRD is about twenty inches long; his beak leadcoloured, and paler at the point, the eyes small, and enclosed in black; about the neck he is green; the head and back of the neck are of a dirty yellow; the back of a greyish yellow; the breast and belly of a dusky colour; the wings small, and chestnut-coloured. The long plumage is about a foot in length, and paler than in the larger species, as in general the colours of this small bird are less bright. The two long feathers of the tail are constantly thrown away by the natives. This is in all respects like the greater sort; they follow likewise a king, or leader, who is however blacker, with a purplish cast, and finer in colour than the rest; though this bird is also different from the third and fourth black species. This kind is found only in the Papua Islands.
III. THE LARGE BLACK BIRD is brought without wings or legs for sale, so that of this species it is difficult to give an exact description. Its figure, when stuffed, is narrow and round, but stretched in length to the extent of four spans. The plumage on the neck, head, and belly is black and velvet-like, with a hue of purple and gold, which appears very strong. The bill is blackish, and one inch in length; on both sides are two bunches of feathers, which have the appearance of wings, although they are very different, the wings being cut off by the natives. The plumage is soft, broad, similar to peacocks' feathers, with a glorious gloss and greenish hue. The feathers of the tail are of unequal length; those next to the belly are narrow, like hair; the two uppermost are much longer, and pointed; those immediately under them are above a span and a half longer than the upper ones; they are stiff on both sides, fringed with a plumage like hair, black above, but glossy below. Birds of this kind are brought from no other
place than New Guinea. The inhabitants carry them to Salwatty in hollow tubes of bamboo, and sell them for small hatchets or coarse cloth.
IV. THE SMALLER BLACK BIRD.-The plumage of this sort is equal in length with that of the above, but thinner in body, black above, and without any remarkable gloss, not having those shining peacock-feathers which are found on the greater species. This wants likewise the three long pointed feathers of the tail, belonging to the larger black species of the Bird of Paradise. The inhabitants of the mountains of Mysol shoot those birds, and sell them to the people of Tidore.
V. THE WHITE BIRD is the most rare; it is of two species, one quite white, and the other black and white. The first sort is very rare, and in form like the bird of Paradise from Papua. The second has the fore part black, and the back part white, with twelve crooked wiry shafts, which are almost naked, though in some parts covered with hair. This species is very scarce, and only to be procured by means of the people of Tidore, since it is found on the Papua Islands.
VI. THE UNKNOWN BLACK BIRD.-In the year 1689 a new species was seen at Amboyna, carried from Mysol, only one foot in length, with a fine purple hue, a small head, and straight bill. As on the other birds of Paradise, on its back, near the wings, are feathers of a purple and blue colour; but under the wings, and over all the belly, they are yellow coloured, as in the common sort; on the back of the neck they are mouse-coloured mixed with green. It is remarkable in this species that there are before the wings two roundish tufts of feathers, which are green edged, and may be moved at pleasure by the bird-like wings. Instead of tail, he has twelve or thirteen black, naked, wire-like shafts, hanging promiscuously like feathers. His strong legs have sharp claws; his head is remarkably small; the eyes are likewise small, and surrounded by black.
VII. THE KING BIRD is about seven inches long, and somewhat larger than the titmouse. Its head and eyes are small, the bill straight, the eyes included in circles of black plumage; the crown of the head is fire coloured, the back of the neck blood coloured, the neck and breast of a chestnut colour, with a dark ring of the brightest emerald green. Its wings are in proportion strong, and the quill feathers dark, with red shining plumes, spots, and stripes. The tail is straight, short, and brown. Two long naked, black shafts project from the rump at least a hand's breadth beyond the tail, having at their extremities semilunar twisted plumage, of the most glaring green colour above, and dusky below. The belly is white, and green sprinkled, and on each side is a tuft of long plumage, with a broad margin, being on one side green, and on the other dusky. The back is