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blood red and brown, shining like silk. The legs are in size like those of the lark, having three fore toes and one back toe. This kind is chiefly brought from Aroo, where it is occasionally worn as an ornament by the natives.
GILOLO. This island, which is of considerable size and singular form, seems to divide the Indian Ocean, to the E., from the Great South Sea. The W. side is nearly straight. On the E. side is a peninsula that points due E., and from the base of that another to the N., leaving between it and the W. extent of the island, a bay, extremely narrow, but very deep, penetrating about half through the island, called Ossa Bay. The town of Ossa is in latitude 0° 45′ N., and longitude 128° 22' E. The S. side of the bay abounds with nutmegs, and has a fine watering place. procure water and refreshments, and on some of the islands excellent timber for spars.
Here ships may
The Gilolo passage is now much frequented, especially by vessels from America bound to China.
There are several other towns in various parts of the island, viz. Maba, Patany, and Weda; but being seldom visited by Europeans, they are little known.
TRADE.-A considerable trade is carried on in their own proas with Amboyna and the neighbouring islands, from whence they import cutlery, cloth, (chiefly scarlet,) China-ware, gold lace, iron in bars, opium, piecegoods, and steel.
The articles in which they make their returns, are chiefly nutmegs, mace, cloves, beech de mer, birds'-nests, pearl shells, seed pearl, and tortoise-shell. Large quantities of sago are to be procured extremely reasonable.
PROVISIONS.-The Island of Gilolo abounds with bullocks and buffaloes, goats, deer, and wild hogs; the latter frequent the places where sagotrees have been felled, and feeding upon the remains, grow very fat, and make excellent meat.
The islands of TERNATE, TIDORE, MOTYR, MATCHIAN, and BATCHIAN, adjacent to the W. coast of Gilolo, and situated between the equator and the first degree of N. latitude, were formerly considered as the principal, and even the only Spice Islands, the nutmeg-tree and clove-tree being dif fused in these islands in a much greater quantity than at Amboyna, Banda, or any other island; but the Dutch wishing to appropriate these valuable trees exclusively to themselves, forced the Sovereigns of the former islands to destroy the plantations of them. At their Courts they kept agents who were very busy and strict in their visits; and these trees were allowed to be
cultivated only at Amboyna, Banda, and the other islands which were under the immediate controul of the Company, and where they could exercise a continual superintendence. This inquisition, introduced by Dutch cupidity, was singularly counteracted by birds, which deposited the seeds of the spice-trees in the islands circumjacent to those where they were cultivated. This had determined the Company also to fix Residents there, whose principal mission was to make constant researches, in order to destroy all those which they might meet with. Often, indeed, the trees happened to be sown in places so steep, that they escaped the most active efforts of the destroyers.
TERNATE is the northernmost, and though small, the largest, and remarkable for its volcanoes, The Dutch have a fortress on the E. side, called Fort Orange, in latitude 0° 48' N., and longitude 127° 13′ E. The anchorage is near the shore, abreast of the town. The King resides here in great state. His dominions comprehend the greater part of the N. end of Gilolo; likewise a great part of the N. E. quarter of Celebes, where the settlements of Manado and Gonong Tello are situated; to him also belong the Islands of Sangir, Siao, and several of the small neighbouring
TRADE.-Gold-dust, tortoise-shell, wax, and smuggled spices, are exchanged for European and Asiatic produce, including opium, but the demand is small.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS of all kinds are scarce and dear. Rice is imported from Manado on Celebes. Wild hogs and deer are plentiful in the woods; vegetables are, however, more abundant here than at any of the islands; wood and water are easily procured.
COINS.-Accounts are kept in rix-dollars and Spanish dollars. Ducatoons and crowns pass here.
WEIGHTS.-Chinese weights are in common use. The bahar is 4 cantars and 6 lbs., each cantar 100 lbs. avoirdupois; which makes the bahar 406 lbs.
TIDORE.-This island is situated about 3 leagues to the S. of Ternate, in latitude about 0° 43′ N., and longitude 127° 37′ E. The town is on the E. side of the island, near which ships anchor in 30 fathoms. It is very populous; the people principally Mahometans. The King possesses great part of the S. E. portion of Gilolo, in which are three towns, where some trade is carried on, viz. Patany, Maba, and Weda; he likewise claims the islands of Waygiou, Mysol, and Batanta.
TRADE.-There is a great trade here with New Guinea, Gilolo, and
with the N. islands; and the Chinese, who are an industrious people, are much interested in it.
The commodities imported are as follow:-China-ware, scarlet cloth, coarse cutlery, guns and muskets, gunpowder, glass-ware, iron in bars; ironmongery, looking-glasses, lead; lace, gold and silver; nails, piece-goods of sorts, shot, steel, and watches.
The proas import from Sooloo, New Guinea, Gilolo, Waygiou, and the other islands, agal agal, birds'-nests, black-wood, beech de mer, birds of paradise, Missoy bark, nutmegs, pearls, pearl shells, rattans, sago, sticklac, sandal-wood, tortoise-shell, and wax, taking in return the produce of India and China, before mentioned.
DUTIES.-There are no duties levied on imports or exports, but presents are made to the Sultan and his principal men, according to the business done.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Bullocks and goats are to be got from Gilolo; deer and wild hogs in abundance; various kinds of fruits, and some vegetables. The sea yields plenty of excellent fish. The Kemoo or Chama cockle is in abundance amongst these islands; the small ones, about the size of a man's head, are very good, and will keep long alive, if wetted frequently with salt water.
CELEBES.-This island is separated from Borneo by the Strait of Macassar, which is about 115 leagues long, and generally from 35 to 45 leagues wide, except where it is contracted by the projection of Point Kanneevongan, to 17 leagues; it is much frequented by ships bound to China late in the season, though it has no ports where provisions or refreshments can be readily procured.
Celebes is of considerable extent, and very irregular and singular form. It is peopled by various tribes, the chief of which are the Macassarese, and Bugis. Their manners are peculiar and whimsical.
MACASSAR.-On the W. side of Celebes is this principal settlement; all the others are subordinate to it. The road is one of the most beautiful in India, and very secure, being defended by numerous small islands and sand-banks from almost every wind that blows; but a pilot is necessary to get into the inner roads. The town is built upon a point or neck of land watered by a river.
Fort Rotterdam is situated in latitude 5° 9' S., and longitude 119° 36 E.; it was built by the natives with the assistance of the Portuguese, and is about 800 feet from the beach, opposite to the road, where a pier extends, which serves for unloading the ships, and close to which are 15 or 16 feet
side of which is
The streets cross
water. Without the land-gate is a large plain, on the N. situated the town, where most of the Europeans reside. at right angles, pointing to the four Cardinal points; most of them are broad, and formed of tolerably good houses; at the end of one of them stands the orphan-house, which is large, but in a very ruinous state. The Chinese all live in one street. This town is palisadoed all round, and at night closed by gates, where a watch is constantly kept. Without the town, to the S., there is a row of buildings, which bounds it on that side, and where the house of the Governor stands. The Bougi and Malay campons are not far from it; the Campon Baro, where most of the natives and some Europeans live, is S. of the fort; there are likewise a few brick houses in it. The environs of Macassar are very pleasant. The plain reaches to the foot of a range of high mountains, extending 8 or 10 miles, and is covered with rice fields and pasture grounds.
TRADE.-The Dutch East India Company imported piece-goods. The other commodities which used to be brought by the commanders of their ships, are anchors and grapnels, brass wire, coarse cutlery, gunpowder, guns and pistols, gold thread, iron in bars, lead, looking glasses, lace, nails, small shot, sugar, steel in faggots, woollens, and watches.
The Dutch allow a junk to come direct from China every year. The articles imported by her are China-ware, Canton cloth, fireworks, gongs, iron in bars, iron pans, nankeens, silk piece-goods, sugar, sugar-candy, sweetmeats, teas, and a number of small articles for wearing apparel, and other uses. Gold, of which immense quantities are procured on the island, and rice, form the chief productions exported. The following articles, which are taken by the annual junk to China, are imported into the settlement by proas from the surrounding countries:-Beech de mer, black-wood, bezoar stones, cloves, cotton wool, clove bark, nutmegs, rattans, rice, sago, tortoise-shell,
A particular kind of cotton cloth, called Cambays, is manufactured here, and is an article in great demand in all Malay countries; it is red, checkered, and mixed with blue, much resembling the Tartan plaid; some are as fine as cambric.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The beef here is excellent, and at a reasonable price. Rice, poultry, deer, and wild hogs are plentiful, and fruits of various kinds. Water is generally procured from a small rivulet which runs near the town; but the best-is from the wells, and which can be readily shipped off from the pier. Abundance of excellent fish are caught in the roads, and about the islands.
Corns. Accounts are kept in rix-dollars and stivers. Spanish dollars
are the common coin, but the under-mentioned also pass current at the following rates:→→→
Bombay Rupees.......5 Schillings.
English Crowns.............10 Ditto.
The exchange is 4 rix-dollars for 3 Spanish dollars. All bargains are made in the former, which is a nominal coin. They have a kind of mace, 7 of which go to a dollar.
WEIGHTS.-All merchandise is weighed by the dotchin, and then reduced to other weights.
The pecul is 100 catties, or 135 lbs. 10 oz. avoirdupois. The ganton among the natives is 7 lbs. Dutch troy, or 8 lbs. 5 oz. avoirdupois ; but the ganton used by the Dutch is 11 lbs. Dutch troy, or 12 lbs. avoirdupois.
Gold and siver are weighed by the tale of 16 mace, equal to 827; Dutch asen, or 614 English grains.
BONTHAIN BAY is about 30 leagues S. E. from Macassar, and may be known by a hill at the bottom of a bay which is in latitude about 5° 30 ́ S., and longitude 119° 53′ E. The bay is large, and ships may lie in perfect security in both monsoons; the soundings are good and regular, and the bottom soft mud; the anchorage is with Bonthain Hill bearing N., about half a mile from the shore. In this bay there are several small towns, the principal of which, from whence the bay takes its name, is in the N. E. part of it. Most of the ships bound to the Spice Islands touch here, and pass between Celebes and Saleyer.
TRADE. The principal article of trade here is rice, of which large quantities are annually exported; the others are chiefly brought by the proas, and are similar to those enumerated at Macassar.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS of all kinds are plentiful and at a cheap rate. The beef is excellent; rice may be had in any quantity, as may fowls and fruit. Fish may be caught with the seine, and turtle is occasionally to be procured. The bullocks have humps similar to the Indian ones; there are besides buffaloes, goats, sheep, and deer. Wood and water are to be had in great plenty; the former near a river, under Bonthain Hill; and the latter both from it and another river near the fort: if from the latter, the boats must go above the fort with the casks which are to be filled, where there is a good rolling way; but as the river has a bar, a loaded boat can come out only at high water.
BOOLECOMBA is about 20 miles from Bonthain, near a small river. In the S. W. monsoon the road is dangerous for shipping; small