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board vessels, to prevent illicit trade; but by proper management this restraint may be evaded. Much gold is annually brought here from Sena and Sofala, and ambergris, ivory, columbo-root, tortoise-shell, and cowries are plentifully procured. The chief article of export hither, from British India, is piece-goods, of various kinds, principally from Bombay; and ivory is the chief return.
PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS are dear, Mozambique being dependent upon Madagascar and other places for supplies. There are but two good wells of water, one on the island, the other on the main. Wood is procured from the main, where the Portuguese have gardens of vegetables and fruits.
COINS. The coins current are Spanish dollars, crusados, and testoons, 4 testoons making 1 crusado, the exchange of which with Spanish dollars varies from 250 to 270 crusados per 100 dollars.
WEIGHTS. The weights are the frazil and the bahar, 20 of the former making 1 of the latter, which is considered equal to 240 avoirdupois pounds.
COMMODITIES PROCURABLE AT MOZAMBIQUE.
AMBER, (Cah-ruba, Hind. & Pers.), is met with on this coast, generally in irregular masses of yellowish brown colour. It should be in fine hard pieces, clean and transparent; the smell, when rubbed, fragrant and pleasant; it should attract light substances, as straws, hairs, &c. The foul and opaque should be rejected. The Caroba, or Amber of the bazars, is imported from Bussorah, and is a resin, supposed to be real copal.
AMBERGRIS (Amber, Hind. Ambara, San.), a concrete substance, light, inflammable, soft and tenacious like wax, slightly odoriferous, generally in solid masses, rough and uneven when broken, and frequently containing pieces of shells and other substances. It is found on various parts of the E. Coast of Africa, as well as in the eastern seas. Its origin is not exactly determined. It is often adulterated. The best is ash-coloured, with yellowish and blackish veins and spots, scarcely any taste, and very little smell, unless heated, or much handled, when it yields an agreeable odour. When exposed to the flame of a candle, in a silver spoon, it melts without bubble or scum; it swims on water; if a small piece is laid upon the heated point of a knife, it should melt entirely away. The Chinese try its genuineness by scraping it fine upon boiling tea, when it should dissolve, and diffuse generally. The black, or white, is bad; the smooth, uniform, and apparently pure, is commonly factitious. It is used principally by perfumers, and varies much in price.
COLUMBO ROOT, (Kalumb, Mosamb.), a staple export of the Portuguese, grows naturally and abundantly in the forests on the Mozambique coast,
and inland: the plant is considered to be a species of Menispermum. It is highly esteemed by the Africans. Columbo is procured in circular pieces, from half an inch to three inches in diameter, of different thicknesses; the bark wrinkled and thick, externally a greenish brown, and a light yellow within; the pith spongy, yellowish, and slightly striped; when fresh, rather aromatic; pungent and disagreeably bitter, somewhat resembling mustard kept too long. Chuse the largest pieces, fresh, of a good colour, as free as possible from worms; reject the small and broken. The best mode of packing is in cases, filling the interstices with fine dry sand. The freight of Columbo is calculated at 16 Cwt. to the ton.
COWRIES, small glossy shells, used in Bengal and other parts of India as currency. They are also brought from the Maldives. They are bought at Bombay by the Surat Candy (7461⁄2 lbs.), and sold by tale, 40 to 50 puns for a rupee. Cowries should be chosen small, clean, white, and glossy; rejecting the yellow, large, and those without lustre. The freight is calculated at 20 Cwt. per ton.
ELEPHANTS' TEETH.-The Mosambique teeth are sometimes preferred to those from other parts; but the Ceylon are said to be larger, whiter, and of a finer grain than any from India or Africa. They should be chosen large, straight, solid, and white, free from flaws or decay, and not very hollow in the stump. In India, the hollow part is frequently sawed off to make bangles. At Surat and Cutch, where the Mosambique teeth are preferred, they are thus sold :-those above 16 seers' weight, by the maund of 40 seers; under 16, and not under 10, by that of 60 seers; under 10, and not under 5, by that of 80 seers; under 5, by that of 160 seers. The trade in London divide Elephants' teeth into six sorts or qualities, viz.-1, those weighing 70 lbs. and upwards; 2, from 56 lbs. to 60 lbs.; 3, from 38 lbs. to 55 lbs.; 4, from 28 lbs. to 37 lbs. ; 5, from 18 lbs. to 27 lbs. ; 6, all under 18 lbs., which are termed scrivelloes. In Europe, the African teeth are most esteemed, as being of a closer texture, and less liable to turn yellow than those from India. In purchasing them, the very crooked, hollow, and broken at the ends, and those cracked, should be rejected, and care taken that lead, &c. be not inserted in the hollow. The freight is reckoned, in the Company's ships, at 16 Cwt. to the ton.
ELEPHANTS' HAIR, from the tail, is stiff and smooth, of a glossy black colour, 14 or 15 inches long, the size of small iron wire, solid, of a horny nature, very tough, and will bear to be tied or doubled without breaking, (though some are brittle), and therefore useful for making beards to fishhooks. They make neat ornaments for rings, broaches, &c.
HIPPOPOTAMUS' TEETH are procured only in Africa. They are long, crooked, and sharp, sometimes 12 or 14 inches long, weighing 8 or 10 lbs.,
of a harder and whiter substance than elephants' teeth, and do not turn yellow so soon; they are therefore preferred for making artificial teeth. Choose them large, straight, and free from cracks and flaws: those under 2 lbs. weight are of little value.
The hide of the animal makes excellent whips.
TORTOISE-SHELL is only obtained from that species of sea-tortoise called the hawk's bill, esteemed merely for its shell, the plates of which are far stronger, thicker, and cleaner than in any other kind. The shell is somewhat heart-shaped, consisting of thirteen plates or divisions, surrounded by twenty-five marginal pieces; of the former, there are four on each side, and five on the back, the last bent in the centre; of the side plates, the two middle are most valuable, being largest and thickest; those on the back and margin, denominated hoof, are comparatively of little value. Tortoise-shelf should be chosen in large, thick plates; free from cracks, carbuncles, or barnacles; clear, transparent, and variegated. The crooked, broken, and small plates should be rejected. A peculiar kind, said to be met with in the Maldives, is very superior, being very dark, smooth, and beautifully variegated, often with natural figures in it. At the Cape of Good Hope, a small land-tortoise is common, the shells of which, about three inches in diameter, are very beautiful, and made into snuff boxes. The freight of tortoise-shell is computed at the rate of 20 Cwt. to a ton.
QUERIMBA, which gives name to a chain of islands extending as far as Cape Delgado, along the coast, is in latitude about 12° 20′ S. and longitude 40° 58′ E. It may be distinguished by palm-trees on its N. point, and a white sandy beach, with a large house serving as a fort. There are on this island about thirty well-built houses, scattered like farms.
TRADE.-The Arabs occasionally dispose of piece-goods and a few other articles here, receiving corn, cowries, tortoise-shell, and provisions.
MACALOE.-The harbour is about 18 leagues to the N. of Querimba, and formed between the main land and the Island Macaloe. On the N. side of the point, on the main, is the town, directly opposite the island, where vessels trading here anchor in 7 or 8 fathoms, good holding ground, mud and sand. If it is intended to stop here, a signal should be made for a pilot.
It is essential to state that, in standing through the Mozambique Channel, from the latitude of 12° 30′ S., the land should not be approached nearer than just to see it in clear weather, until in the latitude of Cape Delgado, N. of which, as far as latitude 7° 47′ S., is safe. Most of the small islands are uninhabited.
MONGALLOU RIVER is to the N. W. of Cape Delgado, in latitude 107 S., and not easily distinguished. The entrance is about a cable's
length wide between the sands, and difficult of access; but it has from 9 to 11 fathoms in the fair channel up to the anchorage above the town, which is a little within the N. point of the river.
TRADE is chiefly in the hands of the Arabs.
PROVISIONS are to be procured in abundance, and fire-wood; but good water with difficulty.
LINDY RIVER, about 6 leagues from the former, is large, and easy of access, having many villages around, the chief of which is Lindy, on the N. side. It is said to be an excellent harbour, where provisions, wood, and water may be easily procured.
QUILOA, in latitude 8° 41' S., longitude 39° 47′ E., is on an island, 6 miles long from N. to S. The harbour is between the island and main, capable of receiving ships of any size, where they lay secure from all weathers. The town is represented as large and well-built; the streets narrow; the fort on one side of the town is strong.
TRADE is extensive, carried on by the Muscat Arabs, who bring piecegoods, sugar, arrack, and spices; and receive elephants' teeth, &c. The inhabitants are considered hostile to Europeans, who seldom visit the place. ZANZIBAR, OR ZUNGBAUR, the largest island on this part of the coast, has a beautiful appearance sailing along. Its N. end is in latitude 540 S., longitude 39° 46′ E. Reefs project from both extremities. The
anchorage is in latitude 6° 6' S. There are two harbours, outer and inner, both fit for large ships. The channel to the latter is very narrow at low water, scarcely three-quarters of a mile wide. The town has some good houses; the rest are huts. The small Arab traders, after discharging, always dismantle, and move into an inner harbour, behind the town, till the return of the monsoon. The island is tributary to the Imaum of Muscat. The inhabitants go armed, and appear timid. The crew of a Calcutta vessel, wrecked near Macaloe in 1819, experienced the kindest hospitality from the Arab Governor of Zanzibar, who furnished them with a house and provisions, the best the island afforded, and sent them to Bombay in his own vessel, free of expence.
TRADE. The inhabitants trade with Mauritius. In their traffic with strangers they prefer buttons, or similar trifles, to coin. An instance is mentioned of their refusal to sell fowls for a guinea, which they readily exchanged for a Marine's button.
PROVISIONS AND Refreshments.-The Governor has a monopoly of supplies, and sells them high; but the inhabitants supply refreshments cheaper. They have bullocks, goats, poultry, rice, coco-nut oil, and many kinds of delicious fruits. There is good fishing, and turtle are met
with. Plenty of water is obtained at Fresh-water River, about 4 miles to the E. of the anchorage, by rolling the casks some distance from the beach, and baling out of the stream. At high water, it is rather brackish; it is best therefore to fill with the falling tide, and take off with the flood.
MOMBAS OR MOMBAZE.—The port is formed by an arm of the sea, wherein fall several small rivers, and which extends round Mombas Island, situated inside the two points forming the entrance. The town and fort are on the island, a little within the harbour, in latitude about 4° 4' S., and longitude 40° 2′ E. The town is large; many of the houses are handsome; and the streets straight, but narrow. The Government here is averse to Europeans, and the people treacherous. A ship in want of supplies should proceed to Zanzibar, as Mombas is not tributary to Muscat.
TRADE is considerable, and the place much frequented by Arab vessels. MELINDA. This town, in latitude about 3° S., and longitude 41° 2′ E., is large, containing some handsome houses and mosques, with ruins of Portuguese buildings. The place of anchorage is at a considerable distance from the town; the coast here is very shallow.
TRADE is considerable at this place, which is frequented by vessels from the Red Sea, Persia, and the N. of India, though seldom by Europeans. PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Cattle and other articles are plentiful and reasonable.
PATTE, situated at the W. end of an island so named, is in latitude 210' S., longitude 41° 18′ E. It is surrounded with shoals; a pilot is therefore necessary to take a ship to the proper anchorage, which is at the Island Kringetty, in latitude 2° 8' S., to the E. of the town. It is seldom visited by Europeans.
JUBA OR JOOB.-This small town is situated on an eminence near the side of Govind or Rogues River, in latitude 12' S., longitude 43° 2′ E. The river has a bar, and the surf beats high upon it; boats may pass over it at high water in the fair season. The perfidy of the natives should, however, exclude Europeans from this place.
BRAVA. This town is close to the sea, in latitude 1° 8' N., longitude 44 10 E. Several small islands break off the sea, on one of which is a tower, resembling a lighthouse. Inside these islands small vessels lay sheltered, and ships anchor outside, in 7 or 8 fathoms.
PROVISIONS.-Cattle and goats are plentiful; but this place, which is possessed by the Arabs, is seldom visited by Europeans.
MAGADOXA, the principal town on this part of the Coast of Africa, is in latitude 2° 5' N., longitude 45° 49′ E. It is easily known by three remarkable mosques in the middle, resembling towers. Fronting the town