Sivut kuvina

is a reef of coral rocks, having a sandy beach inside of it. The inhabitants are extremely hostile to Europeans.

Between this place and Cape Gardafui, in latitude 11° 50' N., longitude 51° 32′ E., there are no ports visited by Europeans. On the coast, between Cape Gardafui and the Straits of Babelmandel, are Barbora and Zeila.

BARBORA, OR BURBUREEA, is situated on an island at the bottom of a bay, in latitude about 10° 45′ N., longitude 46° 15' E. It is a place of considerable trade, and a great fair is annually held here from October till April, the caravans from the interior arriving during that period, bringing large quantities of gum Arabic and myrrh. Olibanum is chiefly produced on the coast between Barbora and Cape Gardafui, and exported, in Arab vessels, from a small port near Cape Felix. A small proportion of these articles reaches Bombay and Europe; the largest part goes up the Red Sea to Egypt.

TRADE. From the fair, Arabia draws much ghee, many slaves, horses, mules, and asses; returning Indian piece-goods, generally sold at great profit. Some Banians from Mocha, Aden, and other parts of India, trade with their respective ports. Many Chiefs in the interior send down caravans of their own, to exchange gold, ivory, &c. for Indian commodities.

ZEILA, OR ZEYLA, is at the bottom of a large bay, in latitude 10° 15' N., longitude about 45° E. It was formerly of considerable importance, and the channel of the Abyssinian trade. It is now seldom visited by Europeans; and on touching for refreshments, treachery should be provided against, as the disposition of the natives along the coast, from hence to Cape Gardafui, is little known. The anchorage for large ships is E. of the Island Sadduckdeen, about 3 or 4 miles N. N. E. of Zeila.

TRADE.-Zeila carries on considerable trade with the E. coast of Africa, Mocha, and other ports; importing coarse piece-goods, cardamoms, metals, hardware, spices, sugar, sugar-candy, and various other Asiatic and European commodities; and exporting, in return, ivory, gold, gum Arabic, myrrh, olibanum, ostrich-feathers, rhinoceros' horns, and other articles, the produce of Abyssinia.

PROVISIONS.-Sheep were plentiful and cheap at Zeila when the Egyptian expedition touched there.



MADAGASCAR.-This island, one of the largest in the world, extends from Cape St. Mary, its S. extremity, in latitude 25° 40′ S., longitude 45° 16′ E., in a N. N. E. direction, to Cape Amber, its N. extremity, which is in latitude 12° 2′ S., longitude 49° 25′ E. It is about 100 leagues from the Coast of Africa; and the sea between, denominated the Mozambique Channel, is much frequented by ships proceeding to India, especially to Bombay.

On this account it is fit to state, that the Chart and Memoir of the Madagascar Archipelago, published by Governor Farquhar, has been declared by Captain Horsburgh to contain some dangerous errors :-1. The bank called the Cargados Garajos is laid down on the Chart as reaching only from latitude 16° 15′ to 16° 29 S.; whereas these shoals are ascertained to extend from latitude 16° 9′ to 16° 52′ S., and from longitude 59° 25′ to 59° 50′ E.; the variation 9 deg. W. The flood sets in the direction of the trade-wind, and continues 7 hours; the ebb sets E., but is of short duration. (H. M. S. Magicienne, 1819.)-2. The most easterly group of the Seychelle Islands is omitted in the Chart, among which are Frigate's Isle, Three Sisters, Felicité, and Mariane Islands, which lie far to the E. of Mahé; and being situated on the windward side of the bank, are consequently the first islands visible in approaching with the S. E. trade-wind. 3. Cape Amber is placed 41 miles too far E. in the Chart.-4. Bassas d'India, called Juive in the Chart, is represented as a reef of rocks; whereas it is an island covered with brush-wood and small trees, and 41 miles further S. than placed in the Chart.-5. Europe Shoal is omitted, which is in latitude 21° 28' S., longitude 40° 3′ E.-6. John de Nova, and St. Christopher's, are one and the same, though represented in the Chart as two.-7. Chesterfield Shoal is placed in latitude 16° 8' S., longitude 43° 33′ E., instead of in latitude 16° 19' S., longitude 44° 7′ E.

The W. side of Madagascar contains many bays and harbours but little known: the only one resorted to by outward-bound East Indiamen is

ST. AUGUSTINE'S BAY.-At the entrance, about 2 miles from

the S. shore, is Sandy Island, in latitude 23° 39′ S., longitude 44° E.; but accounts differ. After passing it, and standing to the E., is seen a high land close to the sea, on the S. side of the bay, and another high land in the interior: the entrance to Dartmouth River is then open. This part of the island is subject to the King of Baba, who resides 12 miles from the bay. Some of his people, called pursers, who adopt English titles, come off to a ship at anchor. Small presents are necessary for permission to get provisions; and if the King come, he must be saluted at arriving and departing.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS are excellent. The bullocks, large and fat, with a hump like Indian cattle, are bartered for English commodities. Provisions are salted thus:-the bullocks killed in the afternoon, are cut up at 2 A. M., salted, and put in casks; about noon, taken out, placed on four thick deals, supported on casks; then four deals laid over the meat, and heavy articles laid thereon, to press out the pickle, for three or four hours: then salted, packed in clean casks, and bunged up. Boiled pickle, with a little saltpetre in it, is poured cold into the casks till full. No good water is obtained, but by sending 4 or 5 miles up the river. Instead of filling the casks at low water, begin to fill here at about a quarter-flood. The river has a communication with the sea at other places; and it is found by experience, that the sea-water brought into the river by the flood-tide, is not discharged till a quarter-flood of the next tide, in St. Augustine's Bay; and for 3 miles up the river, the water is brackish. The river and bay abound with fish. Alligators are occasionally seen in the river, so that bathing is dangerous.

TRADE.-The articles of barter for supplies are gunpowder, muskets, looking-glasses, cutlery and utensils, glass beads, arangoes, and artificial coral beads. Silver is in request, and generally preferred to gold.

MOROUNADAVA, in latitude 20° 10′ S., is a place of some trade, where refreshments may be had, and water from the rivers adjacent to the roads. It is exposed to all winds from N. W. to S. W., and little visited by Europeans The town is on the S. side of the bay, and consists of some huts by the sea-side. The wooding and watering are difficult, the rivers being shallow at their entrance.

BEMBATOOK BAY is large and safe; the entrance, in latitude 15° 43 S., longitude 46° 28′ E., is about 3 miles wide. On the E. side of it is the village Majuinga. Bembatook Town is on the S. side of a point of the same name, about 3 leagues within the entrance of the bay on the E. side here ships lay land-locked and sheltered from all winds, in 5, 6, or 7 fathoms, close under the point near the town. Bembatook has been recommended as a spot for a settlement, being healthy, easy of access, and near

the capital. The Government is said to be cordial to strangers, the natives trustworthy, and the country supplying many commodities.

TRADE. This place is frequented by Arabs from Muscat and neighbouring places, who carry on a small trade. Arabic is spoken by many of the natives.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-This is a good place to refresh at. The beef is very fine, and may be salted here. Wild hogs are plentiful. Rice is abundant, and sold by the gamel, weighing 38 pounds.

NEW MASSALEGE is situated on the right side of a river, in latitude 15° 30′ S. A bar at the entrance excludes large vessels. The town is large, and there is a mud fort. The King, who resides here, is the most powerful on the island. In the bay, facing the river, is good anchorage. There is also a small island convenient for fitting and repairing ships. The Arab families resident here construct small vessels, and trade to Persia and Arabia, refreshing at the Comoro Islands: they alone can navigate the open sea, and serve as pilots to the ships visiting the coast. An interchange of presents takes place when the King visits a ship. Bullocks, poultry, and vegetables are offered; and muskets, coarse linen, flints, &c. received.

PASSANDAVA is a large square bay, extending 6 leagues to the S. The town is at the bottom, in latitude 13° 45' S., longitude 48° 23' E. To the N. are some islands. The great channel is to the W. of these islands; but there is a passage to the E.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS may be procured, including wood and water, on reasonable terms. The natives are shy at first, but seem to be inoffensive and honest.

From hence to Cape Amber, the N. E. extremity of the island, there does not appear a place of resort for shipping. The ports on the E. side are seldom visited by English ships. The chief places are Fort Dauphin, Manouro, Tamatave, Foul Point, St. Mary's Island, and Antongil Bay.

FORT DAUPHIN, the southernmost, is in latitude 25° 5' S., longitude 46° 35′ E. A ship should make the land to the N., on account of strong N. E. and E. N. E. winds. Between this place and Cape St. Mary, the coast is generally bold. In approaching, a ship should anchor in the night, to prevent being driven to leeward by the current. The fort commands the road. The anchorage is within a reef. The quality of the ground is unequal, sometimes sandy, at others rocky.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS, including bullocks and poultry, are abundant and reasonable. Indifferent water is got by digging in the sand; but there are excellent springs a short way inland. The natives are not to be trusted.

MANOURO, a village of huts, at the mouth of a river, in latitude

about 20° S., where vessels lay sheltered within a reef extending to the N. It is rather confined for large ships.

TRADE.-The natives manufacture mats, stuffs from the fibres of a plant, and cotton articles; and rice is exported from hence to Mauritius and Bourbon.

PROVISIONS AND Refreshments.-Much cattle and poultry are reared in this part of the island. It should not be resorted to for refreshment, except in summer, or from necessity.

TAMATAVE, in latitude about 18° 12′ S., is a village on a low point of land, with an anchorage within coral reefs.

N. N. E. are also reefs; the latter in latitude 18° 7′ S.

To the S. and

FOUL POINT.-The anchorage is formed by a large reef, extending about 3 miles N. N. E. A large village, named Mahaveti, opposite the anchorage, in latitude 17° 41′ S., longitude 49° 36′ E., is the residence of the King, and the French have a settlement there. The harbour is full of shoals.

PROVISIONS AND Refreshments. Plenty of large fat bullocks, poultry, vegetables, and fruits, are procured for muskets, knives, buttons, &c. To the S. of the village is a small river, with a bar, where fresh water may be had.

ST. MARY'S ISLAND, OR NOSSI IBRAHIM, about 40 miles N. N. E. from Foul Point, extends from latitude 17° 6' S., to 16° 37', in a direction N. E. by N. On the W. side is a bay, with an island, called Quail's Island, at the entrance, where small vessels may shelter. The stormy months are January, February, and March.

ANTONGIL BAY, OR MANGHABES.-The entrance, from the N. end of St. Mary's Island, is distant about 10 leagues N. It is about 14 leagues long from N. to S., and 8 broad between Cape Bollones and Point Baldrick. At the bottom are some islets; the chief, Marotte, is about a mile in extent, and an equal distance from the shore, in latitude 15° 25′ S. The common anchorage is to the N. of Marotte, musket-shot distance, opposite two small sandy coves, in 11 or 12 fathoms. The river bears N. N. W. from Marotte, navigable by boats. The anchorage off this river is called Port Choiseul.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Rice, bullocks, &c. are procured, and wood and water very easily. Tents may be erected safer than on the main, where you may trade for provisions.

Madagascar produces few articles of commerce. A kind of spice has been brought from hence, called

RAVENSARA, the fruit of the Agathophyllum R., a large bushy tree; the leaves aromatic; a reddish odorous bark; the wood hard, heavy, and

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