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as well to the ships as to their College in the island of Dezima, by several clerks, who take an account of every thing that is shipped or unloaded, write permits, and perform other offices of a similar nature.
"Kambang money, or the sums due for goods that are sold, is never paid in hard cash, as the carrying it out of the country is prohibited; but there is an assignment made on it, and bills are drawn for such a sum as will be requisite for the whole year's supply, as also for as much as will be wanted at the fair of the island. This kambang money is, in the common phrase of the country, very light, and less in value than specie, so that with the money which is thus assigned over, one is obliged to pay nearly double for every thing. All these kambang bills are paid at the Japanese new year only. Every man's account is made out before the ship sails, and is presented and accepted at the College of the interpreters, after which the books are closed. All that is wanted after the new year, is taken up upon credit for the whole year ensuing.
"The 18th of February is, with the Japanese, the last day of the year. On this day all accounts betweeen private persons are to be closed; and these, as well as all other debts, to be paid. Fresh credit is afterwards given till the month of June, when there must be a settlement again. Among the Japanese, as well as in China, in case of loans, very high interest is frequently paid, from 18 to 20 per cent. I was informed that if a man did not take care to be paid before new year's day, he had afterwards no right to demand payment on the new year.
"When the Dutch do not deal for ready money, their commerce can hardly be considered in any other light than that of bartar. With this view, a fair is kept on the island, about a fortnight before the mustering of the ship, and its departure for Papenberg, a small island near the entrance of the harbour, when certain merchants, with the consent of the Governor, and on paying a small duty, are allowed to carry their merchandise thither, and expose it to sale in booths erected for that purpose.
"The copper, the principal article of export, was brought from the interior and distant parts of the country, and kept in a storehouse; and as soon as the ship was in part discharged, the loading it with the copper commenced. This latter was weighed, and put into long wooden boxes, a pecul in each, in presence of the Japanese officers and interpreters, and of the Dutch supracargoes and writers, and afterwards conveyed by the Japanese to the bridge, in order to be put on board. On such occasions a few sailors always attend, to watch that the labourers do not steal it, which they will do if possible, as they can sell it to the Chinese, who pay them well for it.
"When the ship is nearly laden, she is conducted to Papenberg, there to remain at anchor, and take in the residue of her cargo, and all the merchandise and other things belonging to the officers, the ship's provisions, &c. A few days after, when the ship has anchored in the harbour, the Governor points out the day when she is to sail; and this command must be obeyed so implicitly, that, were the wind ever so contrary, or even if it blew a hard gale, the ship must depart without any excuse, or the least shadow of opposition. Before the ship leaves the harbour, the powder, arms, and the chest of books that were taken out, are returned; the sick from the hos pital are put on board; and whilst she is sailing out, the guns are fired to salute the town and the factory, and afterwards the two imperial guards at the entrance of the harbour."
PORT REGULATIONS, ORDERS, &c.-The following are extracts from instructions delivered by the Japanese to the Dutch :
I. Our imperial predecessors have ordered concerning you, Dutchmen, that you shall have leave to come to Nangasacki, on account of the Japan trade, every year. Therefore, as we have commanded you heretofore, you shall have no communication with the Portuguese. If you should have any, and we should come to know it, you shall be prohibited the trade to Japan. You shall import no Portuguese commodities on board your ships.
II. If you intend not to be molested in your navigation and trade to Japan, you shall notify to us by your ships, whatever comes to your knowledge of any endeavours or attempts of the Portuguese against us; we likewise expect to hear from you if the Portuguese should conquer any new places or countries, or convert them to the Christian sect. Whatever comes to your knowledge in all countries you trade to, we expect that you should notify the same to our Governors at Nangasacki.
III. You shall take no China junks bound to Japan.
IV. In all countries you frequent with your ships, if there be any Portuguese there, you shall have no communication with them. If there be any countries frequented by both nations, you shall take down in writing the names of such countries or places, and by the Captains of the ships you send to Japan yearly, deliver the same to our Governors at Nangasacki.
V. The Liquejans being subjects of Japan, you shall take none of their ships or boats.
The following are the regulations respecting the Island, or Street De
I. Women of the town, but no other women, shall be suffered to
II. All persons living upon charity, and beggars, shall be excluded. III. Nobody shall presume with any ship or boat to come within the palisades of Dezima. Nobody shall presume with any ship or boat to pass under the bridge of Dezima.
IV. No Hollander shall be permitted to come out but for weighty
All the above-mentioned orders shall be punctually obeyed.
The following are the orders to be observed during the Dutch sale at Dezima:
I. No Dutchman shall be permitted to go out without leave.
II. Nobody shall be suffered to come into the island before the sale begins, but the ordinary officers and servants.
III. No goods whatever shall be carried out of the island before the sale begins. No tent, nor any Spanish wines, shall be sent out of the island without special licence.
IV. No Japanese arms, nor the pictures, or representations, or puppet figures of any military people, shall be brought to Dezima. Pursuant to our often repeated strict commands, no goods whatever shall be sold privately to the Dutch; and no goods shall be bought of them in the same private way.
V. When the time for the departure of the Dutch ships draws near, notice shall be given to the Magistrates and the College of Interpreters, of what goods have been sold to the Dutch, together with a written list of the same, that so the sums agreed on, be paid in time, and all trouble and inconvenience avoided on the last days of their stay in the harbour.
VI. The Dutch and Portuguese interpreters who frequent the island, and are licensed for so doing, shall not plot, nor privately converse together.
VII. Nobody shall come to Dezima without special leave, but the Bugjo and the officers of the island.
All the articles aforesaid every body is commanded duly and strictly to observe.
PROHIBITED GOODS.-The following is a list of prohibited goods, none of which the Dutch are suffered to buy, or to export from the country. The Emperor's coat of arms.
All prints, pictures, goods, or stuffs, bearing the same.
Pictures and representations, printed or others, of soldiers and military people.
Pictures, &c. of any persons belonging to the Court of the ecclesias
tical, or hereditary Emperor.
Pictures or models of Japanese ships or boats.
Maps of the empire of Japan, or any part thereof.
Puppets, or small figures, representing military men.
Fino Ginu. A sort of silk stuff made at Fino.
Kaga Ginu. The like made at Kaga. These are made up in long rolls, like the silks of Tonquin.
Isu muggi. Another sort of stuff, in long rolls, made in Japan.
All sorts of stuffs made of hemp and cotton.
Mats of silk.
All sorts of scimitars, and other arms made in imitation of those imported by the Dutch.
If any foreigner or Japanese endeavours, contrary to orders, to dispose any contraband goods whatsoever, and it be discovered, notice shall be forthwith given to the proper magistrates. If any of the accomplices discovers himself, and turns evidence, he shall have his pardon, and moreover a reward proportionable to the crime. Offenders found guilty upon the evidence of their accomplices, shall be punished according to law.
DUTIES.-The levying of duties or imposts on goods is nowhere observed in Japan, except at Nangasacki, and it was formerly moderate. It is called fannagin or flower money, and is levied for the maintenance and advantage of the town. The duty laid upon the goods imported by the Dutch Company, is 15 per cent., which upon the amount of the sales, produces 45,000 tales. The goods belonging to individuals, which are sold after those of the Company, pay much more, and not less than 65 per cent. on all stuffs and goods sold by pieces, which upon 20,000 tales, brings in 18,000 tales. Goods sold by weight pay a duty of 70 per cent., which upon 20,000 tales, makes 14,000 duty. The reason given for the great difference in the duties on goods the property of the Dutch Company, and that of individuals, is, because private goods are brought on board the Company's ships at their risk and expence, and consequently deserve less profit.
The Chinese, for the like reason, because they are not at the expence such long and hazardous voyages as the Dutch, pay also a duty of 60 per cent. on all their goods, which upon the 600,000 tales, the value they are permitted to sell every year, brings in a sum of 360,000 tales. Added to
which, the rent of the Dutch factory and houses, which is 5,580 tales, and that of the Chinese factory, which is 16,000 tales a year, forms a total of 453,580 tales, which the foreign commerce produces annually to the town of Nangasacki.
COINS.-Accounts are kept in tales, mace, and candarines; 10 candarines make 1 mace, and 10 mace 1 tale. The Dutch reckon the tale at 3 florins, equal to about 6s. 2d. The gold coins current are the new and old itjib, and cobangs, or kopangs; the silver coins are the nandiogin, itaganne, and kodama. They are in general very simple, struck plain and unadorned, the greater part of them without any rim round the margin, and most of them without any determined value. For this reason they are always weighed by the merchants, who put their chop or stamp upon them, to signify that the coin is standard weight, and unadulterated.
The new cobangs are oblong, rounded at the ends, and flat, about two inches long, and rather more than two inches broad, scarcely thicker than an English farthing, of a pale yellow colour; the die on one side consists of several cross lines stamped, and at both ends there is a parallelogramical figure, with raised letters on it, and, besides, a moonlike figure, with a flower on it in relief. On the other side is a circular stamp, with raised letters on it, and within the margin, towards one end, two smaller sunk stamps with raised letters, which are different on each cobang; these are valued at 60 mace. There are old cobangs occasionally met with, which are of fine gold, somewhat broader than the new.
The old cobangs weigh 371 Dutch asen, or 275 English grains; and the gold is said to be 22 carats fine, which would give 44s. 7d. for the value of the old cobang. But the Japanese coins are reckoned at Madras only 87 touch, which is 20 carats; this reduces the old cobang to 41s. 10d. The new cobangs weigh 180 grains; the gold is about 16 carats fine, and the value 21s 3d. The oban is thrice the value of the cobang.
The itjib is called by the Dutch golden bean, and is made of pale gold, of a parallelogramical figure, and flat, rather thicker than a farthing, with many raised letters on one side, and two figures, or flowers in relief on the other; the value of this is one fourth of a cobang. There are old itjibs also to be met with; these are thicker than the new ones, and in value 22 mace 5 candarines.
Nandiogin is a parallelogramical flat silver coin, of twice the thickness of a halfpenny, one inch long, and half an inch broad, and formed of fine silver. The edge is stamped with stars, and within the edges are raised dots. One side is marked all over with raised letters, and the other on its lower