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strongly fortified, the summits of the rocks being covered with the ruins of lines and forts. The residence of the Sultan is but an indifferent building, and most of the houses are composed of basket work and matting. There is a pier running out from the middle of the town, where boats can conveniently land, but it does not extend to low water mark.

In 1802, Sir Home Popham was sent on a mission from Bengal to Arabia. He visited Aden, and prefers it to Mocha, both in a commercial and political point of view: as a commercial port, it has manifest advantages over Mocha, it being accessible at all times of the year. Its intercourse with the Coast of Africa can be kept up at all seasons, and consequently there would be a continued trade, if any protection was given to it by the English, to whom the Sultan is much attached.

TRADE.-There are some merchants settled at Aden, who, though they have but little trade, enjoy a mild Government, and on that account they do not remove to Mocha. The exports and imports are nearly the same as at Mocha Gum Arabic, and other drugs, brought from the opposite coast, owing to its contiguity, may be procured at a cheaper rate. The natives who inhabit the coast from Cape Guardafui to the Straits, exclude the Arabs from their ports, and bring their produce either to Aden or Mocha in their own dows: a great part of the myrrh and gum Arabic is brought to the former place, where the Banians of Mocha have each a partner established to conduct their business. Were a regular trade carried on at Aden, the consumption of goods would probably increase considerably, as the Africans have no limit to their purchases, excepting the amount of their gold, elephants' teeth, gums, and the produce of their own country.

The articles suitable to the market are as follow; and the quantity that may be disposed of, about the value of three lacs of rupees, principally the produce of the East Indies and China :-Benjamin, camphire, cardamums, cassia, China ware, cloves, cinnamon, cotton, cotton thread, cutlery, ginger, glass ware, hardware, ironmongery, iron, lead, piece goods, pepper, rice, sandal wood, silks, steel, sugar, tobacco, turmeric, tin, tutenague, and vermilion. The exports would consist of coffee, elephants' teeth, gold, and gums of various kinds.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-The beef is but indifferent; the Sultan reserves to himself the disposal of bullocks. The best water is to be procured from Back Bay, the only expence of which is 3 dollars, demanded by the Dola: that from Aden is brackish, and brought in skins to the landing place. Grapes and pomegranates are plentiful, but no vegetables. Firewood is procurable.

MACULA BAY, about 55 leagues E. N. E. from Cape Aden, in

lat. about 13° 57′ N., and long. 47° 58′ E., is about 2 leagues deep, and 5 broad, with high land around. At the bottom of the bay is a small town; but refreshments are not to be expected, water, and every article of provision, except fish, being scarce, and the inhabitants are not to be trusted. Between this place and Shahar Point are several small villages close to the sea side.

SHAHAR is about 40 miles to the E. N. E. of Macula. This town appears of considerable size, and stands close to the sea side, on a flat sandy desert. The inhabitants are more civilized, and give a kind reception to strangers. Here provisions and refreshments may be procured. The place is known by two hills, one to the N., and the other to the S. Ships anchor in 9 fathoms, the first hill bearing N. E. by N., the other about W.

KISSEEN. This bay is formed by Cape or Point Kisseen, in lat. 15° 19′ N., and long. about 51° 50′ E., and Cape Fartash, in lat. 15° 34′ N., long. 51° 56′ E: the former is known by two peaks that make like an ass's ears, and are so called. In this bay are three towns or villages, the principal of which is Kisseen, in lat. 15° 25' N. To the W., about a mile from the shore, is a well, the only place where water can be procured. There is anchorage in the bay to the W. of Kisseen Point.

DOFAR. This town is called Hammee Badgeree by the natives; it is about 52 leagues N. E. E. from Cape Fartash, and in lat. 17° 3′ N., and long. 54° 10′ E.: the anchorage is about two miles from the shore. Ships may anchor in from 7 to 10 fathoms. This place was formerly of some importance. The town is small; no provisions or refreshments can be procured: the natives, who are armed with matchlocks and spears, are shy, but do not appear unfriendly to strangers.

MOREBAT.-Cape Morebat, which forms the S. extreme of the road, is in lat. 17° N., and long. 54° 32′ E. The town is about two miles from the point, and consists of a few huts, with several mosques: the best anchorage is abreast of the town, about a mile distance, in 8 or 9 fathoms. If the inhabitants should be shy in coming on board, wave a white flag, when they will come off: they are well behaved, but it would be improper to risk going far from the beach, or sleeping on shore in the night. This bay is preferable to any on the coast, and ships that lose their passage, generally wait here the change of the monsoon.

PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Water is to be procured by sinking casks near the mosques; it is brackish, but does not injure the health of Fish are plentiful; a few fowls, some sheep, goats, and lean bullocks are to be had: the latter are scarce, but fodder more so. This place is not recommended, except in cases of necessity. The inhabitants

here are generally at war with those of the interior, with whom they have no communication.

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MAZEIRA ISLAND, the N. E. part of this island is in lat. 20° 35' N., some say 13' more N., and long. about 58° 56′ E. On its E. side is a small village, but it is seldom visited by Europeans, the gulph to the W. and S. W. of it being dangerous, the currents running strong, and the coast being but imperfectly known. There is a passage between the island and the main for large vessels.

ROSALGATE, OR RAS-EL-HAD.-This cape is the N. E. point of Arabia; the land is high and uneven over it, but facing the sea it is low and level. The latitude is 22° 20' N., and long. 60° 10' E.

The town, called Ras-el-had Town, is situated on the banks of a small river or creek, about 5 leagues from the Cape, in lat. about 22° 32′ E., inhabited by fishermen, who bring off fish and dates to ships passing: the town is small, has several trees near it, and 4 or 5 tombs or white buildings on the left of it.

ZOAR, OR SOR, in lat. 22° 45' N., about five leagues from Ras-elhad, corruptly Rosalgate, is a considerable town, and a place of some trade, but being so near Muscat, to which it is tributary, it is not visited by European vessels.

KURIAT.-To the S. of Cape Kuriat, or Ras Badaud, is a town of the same name, formerly of some note. The Cape is in lat. 23° 20′ N., and is known by a deep chasm in the high land, about two leagues to the S.

The Government of Muscat is said to extend to Cape Rosalgate, including the above places; but it is not safe for Europeans to land at the villages near the Cape, because the inhabitants are inhospitable to strangers, and there is reason to believe, that the wandering Arabs keep some of these villages or towns in subjection. The only supplies that are likely to be met with hereabouts, are fish, dates, and sometimes water, which are brought off by the country boats to ships passing near the coast.

MUSCAT.-The harbour, or cove, in lat. 23° 38′ N., and long. 58° 41′ E., is formed by high land to the S. and W., and on the E. side by an island, called Muscat Island, joined by a reef of rocks to the peninsula, on which the town of Muscat is situated, the entrance into the cove being from the N., and is protected by a fort on each side; there is another fort close to the town, that commands the inside of the cove, where the depths of water are 4 and 5 fathoms, between the two W. forts, and where a large fleet may moor in safety.

The town of Muscat is walled round, and none but Arabs and Banians are permitted to live within the gates; the others reside without, in mat

houses. It is strongly fortified, and no vessels are allowed to go in after dusk, or come out after sunset. It is the duty of the Serang of the Imaum, or Prince of Muscat, to assist any vessel that comes to the port; and they are allowed a certain sum for this, which they are never backward in demanding, whether they attend or not. When a vessel comes near, by making the usual signal for a pilot, they will come off, otherwise they will take no notice of any one: it is best to make them attend till the vessel is secured, as they have excellent boats for carrying out warp anchors.

Muscat is the key of Arabia and Persia; all the ports from Rosalgate to the Gulph are tributary to it; it is a place of very great trade, being possessed of a considerable number of large ships, which trade to the British settlements in India, to Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, the Red Sea, and East Coast of Africa. Great indulgences are allowed by the English to the Imaum's flag. Muscat may be considered the magazine for goods, and is resorted to by vessels from every port in Persia, the ports of Arabia within the Gulph, and from the coast as far as the Indus. It has been the usual custom for all English merchant ships, in their voyage from India to Bussorah, to stop at Muscat, and in like manner on their return, and they generally sell and purchase goods here.

There is another town, about three miles to the W., called Muttra, defended by a small fort, which is nearly as large as Muscat, with several villages in the valley between. At Muttra there is a good place to haul vessels on shore; and though they have one at Muscat, yet they always send their largest there to be cleaned. There is a good road along the shore from Muscat to Muttra.

The Government of the Imaum is the strictest and civilest of any either in Persia or Arabia, and a stranger may walk the streets any hour in the night without molestation: goods are piled up in the streets, and lie night and day exposed, without any watch or guard, and there never happens an instance that such goods are pilfered, the police being so excellent.

TRADE.-The trade carried on between British India and the Persian and Arabian Gulphs is considerable, and of great advantage to the former. The articles are enumerated under the different Settlements. The greater part of this commerce, as well as that to the E., is carried on by Arabs, under the Muscat flag. The trade between the subjects of Muscat on the coast, and the independent Arabs in the interior, by caravans, consists of almonds, cattle, drugs of sorts, elephants' teeth, various gums, hides, honey, ostrich feathers, rhinoceros' horns, rhinoceros' hides, skins, sheep, wax, pearl-shells, horses, and raisins. The caravans take in return various East Indian commodities, principally ginger, grain, opium, piece-goods,


pepper, sugar, spices, turmeric, and a small quantity of European cutlery, glass ware, looking glasses, broad cloth, &c.

The Imaum has abolished the slave trade here, at Zanzibar, and his other dominions.

DUTIES.-Foreigners pay 5 per cent.; Mahommedans 21 per cent. PROVISIONS AND REFRESHMENTS.-Provisions, fruits, and vegetables are to be had in plenty, and reasonably cheap. Bullocks are extremely good, at 10 to 12 dollars a head; a good sheep 2 or 3 dollars; fowls, large and reasonable. From April to September the market is extremely well supplied with grapes, melons, mangoes, oranges, limes, pomegranates, and other fruits; likewise greens, pumpkins, onions, and abundance of other vegetables. They are always well supplied with delicious fresh fish, which is the principal support of the natives; they kill meat daily on shore for sale, but that which comes on board the vessels, must come from Muttra, in a clandestine manner, as the compradore (or steward) is dependent on the Company's broker, who is a Hindoo, and very desirous of saving the lives of the bullocks, but they have not that authority on shore; they manage so as to bring the cattle on board in the night-time. The best mode of watering is with the ship's casks, otherwise they will bring off the water in oily boats in bulk, which will smell disagreeably in a few days, although very good if it is taken clear from the reservoir, which is near the sea, the water being conducted to it from a considerable distance inland. The Muscat mangoes are preferable to any in India.

COINS.-Accounts are kept here in gass and mamoodies; 20 gass make 1 mamoody. The coins current are

30 Budgerooks...... equal to ...... 1 Mamoody.


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All Persian, Turkish, and Indian coins are met with here, but they are generally sold by weight.

WEIGHTS.-The weights are the cucha and maund; 24 cuchas making a maund, which is equal to 8 lbs. 12 oz. avoirdupois.

BURKA. This place is in latitude 23° 41' N., longitude about 57° 54′ E., and is strongly fortified. Here the Imaum of Muscat resides in summer: between it and the entrance of the Persian Gulph are several small villages, seldom visited by any European vessels. Ships may anchor at Burka in 5, 6, or 7 fathoms water, 2 or 3 miles off shore. As the ground is loose in Burka Road, ships should anchor well out, not under 7 or 8 fathoms. Provisions are plentiful and cheap here.

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