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age 33. It may be presumed, that the practice was then carried on with the most arbitrary spirit of oppression and monopoly.

The third is on the pride of pedigree. The introduction is from Juvenal's eighth satire ; and the substitution of the memorials of English ancestry, such as were then fashionable, in the place of Juvenal's parade of family statues without arms or ears, is remarkably happy. But the humour is half lost, unless by recollecting the Roman original, the reader perceives the unexpected parallel.'

Or call some old church-windowe to record
The age of thy fair armes.......
Or find some figures half obliterate,
In rain-beat marble neare to the church-gate,
Upon a crosse-legg'd tombe. What boots it thee,
To shewe the rusted buckle that did tie
The garter of thy greatest grandsire's knee?
What, to reserve their relicks many yeares,
Their siluer spurs, or spils of broken speares ?
Or cite old Ocland's verse®, bow they did wield
The wars in Turwin or in Turney field?

Afterwards, some adventurers for raising a fortune are introduced. One trades to Guiana for gold. This is a glance at sir Walter Rawleigh's expedition to that country. Anuther, with more success, seeks it in the philosopher's stone.

When balf his lands are spent in golden smoke,
And now bis second hopefull glasse is broke.
But yet, if haply his third fornace hold,

Devoteth all his pots and pans to gold. Some well-known classical passages are thus happily mixed, modernised, and accommodated to his general purpose.

Was neuer foxe but wily cubs begets;
The bear bis fiercenesse to his brood besets :
Nor fearfull hare falls from the lyon's seed,
Nor eagle wont the tender doue to breed.
Crete euer wont the cypresse sad to bear,
Acheron's banks the palish popelar:
The palm doth rifely rise in Jury field 85,
And Alpheus' waters nought but oliue yield:
Asopus breeds big bullrushes alone,
Meander heath; peaches by Nilus growne:

23 Without attending to this circumstance, we miss the meaning and humour of the following lines, B. v. 1.

Pardon, ye glowing eares! needes will it out,
Though brazen walls compassid my tongue about,
As thick as wealthy Scrobio's quickset rowes

In the wide common that he did enclose.
Great part of the third Satire of the same book turns on this idea.

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An English wolfe, an Irish toad to see,

Were as a chaste man nursid in Italy 86, In the fourth, these diversions of a delicate youth of fashion and refined manners are mentioned, as opposed to the rougher employments of a military life,

Gallio may pull me roses ere they fall,
Or in bis net entrap the tennis-ball;
Or tend bis spar-hawke mantling in her mewe,
Or yelping beagles busy heeles pursue:
Or watch a sinking corke vpon the shore 87,
Or halter finches through a privy doore 88,

Or list he spend the time in sportful game, Sc.
He adds,

Seest thou the rose-leaues fall ungathered ?
Then hye thee, wanton Gallio, to wed.-
Hye thee, and giue the world yet one dwarfe more,

Svch as it got, when thou thyself was bore. In the contrast between the martial and effeminate life, which includes a general ridicule of the foolish passion, which now prevailed, of making it a part of the education of our youth to bear arms in the wars of the Netherlands, are some of Hall's most spirited and nervous verses.

If Martius in boisterous buffs be drest,
Branded with iron plates upon the breast,
And pointed on the shoulders for the nonce®,
As new come from the Belgian-garrisons;
What should thou need to enuy aught at that,
When as thou smellest like a ciuet-cat?
When as thine oyled locks smooth-platted fall,
Shining like varnish'd pictures on a wall?
When a plum'd fanne % may shade thy chalked o face,
And lawny strips thy naked bosom grace?
If brabbling Makefray, at each fair and 'size 9,
Picks quarrels for to shew his valiantize,
Straight pressed for an hvngry Switzer's pay
To thrust his fist to each part of the pray;
And piping hot, puffs toward the pointed 9 plaine,
With a broad scot ”, or proking spit of Spaine :
Or hoyseth sayle up to a forraine shore,
That he may liue a lawlesse conquerouro,
If some such desperate huckster should devise
To rowze thine hare's-heart from her cowardice,
As idle ehildren %, striving to excell
In blowing bladders from an empty shell.



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Ob, Hercules, how like " to prove a man,
That all so rath o his warlike life began !
Thy mother could for thee thy cradle set
Her busband's rusty iron corselet ;
Whose jargling sound might rock her babe to rest,
That neuer plain'd of his yneasy pest:
There did he dreame of dreary wars at hand,
And woke, and fought, and won, ere he could stand”.
But who hath seene the lambs of Tarentine,
Must guesse what Gallio his manners beene;
All soft, as is the falling thistle-downe,
Soft as the fumy ball 100, or Morrion's crowne 101.
Now Gallio gins thy youthly heat to raigne,
In every vigorous limb, and swelling vaine :
Time bids thee raise thine headstrong thoughts on high
To valour, and adventurous chivalry.
Pawne thou no gloue 102 for challenge of the deede, &c. 103

The fifth, the most obscure of any, exhibits the extremes of prodigality and avarice, and affords the first instance I remember to have seen, of nominal initials with dashes. Yet in his postscript, he professes to have avoided all personal applications 104.

In the sixth, from Juvenal's position that every man is naturally discontented, and wishes to change his proper condition and character, he ingeniously takes occasion to expose some of the new fashions and affectations.

Out from the Gades to the eastern morne,
Not one but holds his native state forlorne.
When comely striplings wish it were their chance,
For Cenis' distaffe to exchange their lance;

47 Likely.

98 Early.

• O Hercules, a boy so delicately reared must certainly prove a hero! You, Hercules, was nursed in your father's shield for a cradle, &c. But the tender Gallio, &c.

100 A ball of perfume.
101 Morrion is the fool in a play.

162 He says with a sneer, Do not play with the character of a soldier. Be not contented only to show your courage in tilting. But enter into real service, 8c.”

103 B. iv. 4. In a couplet of this Satire, he alludes to the Schola Salernitana, an old medical system in rhyming verse, which chiefly describes the qualities of diet.

Tho neuer have I Salerne rimes profest,

To be some lady's trencher-critick guest. There is much humour in trencher-critick. Collingborn, mentioned in the beginning of this Satire, is the same whose Legend is in The Mirrour of Magistrates, and who was banged for a distich on Catesby, Ratcliff, lord Lovel, and king Richard the Third, about the year 1484. See Mirr. Mag. p. 455, edit. 1610, 4to. Our author says,

Or lucklesse Collingbourne feeding of the crowes ; That is, he was food for the crows when on the gallows. At the end, is the first use I have seen, of a witty apothegmatical comparison, of a libidinous old man.

The maidens mocke, and call him withered leeke,

That with a greene tayle has an hoary head. 10. B. iv. 6. Collybist, here used, means a rent or tax-gatherer. Konaußısas, nummularius.

And weare curld periwigs, and chalk their face,
And still are poring on their pocket-glasse;
Tyrid 105 with pinn'd ruffs, and fans, and partlet strips,
And buskes and verdingales about their hips :
Aud tread on corked stilts a prisoner's pace.

Beside what is here said, we have before seen, that perukes were now among the novelties in dress. From what follows it appears that coaches were now in commou



Is 't not a shame, to see each homely groome
Sit perched in an idle chariot-roome?

The rustic wishing to turn soldier, is pictured in these lively and poetical colours.

105 Attired, dressed, adorned.

106 Of the rapid increase of the number of coaches, but more particularly of hackney-coaches, we have a curious proof in A pleasant Dispute between Coach and Sedan, Lond. 1636, 4to. “ The most eminent places for stoppage are Pawles-gate into Cheapside, Ludgate, and Ludgate Hill, especially when the play is done at the Friers: then Holborne Conduit, and Holborne Bridge, is villanously pestered with them, Hosier Lane, Smithfield, and Cow Lane, sending all about their new or old mended coaches. Then about the Stockes, and Poultrie, Temple Barre, Petter Lane, and Shoe Lane next to Fleet Streete. But to see their inultitude, either when there is a masque at Whitehall, or a lord mayor's feast, or a new play at some of the playhouses, you would admire to see them how close they stand together, like mutton-pies in a cook's oven, &c.” Signat. F. Marston, in 1598, speaks of the joulting coach of a Messalina. Sc. Villan, B. i. 3. And in Marston's Postscript to Pigmalion, 1598, we are to understand coach, where he says,

Run as sweet
As doth a tumbrell through the paved street.

In Cynthia's Rebels, 1600, a spendthrift is introduced, who among other polite extravagances, is "able to maintaine a ladie in her two carroches a day.” A. iv. S. ï. However, in the old comedy of RamAlley, or Merry Tricks, first printed in 1611, a coach and a caroche seem different vehicles. A. iv. S. ii.

In horslitters, [in] coaches or caroaches. Unless the poet means a synonyme for coach.

In some old account I have seen of queen Elizabeth's progress to Cambridge, in 1564, it is said, that lord Leicester went in a coach, because he had hurt his leg. In a comedy, so late as the reign of Charles the First, among many studied wonders of fictitious and hyperbolical luxury, a lover promises his lady that she shall ride in a coach to the next door. Cartwright's Love's Convert, A. ii. S. vi. Lond. 1651. Works, p. 125.

Thou shalt
Take coach to the next door, and as it were
An expedition not a visit, be
Bound for an house not ten strides off, still carry'd
Aloof in indignation of the earth


Stowe says,

“ In the yeare 1564, Guylliam Boonen, a Dutchman, became the queene's coachmanne, and was the first that brought the vse of coaches into England. And after a while, diuers great ladies, with as great jealousie of the queene's displeasure, made them coaches, and rid in them vp and dowue the countries to the great admiration of all the behoulders, but then by little and little they grew vsuall among the nobilitie, and others of sort, and within twenty yeares became a great trade of coachmaking. And about that time began long wagons to come in vse, such as now come to London, from Caunterbury, Norwich, Ipswich, Glocester, &c. with passengers and commodities. Lastly, euen at this time, 1605, began the ordinary vse of caroaches." Edit. fol. 1615, p. 867, col. 2.

From a comparison of the former and latter part of the context, it will perhaps appear that coaches and caroaches were the same.

The sturdy ploughman doth the soldier see
All scarfed with pied colours to the knee,
Whom Indian pillage hath made fortunate;
And nowe he gins to loathe his former state:
Nowe doth he inly scorne his Kendal-greene 107,
And his patch'd cockers nowe despised beene:
Nor list he nowe go whistling to the carre,
But sells his teeme, and settleth to the warre.
O warre, to them that neuer try'd thee sweete!
When his dead mate falls groveling at his feete:
And angry bullets whistlen at his eare,
And his dim eyes see nought but death and dreare!

Another, fired with the flattering idea of seeing his name in print, abandons his occupation, and turns poet.

Some drunken rimer thinks his time well spent,
If he can line to see his name in print ;
Who when he once is fleshed to the presse,
And sees his handsell have such faire successe,
Sung to the wheele, and sung vnto the payle '08,
He sends forth thraves 109 of ballads to the sale 110.

Having traced various scenes of dissatisfaction, and the desultory pursuits of the world, he comes home to himself, and concludes, that real happiness is only to be found in the academic life. This was a natural conclusion from one who had experienced no other situation".

107 This sort of stuff is mentioned in a statute of Richard the Second, an. 12. A. D. 1389.
108 By the knife-grinder and the milk-maid.
109 A thrave of straw is a bundle of straw, of a certain quantity, in the midland counties.

110 These lines seem to be levelled at William Elderton, a celebrated drunken ballad-writer. Stowe says, that be was an attorney of the sheriff's court in the city of London about the year 1570, and quotes some verses which he wrote about that time, on the erection of the new portico with images, at Guildball. Surv. Lond. edit. 1599, p. 217, 4to. He has two epitaphs in Camden's Remains, edit. 1674, p. 533, seq. Hervey in his Four Letters, printed in 1592, mentions him with Greene. « If (Spenser's] Mother Hubbard, in the vaine of Chawcer, happen to tell one Canicular tale, father Elderton and his son Greene, in the vaine of Skelton or Skoggin, will counterfeit an hundred dogged fables, libels, &c.” p. 7. Nash, in his Apology of Piers Pennilesse, says, that “Tarleton at the theater made jests of him, [Hervey) and W. Elderton consumed his ale-crammed nose to nothing, in bear-baiting him with whole bundles of ballads.” Signat. E. edit. 1593, 4to. And Harvey, ubi supr. p. 34. I have seen Elderton's Solace in Time of his Sickness, containing sundrie Sonnets upon many pithie Parables, entered to R. Jones, Sept. 25, 1578. Registr. Station, B. f. 152. a. Also A Ballad against Marriage, by William Elderton, Ballad-maker. For 7. Colwell, 1575, 12mo. A Ballad on the Earthquake by Elderton, beginning Quake, Quake, Quake, is entered to R. Jones, April 25, 1579. Registr. Station. B. f. 168. a. In 1561, are entered to H. Syngleton, Elderton's Jestes with his Mery Toyes. Registr. Station. A. f. 74. a. Again, in 1562, Elderton's Parrat answ

swered, Ibid. f. 84. a. Again, a poem as I suppose, in 1570, Elderton's ill Fortune, ibid. f. 204. a. Harvey says, that Elderton and Greene were “ the ringleaders of the rhyming and scribbling crew." Lett. ubi supr. p. 6. Many more of his pieces might be recited.

"!! In this Satire, among the lying narratives of travellers, our author, with Mandeville and others, mentions the Spanish Decads. It is an old black-letter quarto, a translation from the Spanish into English, about 1590. In the old anonymous play of Lingua, 1607, Mendacio says, “ Sir John Mandeviles trauells, and great part of the Decads, were of my doing." A. ii. S. i.

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