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upon the Sebennytic branch of the Nile, and within the limits of Egypt. Hence Harduin is unduly severe upon Stephanus Byzantinus, when he says--hinc Stephani error duas esse Heliopoles existimantis, quoniam in Arabiæ Ægyptique confinio fuit, ut docet Plinius. But Pliny does not say so. That there was a city of this name in Arabia is most certain: but there was another of far greater antiquity in Egypt, upon the centre branch of the Nile. Of this we have had sufficient evidence from Herodotus and Strabo, and from Pliny himself. Intus et Arabia conterminum, claritatis magnæ, Solis oppidum. When this city in Egypt grew by length of time to be neglected and desolate, the other city in Arabia became more noticed. Pliny speaks of the primary city as being in confinio Arabiæ, upon the confines of that country; because the upper part of the Delta was so narrow, that the cities bordered both upon Arabia on one side, and upon Libya on the other, being very few miles from either. We must therefore distinguish, and consider, that the ancient city was intus. et Arabiæ conterminus, within the limits of Egypt, and only bordering upon Arabia. The ' Harduin's Notes upon Pliny, 1. 5. p. 254.

other was in Arabia; and, as will appear, in


way to the Red-sea.

Of Letopolis.


Another city, whose situation should be determined, is Letopolis, or the city of Leto, the Grecian Latona. This by mistake in the present copies of Strabo is expressed Litopolis; of which name there occurs no place in Egypt. It is also frequently expressed Latopolis; which is equally wrong. For the place so named was the city where the fish Latus was held in reverence, and stood high up the river, more than four hundred and fifty miles above the point of Delta. Whereas the city of which we are speaking, together with the nome of Letopolis, lay opposite to that point, and to the east of the Heliopolitan region. It was situated at the termination of the Arabian Mountain, and over against the pyramids; where were the quarries, from whence the stones were got for their construction. It is stiled Leto by Antoninus; Λήτες πόλις by

1 Antonini Itin. p. 160.

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Ptolemy and Stephanus Byzantinus, and the province Λητεπολίτης νόμος. It is mentioned as nearly collateral with the elder Heliopolis, and in its vicinity; though on the other side of the river. The author of the 3 Itinerary places it below Memphis, at the distance of twenty miles. According to Josephus it stood upon the very hill where Babylon was afterwards erected, in the time of Cambyses. He placed a garrison of Babylonish soldiers in it, as it was the key to Upper Egypt; upon this account, the hill had the name of Babylon, and the country about it Babylonia, Hence the author of the same Itinerary, describing the places downward, upon the 5 Arabian side of the Nile, mentions among others ---Aphrodito, Scenas Mandras, Babylonia; Helio, or Heliopolis; by which is meant Heliopolis of the Desert. This Babylonian province, Extra Nilotica, was the same as the



Λητους πολις, πολις Αιγυπτε, εσι δε μοιρα Μέμφιδος, καθ' ήν ε Пugades. See Herodotus, 1. 2. p. 106.


* Pliny, l. 5. p. 254. He calls it Latopolis.

3 Antonini Itin. p. 156. Letus. Memphi MP. XX. Αητες 'πολις, πολις Αιγύπτε, ετι δε μοιρα Μεμφιδος, καθ' ήν όχι Пugaμides. Steph. Byzant.

4 Joseph. Ant. 1. 2. c. 15. p. 111. Λητες πολίς.

5 P. 169. Iter per partem Arabicam trans Nilum.

Nomus Letopolites. And the position of Babylon is precisely marked out by Strabo ; who, having mentioned the places which were near the top of Delta, and the Regio Letopolitis, adds, αναπλευσαντι δ' εςι Βαβυλων Φρύξιον έρυμνον. As you sail upwards (from this point of Lower, Egypt), the first object is a strong garrison called Babylon.

Such was the situation of Letopolis, the City of Leto, or Latona, and of it's nome; which nome is by some later writers called Heliopolitanus; for in this respect great liberties were taken, as Pliny justly observes. Quidam ex his aliqua nomina permutant, et substituunt alios nomos. v. 1. 1. 5. p. 254. The nome was so called from Heliopolis of the Desert, which stood twelve miles to the north-east of Babylon, according to Antoninus. Itin. p. 169. This district, bordering upon the ancient and true Heliopolitan nome, from which it was only separated by the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, has caused no small confusion in the geography of Egypt. But I have endeavoured, from the best authorities, to distinguish both; which, I hope, will prevent any uncertainty for the future. The si

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tuation of this place is of great consequence to be determined; for Josephus tells us, that the children of Israel passed close by this city upon their first setting out for Etham and the Red-sea, when they had just quitted the land of Goshen. It was nearly opposite to the ancient Heliopolis, and to the place of their departure.

Of the Ancient City Sais, and of a secondary City of the same Name.

There is another city of which I must take notice, and ascertain its history and situation; for as yet I do not remember that it has been properly determined. This is the upper and more ancient city Saïs. Indeed the higher any cities were situated in Lower Egypt, the more ancient for the most part they must have been. For as the soil below was in great mea


το ποταμύ,

sure, * δωρον T8 TоTaμv, the gift of the river, the people at different times built, as they got ground. And here I must observe, that there was another city of the name of Saïs, which

1 Josephus, Ant. 1. 2. c. 15. p. 111.`

2 Herod. 1. 2. p. 105.


AIYUTTOS TOTAμoxasos. Diodorus, 1. 3.


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